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Old 06-08-2007, 05:51 PM   #1
davin
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Thumbs up Wanted: Studio Sessions Information

ok folks, i am in the process of updating the studio sessions information pages on SPFC.org. THIS IS LONG OVERDUE.

i will be adding entries for the Untitled CRC session in 2000, Zwan sessions, BC solo sessions at CRC, JCC sessions, Zeitgeist sessions at the Village Recorder in LA, and Zeitgeist B-sides sessions at CRC.

I will also be correcting some older sessions with updated information, based on what we have learned in the past year about QaOS, etc.

So if you have any info, please post it here or send me a PM, so I can pool it with everything else I have and make the most accurate updates possible.

Thx.



 
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Old 06-08-2007, 05:52 PM   #2
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by the way i think you've missed the work james did on melissa's solo album.

 
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Old 06-08-2007, 05:55 PM   #3
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YOU are the spfc guy!? Oh man, THANK YOU so much. That is the ul;timate resource. It has helped me inumerable times over the years. Thanks again!

 
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Old 06-08-2007, 06:00 PM   #4
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Exclamation

easy tiger...SPFC is more than any one guy, and certainly not mine to take credit for.

It was started by multiple dedicated SP fans, and over the years hundreds (maybe thousands) of fans have submitted information to help make it as accurate as possible.

its in the name: http://www.SPFC.org -- the Smashing Pumpkins Fan Collaborative


so anyway...i am just one of the few people who works on making updates and performing administration, and we are all fans just like you. the site is great because the entire fan community has helped make it great.

 
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Old 06-08-2007, 06:01 PM   #5
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nice

 
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Old 06-08-2007, 06:04 PM   #6
davin
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but thanks for the kind words...we do it out of love...



http://www.my-mistake.net/infinitepics/band/band366.jpg


 
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Old 06-08-2007, 06:18 PM   #7
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And Davin, not trying to take over the thread (but don't think this should be a new one), but...I have always wondered why spfc didn't ******* info on Rarities and BSides. I consider that a standard release (but of course for my personal use I omit all redundent tracks like hit singles, aeroplane tracks, etc.). I can help with info if you want to ******* it.

 
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Old 06-08-2007, 06:43 PM   #8
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You mean the iTunes release? hmmmm...thats a good thought.

I added the expected digital release date for Zeitgeist but other than that we haven't really addressed digital releases yet....hmmmmmm.....i'll get back to you on this one.

 
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Old 06-08-2007, 07:17 PM   #9
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yeah. you also *******d the billysolo track that you could only get by pre-ordering on itunes. As far as I can tell that song has only been released in digital form. I guess working against inclusion of Rarities and BSides is: Nothing new is there. It's just a compilation of available things never available together. AND it's 150 dollars US price makes it inaccesible to everyone.

 
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Old 06-08-2007, 07:23 PM   #10
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billy corgan took a 45 minute shit on december 20th, 2004 at 7pm

 
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Old 06-08-2007, 07:42 PM   #11
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what consistency dogfighter? we need accuracy

 
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Old 06-08-2007, 07:47 PM   #12
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Quote:
Originally Posted by standing
yeah. you also *******d the billysolo track that you could only get by pre-ordering on itunes. As far as I can tell that song has only been released in digital form. I guess working against inclusion of Rarities and BSides is: Nothing new is there. It's just a compilation of available things never available together. AND it's 150 dollars US price makes it inaccesible to everyone.
the song 'Tilt' was released on a Target Red Room compilation as well.

 
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Old 06-08-2007, 07:50 PM   #13
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Quote:
Originally Posted by davin
but thanks for the kind words...we do it out of love...



http://www.my-mistake.net/infinitepics/band/band366.jpg

I love how James is just kind of poking Billy's finger like he's curious.

He makes that picture less cheesy.

 
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Old 06-08-2007, 07:51 PM   #14
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update the SP FAQ

 
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Old 06-08-2007, 07:52 PM   #15
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Quote:
Originally Posted by MisterSquishyHalo
update the SP FAQ
"Why aren't James and D'arcy in the band?"

Answer that, Davin.

 
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Old 06-08-2007, 07:53 PM   #16
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Quote:
Originally Posted by exactlythesame
"Why aren't James and D'arcy in the band?"

Answer that, Davin.

I think the zeitgeist press release answers all of that. (sort of)

 
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Old 06-08-2007, 08:29 PM   #17
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Quote:
Originally Posted by exactlythesame
"Why aren't James and D'arcy in the band?"

Answer that, Davin.
Darcy us a drug addict and James was planning on quitting anyway, which is why they originally broke up. James had no interest in being in the Smashing Pumpkins.

That's why.

 
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Old 06-08-2007, 08:30 PM   #18
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Deege
Darcy us a drug addict and James was planning on quitting anyway, which is why they originally broke up. James had no interest in being in the Smashing Pumpkins.

That's why.
That's not good enough.

 
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Old 06-08-2007, 09:46 PM   #19
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Quote:
Originally Posted by *************
shut up, motard.
no

 
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Old 06-09-2007, 02:05 AM   #20
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Recording sessions for Zeitgeist also happened at three other studios. Henson Sound, Sage & Sound, and The Pass.

 
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Old 06-09-2007, 03:24 AM   #21
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Dolly Parton
Recording sessions for Zeitgeist also happened at three other studios. Henson Sound, Sage & Sound, and The Pass.
source?

 
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Old 06-09-2007, 06:02 AM   #22
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that is a fucking great picture.


mmph, melissa.

 
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Old 06-09-2007, 05:45 PM   #23
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Quote:
Originally Posted by xyumachine
source?
I guess you can wait to read "Zeitgeist's" liner notes I suppose. No big deal in the end.

 
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Old 06-09-2007, 05:52 PM   #24
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Studio
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For a one-room apartment, see Studio apartment.
For the illustrated magazine, see Studio Magazine.
Look up studio in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Adriaen van Ostade. Self portrait. 1663. Gemäldegalerie.
Adriaen van Ostade. Self portrait. 1663. Gemäldegalerie.

A studio is an artist's workroom, or an artist and his or her employees who work within that studio. This can be for the purpose of painting, pottery (ceramics), sculpture, photography, cinematography, animation, radio or television broadcasting or the making of music.

The etymology for the word "studio" is derived from the Italian word, from Latin studium, from studere, meaning to study or zeal.

The French term for studio, atelier, in addition to designating an artist's studio is used to characterize the studio of a fashion designer. Atelier also has the connotation of being the home of an alchemist or wizard.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Art studio
* 2 Software studio
* 3 Production studios
o 3.1 Movie Studio
o 3.2 Animation studio
o 3.3 Comics studio
o 3.4 Recording studio
o 3.5 Television studio
o 3.6 Radio studio
o 3.7 Photographic studio
o 3.8 Mastering studio
o 3.9 Slang Uses

[edit] Art studio
Artist Jane Frank in her studio, 1960s or 1970s. The studio of a contemporary mixed media artist can be quite a messy affair.
Artist Jane Frank in her studio, 1960s or 1970s. The studio of a contemporary mixed media artist can be quite a messy affair.

The studio of a successful artist, especially from the 15th to the 19th centuries, characterized all the assistants, thus the designation of paintings as "from the workshop of..." or "studio of..." An art studio is sometimes called an atelier, especially in earlier eras. In contemporary, English language use, "atelier" can also refer to the Atelier Method, a training method for artists that usually takes place in a professional artist's studio.

Studio pottery is made by an individual potter working on his own in his studio, rather than in a ceramics factory (although there may be a design studio within a larger manufacturing site).

The term atelier also refers to a printmaking studio, where master printmakers, work collaboratively with painters & sculpters who want to make limited editions of their art using printing presses, such as lithography, gravure and screen printing.

[edit] Software studio

[edit] Production studios

Production studios are those studios which act as centres for the production in any of the arts; alternatively they can also be the financial and commercial entity behind such endeavours.

[edit] Movie Studio

Main article: Movie studio

A movie studio is a company which develops, equips and maintains a controlled environment for the making of a film. This environment may be interior (sound stage), exterior (backlot) or both.

[edit] Animation studio

Animation studios, like movie studios, may be production facilities, or financial entities. In some cases, especially in Anime they continue the tradition of a studio where a Master or group of talented individuals oversee the work of lesser artists and crafts persons in realising their vision.

[edit] Comics studio

Artists, predominantly those producing comics, still employ small studios of staff to assist in the creation of a comic strip, comic book or graphic novel. In the early days of Dan Dare, Frank Hampson employed a number of staff at his studio to help with the production of the strip. Eddie Campbell is another creator who has assembled a small studio of colleagues to help him in his art, and the comic book industry of the United States has based its production methods upon the studio system employed at its beginnings.

[edit] Recording studio

Main article: Recording studio

A recording studio is a facility for sound recording which generally consists of at least two rooms: the studio or live room, and the control room, where the sound from the studio is recorded and manipulated. designed so that they have good acoustics and that there is good isolation between the rooms.

[edit] Television studio

Main article: Television studio

A television studio is an installation in which television or video productions take place, either for live television, for recording live on tape, or for the acquisition of raw footage for postproduction. The design of a studio is similar to, and derived from, movie studios, with a few amendments for the special requirements of television production. A professional television studio generally has several rooms, which are kept separate for noise and practicality reasons.

[edit] Radio studio

A radio studio is a room in which a radio program or show is produced, either for live broadcast or for recording for a later broadcast. The room is soundproofed to avoid unwanted noise being mixed into the broadcast.

[edit] Photographic studio

Main article: Photographic studio

A photographic studio is both a workspace and a corporate body. As a workspace it provides space to take, develop, print and duplicate photographs.

[edit] Mastering studio

An audio/video recording studio specialized in the post-production stage for musical and/or video recordings (After the initial, first/rough draft or mix recording is complete).

Tasks may ******* but not be limited to: editing, mixing, video post-production and audio mastering, to produce a finished version ready for broadcast, replication and digital distribution. In music applications, a mastering studio may use different types of equipment and tools than the traditional production studios like: a frequency spectrum analyzer for accurate frequency band measurement, a phase scope to gauge stereo depth, etc.


[edit] Slang Uses

Main article: Slang

Most recently the term studio has been popular among the youth as a slang term.(for example) One boy tells a friend that he has come up with an amazing idea, the boy tells the friend the idea, the friend doesn't like the idea and may tell the boy, "I ain't feelin that shit man you gotta take that shit back to the studio or somethin." Basically what the friend is saying is that the boy needs to take his idea and work on it in a sarcastic manner. The line can be shortened with just the word Studio, however it is mostly used as an inside joke.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Studio"

Categories: Arts | Rooms

Information
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This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards.
Please discuss this issue on the talk page or replace this tag with a more specific message.
This article has been tagged since April 2007.
The ASCII codes for the word "Wikipedia" represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information.
The ASCII codes for the word "Wikipedia" represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information.
For other uses, see Information (disambiguation).

Information is the result of processing, manipulating and organizing data in a way that adds to the knowledge of the receiver. In other words, it is the context in which data is taken.[citation needed]

Information as a concept bears a diversity of meanings, from everyday usage to technical settings. Generally speaking, the concept of information is closely related to notions of constraint, communication, control, data, form, instruction, knowledge, meaning, mental stimulus, pattern, perception, and representation.

Many people speak about the Information Age as the advent of the Knowledge Age[citation needed][Who says this?] or knowledge society, the information society, and information technologies, and even though informatics, information science and computer science are often in the spotlight, the word "information" is often used without careful consideration of the various meanings it has acquired.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Information as a message
o 1.1 Measuring information entropy
* 2 Information as a pattern
* 3 Information as sensory input
* 4 Information as an influence which leads to a transformation
* 5 Information as a property in physics
* 6 Etymology
* 7 Information as Records
* 8 References
* 9 See also
* 10 External links

[edit] Information as a message

Information is the state of a system of interest (curiosity). Message is the information materialized.

Information is a quality of a message from a sender to one or more receivers. Information is always about something (size of a parameter, occurrence of an event, …). Viewed in this manner, information does not have to be accurate. It may be a truth or a lie, or just the sound of a kiss. Even a disruptive noise used to inhibit the flow of communication and create misunderstanding would in this view be a form of information. However, generally speaking, if the amount of information in the received message increases the more accurate the message is.

This model assumes there is a definite sender and at least one receiver. Many refinements of the model assume the existence of a common language understood by the sender and at least one of the receivers. An important variation identifies information as that which would be communicated by a message if it were sent from a sender to a receiver capable of understanding the message. However, in requiring the existence of a definite sender, the "information as a message" model does not attach any significance to the idea that information is something that can be extracted from an environment, e.g., through observation, reading or measurement.

Information is a term with many meanings depending on context, but is as a rule closely related to such concepts as meaning, knowledge, instruction, communication, representation, and mental stimulus. Simply stated, Information is a message received and understood. In terms of data, it can be defined as a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn. There are many other aspects of information since it is the knowledge acquired through study or experience or instruction. But overall, information is the result of processing, manipulating and organizing data in a way that adds to the knowledge of the person receiving it.

Communication theory is a numerical measure of the uncertainty of an outcome, for example, we can say that "the signal contained thousands of bits of information". Communication theory tends to use the concept of information entropy, generally attributed to C.E. Shannon (see below).

Another form of information is the Fisher information, a concept of R.A. Fisher. This is used in application of statistics to estimation theory and to science in general. Fisher information is thought of as the amount of information that a message carries about an unobservable parameter. It can be computed from knowledge of the likelihood function defining the system. For example, with a normal likelihood function, the Fisher information is the reciprocal of the variance of the law. In the absence of knowledge of the likelihood law, the Fisher information may be computed from normally distributed score data as the reciprocal of their second moment.

Even though information and data are often used interchangeably, they are actually very different. Data is a set of unrelated information, and as such is of no use until it is properly evaluated. Upon evaluation, once there is some significant relation between data, and they show some relevance, then it is converted into information. Now this same data can be used for different purposes. Thus, till the data convey some information, they are not useful.

[edit] Measuring information entropy

The view of information as a message came into prominence with the publication in 1948 of an influential paper by Claude Shannon, "A Mathematical Theory of Communication." This paper provides the foundations of information theory and endows the word information not only with a technical meaning but also a measure. If the sending device is equally likely to send any one of a set of N messages, then the preferred measure of "the information produced when one message is chosen from the set" is the base two logarithm of N (This measure is called self-information). In this paper, Shannon continues:

The choice of a logarithmic base corresponds to the choice of a unit for measuring information. If the base 2 is used the resulting units may be called binary digits, or more briefly bits, a word suggested by J. W. Tukey. A device with two stable positions, such as a relay or a flip-flop circuit, can store one bit of information. N such devices can store N bits…[1]

A complementary way of measuring information is provided by Algorithmic information theory. In brief, this measures the information content of a list of symbols based on how predictable they are, or more specifically how easy it is to generate the list. The sequence below would have a very low algorithmic information measurement since it is a very predictable pattern, and as the pattern continues the measurement would not change. Shannon information would give the same information measurement for each symbol, since they are statistically random, and each new symbol would increase the measurement.

123456789101112131415161718192021

It is important to recognise the limitations of Shannon's work from the perspective of human meaning. When referring to the meaning content of a message Shannon noted “Frequently the messages have meaning… these semantic aspects of communication are irrelevant to the engineering problem. The significant aspect is that the actual message is one selected from a set of possible messages” (emphasis in original).

In Information Theory signals are part of a process, not a substance, they do something, they do not contain any specific meaning. Combining Algorithmic information theory and Information Theory we can conclude that the most random signal contains the most information as it can be interpreted in any way and cannot be compressed.

Micheal Reddy noted that “signals” of the mathematical theory are “patterns that can be exchanged”. There is no message contained in the signal, the signals covey the ability to select from a set of possible messages.” In information theory “the system must be designed to operate for each possible selection, not just the one which will actually be chosen since this is unknown at the time of design.

[edit] Information as a pattern

Information is any represented pattern. This view assumes neither accuracy nor directly communicating parties, but instead assumes a separation between an object and its representation, as well as the involvement of someone capable of understanding this relationship. This view seems therefore to require a conscious mind. Consider the following example: economic statistics represent an economy, however inaccurately. What are commonly referred to as data in computing, statistics, and other fields, are forms of information in this sense. The electro-magnetic patterns in a computer network and connected devices are related to something other than the pattern itself, such as text characters to be displayed and keyboard input. Signals, signs, and symbols are also in this category. On the other hand, according to semiotics, data is symbols with certain syntax and information is data with a certain semantic. Painting and drawing contain information to the extent that they represent something such as an assortment of objects on a table, a profile, or a landscape. In other words, when a pattern of something is transposed to a pattern of something else, the latter is information. This type of information still assumes some involvement of conscious mind, of either the entity constructing the representation, or the entity interpreting it.

If you accept that information can be defined merely as a pattern, does it not follow that neither utility nor meaning are necessary components of information? Surely a distinction must be made between raw unprocessed data and information which possesses utility, value or some quantum of meaning. Information may indeed be characterised as a pattern; it is a necessary condition, but not sufficient.

An individual entry in a telephone book, which follows a specific pattern formed by name, address and telephone number, does not become "informative" in some sense unless and until it possesses some degree of utility, value or meaning. For example, someone might look up a girlfriend's number, might order a take away etc. The vast majority of numbers will never be construed as "information" in any meaningful sense. The gap between data and information is only closed by a behavioural bridge whereby some value, utility or meaning is added to transform mere data or pattern into information.

When one constructs a representation of an object, one can selectively extract from the object (sampling) or use a system of signs to replace (encoding), or both. The sampling and encoding result in representation. An example of the former is a "sample" of a product; an example of the latter is "verbal description" of a product. Both contain information of the product, however inaccurate. When one interprets representation, one can predict a broader pattern from a limited number of observations (inference) or understand the relation between patterns of two different things (decoding). One example of the former is to sip a soup to know if it is spoiled; an example of the latter is examining footprints to determine the animal and its condition. In both cases, information sources are not constructed or presented by some "sender" of information. To repeat, information in this sense does not assume direct communication, but it assumes involvement of some conscious mind.

Regardless, information is dependent upon, but usually unrelated to and separate from, the medium or media used to express it. In other words, the position of a theoretical series of bits, or even the output once interpreted by a computer or similar device, is unimportant, except when someone or something is present to interpret the information. Therefore, a quantity of information is totally distinct from its medium.

[edit] Information as sensory input

Often information is viewed as a type of input to an organism or designed device. Inputs are of two kinds. Some inputs are important to the function of the organism (for example, food) or device (energy) by themselves. In his book Sensory Ecology, Dusenbery called these causal inputs. Other inputs (information) are important only because they are associated with causal inputs and can be used to predict the occurrence of a causal input at a later time (and perhaps another place). Some information is important because of association with other information but eventually there must be a connection to a causal input. In practice, information is usually carried by weak stimuli that must be detected by specialized sensory systems and amplified by energy inputs before they can be functional to the organism or device. For example, light is often a causal input to plants but provides information to animals. The colored light reflected from a flower is too weak to do much photosynthetic work but the visual system of the bee detects it and the bee's nervous system uses the information to guide the bee to the flower, where the bee often finds nectar or pollen, which are causal inputs, serving a nutritional function.

Information is any type of sensory input. When an organism with a nervous system receives an input, it transforms the input into an electrical signal. This is regarded information by some. The idea of representation is still relevant, but in a slightly different manner. That is, while abstract painting does not represent anything concretely, when the viewer sees the painting, it is nevertheless transformed into electrical signals that create a representation of the painting. Defined this way, information does not have to be related to truth, communication, or representation of an object. Entertainment in general is not intended to be informative. Music, the performing arts, amusement parks, works of fiction and so on are thus forms of information in this sense, but they are not forms of information according to the previous definitions above. Consider another example: food supplies both nutrition and taste for those who eat it. If information is equated to sensory input, then nutrition is not information but taste is.

[edit] Information as an influence which leads to a transformation

Information is any type of pattern that influences the formation or transformation of other patterns. In this sense, there is no need for a conscious mind to perceive, much less appreciate, the pattern. Consider, for example, DNA. The sequence of nucleotides is a pattern that influences the formation and development of an organism without any need for a conscious mind. Systems theory at times seems to refer to information in this sense, assuming information does not necessarily involve any conscious mind, and patterns circulating (due to feedback) in the system can be called information. In other words, it can be said that information in this sense is something potentially perceived as representation, though not created or presented for that purpose.

When Marshall McLuhan speaks of media and their effects on human cultures, he refers to the structure of artifacts that in turn shape our behaviors and mindsets. Also, pheromones are often said to be "information" in this sense.

In 2003, J. D. Bekenstein claimed there is a growing trend in physics to define the physical world as being made of information itself (and thus information is defined in this way).

See the section below on information as a property in physics. (Also see Gregory Bateson.)

[edit] Information as a property in physics

Main article: Physical information

Information has a well defined meaning in physics. Examples of this ******* the phenomenon of quantum entanglement where particles can interact without reference to their separation or the speed of light. Information itself cannot travel faster than light even if the information is transmitted indirectly. This could lead to the fact that all attempts at physically observing a particle with an "entangled" relationship to another are slowed down, even though the particles are not connected in any other way other than by the information they carry.

Another link is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment. In this experiment, a direct relationship between information and another physical property, entropy, is demonstrated. A consequence is that it is impossible to destroy information without increasing the entropy of a system; in practical terms this often means generating heat. Thus, in the study of logic gates, the theoretical lower bound of thermal energy released by an AND gate is more than for the NOT gate (because information is destroyed in an AND gate and simply converted in a NOT gate). Physical information is of particular importance in the theory of quantum computers.

[edit] Etymology

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the earliest historical meaning of the word information in English was the act of informing, or giving form or shape to the mind, as in education, instruction, or training. A quote from 1387: "Five books come down from heaven for information of mankind." It was also used for an item of training, e.g. a particular instruction. "Melibee had heard the great skills and reasons of Dame Prudence, and her wise information and techniques." (1386)

The English word was apparently derived by adding the common "noun of action" ending "-ation" (descended through French from Latin "-tio") to the earlier verb to inform, in the sense of to give form to the mind, to discipline, instruct, teach: "Men so wise should go and inform their kings." (1330) Inform itself comes (via French) from the Latin verb informare, to give form to, to form an idea of. Furthermore, Latin itself already even contained the word informatio meaning concept or idea, but the extent to which this may have influenced the development of the word information in English is unclear.

As a final note, the ancient Greek word for form was eidos, and this word was famously used in a technical philosophical sense by Plato (and later Aristotle) to denote the ideal identity or essence of something (see The Forms).

[edit] Information as Records

Records are a specialized form of information. Essentially records are information produced as by-products of business activities or transactions or consciously as a record of such activities or transactions and retained because of their value. Primarily the value is as evidence of the activities of the organization but they may also be retained for their informational value. Sound Records management ensures that the integrity of records is preserved for as long as they are required.

The international standard on Records management, ISO 15489, defines records as "information created, received, and maintained as evidence and information by an organization or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business". The International Committee on Archives (ICA) Committee on electronic records defined a record as, "a specific piece of recorded information generated, collected or received in the initiation, conduct or completion of an activity and that comprises sufficient content, context and structure to provide proof or evidence of that activity".

Records may be retained because of their business value, as part of the Corporate memory of the organization or to meet legal, fiscal or accountability requirements imposed on the organization. Willis (2005) expressed the view that sound management of business records and information delivered “…six key requirements for good Corporate governance … transparency; accountability; due process; compliance; meeting statutory and common law requirements; and security of personal and corporate information.

[edit] References

1. [The Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. 27, p. 379, (July 1948).

Look up Information in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

* Bekenstein, Jacob D. (2003, August). Information in the holographic universe. Scientific American. Retrieved from http://www.referencenter.com

* Luciano Floridi, (2005). 'Is Information Meaningful Data?', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 70 (2), pp. 351 - 370. Available online at http://www.wolfson.ox.ac.uk/~floridi/pdf/iimd.pdf

* Luciano Floridi, (2005). 'Semantic Conceptions of Information', The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2005 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Available online at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/information-semantic/

[edit] See also

* Informatics
* Information architecture
* Information broker
* Information entropy
* Information geometry
* Information highway
* Information mapping
* Information overload
* Information processing
* Information processor
* Information sensitivity
* Information science
* Information system
* Information technology
* Information theory
* Infosphere
* Accuracy
* Abstraction
* Algorithmic information theory



* Classified information
* Complexity
o Complex system
o Complex adaptive system
* Cybernetics
* Exformation
* Fisher information
* Free Information Infrastructure
* Freedom of information
* Infornography
* Library and Information Science
* Medium



* Metadata
* Observation
* Philosophy of information
* Physical information
* Prediction
* Propaganda model
* Relevance
* Receiver operating characteristic
* Satisficing
* Shannon–Hartley theorem
o Claude Shannon
o Ralph Hartley
* Systems theory

[hide]
v • d • e
Major fields of technology
Applied science Artificial intelligence • Ceramic engineering • Computing technology • Electronics • Energy • Energy storage • Engineering physics • Environmental technology • Materials science & engineering • Microtechnology • Nanotechnology • Nuclear technology • Optical engineering
Information and communication Communication • Graphics • Music technology • Speech recognition • Visual technology
Industry Construction • Financial engineering • Manufacturing • Machinery • Mining
Military Bombs • Guns and Ammunition • Military technology and equipment • Naval engineering
Domestic Domestic appliances • Domestic technology • Educational technology • Food technology
Engineering Aerospace • Agricultural • Architectural • Bioengineering • Biochemical • Biomedical • Ceramic • Chemical • Civil • Computer • Construction • Electrical • Electronic • Environmental • Industrial • Materials • Mechanical • Mechatronics • Metallurgical • Mining • Naval • Nuclear • Petroleum • Software • Structural • Systems • Textile • Tissue
Health and safety Biomedical engineering • Bioinformatics • Biotechnology • Cheminformatics • Fire protection technology • Health technologies • Pharmaceuticals • Safety engineering • Sanitary engineering
Transport Aerospace • Aerospace engineering • Marine engineering • Motor vehicles • Space technology • Transport

[edit] External links

* Semantic Conceptions of Information Review by Luciano Floridi for the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
* Principia Cybernetica entry on negentropy
* Fisher Information, a New Paradigm for Science: Introduction, Uncertainty principles, Wave equations, Ideas of Escher, Kant, Plato and Wheeler. This essay is continually revised in the light of ongoing research.
* Information, Consciousness & Health
* How Much Information? 2003 an attempt to estimate how much new information is created each year (study was produced by faculty and students at the School of Information Management and Systems at the University of California at Berkeley.)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information"

Categories: Cleanup from April 2007 | All pages needing cleanup | Articles with unsourced statements since April 2007 | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements since February 2007 | Articles w

 
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Studio
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For a one-room apartment, see Studio apartment.
For the illustrated magazine, see Studio Magazine.
Look up studio in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Adriaen van Ostade. Self portrait. 1663. Gemäldegalerie.
Adriaen van Ostade. Self portrait. 1663. Gemäldegalerie.

A studio is an artist's workroom, or an artist and his or her employees who work within that studio. This can be for the purpose of painting, pottery (ceramics), sculpture, photography, cinematography, animation, radio or television broadcasting or the making of music.

The etymology for the word "studio" is derived from the Italian word, from Latin studium, from studere, meaning to study or zeal.

The French term for studio, atelier, in addition to designating an artist's studio is used to characterize the studio of a fashion designer. Atelier also has the connotation of being the home of an alchemist or wizard.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Art studio
* 2 Software studio
* 3 Production studios
o 3.1 Movie Studio
o 3.2 Animation studio
o 3.3 Comics studio
o 3.4 Recording studio
o 3.5 Television studio
o 3.6 Radio studio
o 3.7 Photographic studio
o 3.8 Mastering studio
o 3.9 Slang Uses

[edit] Art studio
Artist Jane Frank in her studio, 1960s or 1970s. The studio of a contemporary mixed media artist can be quite a messy affair.
Artist Jane Frank in her studio, 1960s or 1970s. The studio of a contemporary mixed media artist can be quite a messy affair.

The studio of a successful artist, especially from the 15th to the 19th centuries, characterized all the assistants, thus the designation of paintings as "from the workshop of..." or "studio of..." An art studio is sometimes called an atelier, especially in earlier eras. In contemporary, English language use, "atelier" can also refer to the Atelier Method, a training method for artists that usually takes place in a professional artist's studio.

Studio pottery is made by an individual potter working on his own in his studio, rather than in a ceramics factory (although there may be a design studio within a larger manufacturing site).

The term atelier also refers to a printmaking studio, where master printmakers, work collaboratively with painters & sculpters who want to make limited editions of their art using printing presses, such as lithography, gravure and screen printing.

[edit] Software studio

[edit] Production studios

Production studios are those studios which act as centres for the production in any of the arts; alternatively they can also be the financial and commercial entity behind such endeavours.

[edit] Movie Studio

Main article: Movie studio

A movie studio is a company which develops, equips and maintains a controlled environment for the making of a film. This environment may be interior (sound stage), exterior (backlot) or both.

[edit] Animation studio

Animation studios, like movie studios, may be production facilities, or financial entities. In some cases, especially in Anime they continue the tradition of a studio where a Master or group of talented individuals oversee the work of lesser artists and crafts persons in realising their vision.

[edit] Comics studio

Artists, predominantly those producing comics, still employ small studios of staff to assist in the creation of a comic strip, comic book or graphic novel. In the early days of Dan Dare, Frank Hampson employed a number of staff at his studio to help with the production of the strip. Eddie Campbell is another creator who has assembled a small studio of colleagues to help him in his art, and the comic book industry of the United States has based its production methods upon the studio system employed at its beginnings.

[edit] Recording studio

Main article: Recording studio

A recording studio is a facility for sound recording which generally consists of at least two rooms: the studio or live room, and the control room, where the sound from the studio is recorded and manipulated. designed so that they have good acoustics and that there is good isolation between the rooms.

[edit] Television studio

Main article: Television studio

A television studio is an installation in which television or video productions take place, either for live television, for recording live on tape, or for the acquisition of raw footage for postproduction. The design of a studio is similar to, and derived from, movie studios, with a few amendments for the special requirements of television production. A professional television studio generally has several rooms, which are kept separate for noise and practicality reasons.

[edit] Radio studio

A radio studio is a room in which a radio program or show is produced, either for live broadcast or for recording for a later broadcast. The room is soundproofed to avoid unwanted noise being mixed into the broadcast.

[edit] Photographic studio

Main article: Photographic studio

A photographic studio is both a workspace and a corporate body. As a workspace it provides space to take, develop, print and duplicate photographs.

[edit] Mastering studio

An audio/video recording studio specialized in the post-production stage for musical and/or video recordings (After the initial, first/rough draft or mix recording is complete).

Tasks may ******* but not be limited to: editing, mixing, video post-production and audio mastering, to produce a finished version ready for broadcast, replication and digital distribution. In music applications, a mastering studio may use different types of equipment and tools than the traditional production studios like: a frequency spectrum analyzer for accurate frequency band measurement, a phase scope to gauge stereo depth, etc.


[edit] Slang Uses

Main article: Slang

Most recently the term studio has been popular among the youth as a slang term.(for example) One boy tells a friend that he has come up with an amazing idea, the boy tells the friend the idea, the friend doesn't like the idea and may tell the boy, "I ain't feelin that shit man you gotta take that shit back to the studio or somethin." Basically what the friend is saying is that the boy needs to take his idea and work on it in a sarcastic manner. The line can be shortened with just the word Studio, however it is mostly used as an inside joke.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Studio"

Categories: Arts | Rooms

Information
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards.
Please discuss this issue on the talk page or replace this tag with a more specific message.
This article has been tagged since April 2007.
The ASCII codes for the word "Wikipedia" represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information.
The ASCII codes for the word "Wikipedia" represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information.
For other uses, see Information (disambiguation).

Information is the result of processing, manipulating and organizing data in a way that adds to the knowledge of the receiver. In other words, it is the context in which data is taken.[citation needed]

Information as a concept bears a diversity of meanings, from everyday usage to technical settings. Generally speaking, the concept of information is closely related to notions of constraint, communication, control, data, form, instruction, knowledge, meaning, mental stimulus, pattern, perception, and representation.

Many people speak about the Information Age as the advent of the Knowledge Age[citation needed][Who says this?] or knowledge society, the information society, and information technologies, and even though informatics, information science and computer science are often in the spotlight, the word "information" is often used without careful consideration of the various meanings it has acquired.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Information as a message
o 1.1 Measuring information entropy
* 2 Information as a pattern
* 3 Information as sensory input
* 4 Information as an influence which leads to a transformation
* 5 Information as a property in physics
* 6 Etymology
* 7 Information as Records
* 8 References
* 9 See also
* 10 External links

[edit] Information as a message

Information is the state of a system of interest (curiosity). Message is the information materialized.

Information is a quality of a message from a sender to one or more receivers. Information is always about something (size of a parameter, occurrence of an event, …). Viewed in this manner, information does not have to be accurate. It may be a truth or a lie, or just the sound of a kiss. Even a disruptive noise used to inhibit the flow of communication and create misunderstanding would in this view be a form of information. However, generally speaking, if the amount of information in the received message increases the more accurate the message is.

This model assumes there is a definite sender and at least one receiver. Many refinements of the model assume the existence of a common language understood by the sender and at least one of the receivers. An important variation identifies information as that which would be communicated by a message if it were sent from a sender to a receiver capable of understanding the message. However, in requiring the existence of a definite sender, the "information as a message" model does not attach any significance to the idea that information is something that can be extracted from an environment, e.g., through observation, reading or measurement.

Information is a term with many meanings depending on context, but is as a rule closely related to such concepts as meaning, knowledge, instruction, communication, representation, and mental stimulus. Simply stated, Information is a message received and understood. In terms of data, it can be defined as a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn. There are many other aspects of information since it is the knowledge acquired through study or experience or instruction. But overall, information is the result of processing, manipulating and organizing data in a way that adds to the knowledge of the person receiving it.

Communication theory is a numerical measure of the uncertainty of an outcome, for example, we can say that "the signal contained thousands of bits of information". Communication theory tends to use the concept of information entropy, generally attributed to C.E. Shannon (see below).

Another form of information is the Fisher information, a concept of R.A. Fisher. This is used in application of statistics to estimation theory and to science in general. Fisher information is thought of as the amount of information that a message carries about an unobservable parameter. It can be computed from knowledge of the likelihood function defining the system. For example, with a normal likelihood function, the Fisher information is the reciprocal of the variance of the law. In the absence of knowledge of the likelihood law, the Fisher information may be computed from normally distributed score data as the reciprocal of their second moment.

Even though information and data are often used interchangeably, they are actually very different. Data is a set of unrelated information, and as such is of no use until it is properly evaluated. Upon evaluation, once there is some significant relation between data, and they show some relevance, then it is converted into information. Now this same data can be used for different purposes. Thus, till the data convey some information, they are not useful.

[edit] Measuring information entropy

The view of information as a message came into prominence with the publication in 1948 of an influential paper by Claude Shannon, "A Mathematical Theory of Communication." This paper provides the foundations of information theory and endows the word information not only with a technical meaning but also a measure. If the sending device is equally likely to send any one of a set of N messages, then the preferred measure of "the information produced when one message is chosen from the set" is the base two logarithm of N (This measure is called self-information). In this paper, Shannon continues:

The choice of a logarithmic base corresponds to the choice of a unit for measuring information. If the base 2 is used the resulting units may be called binary digits, or more briefly bits, a word suggested by J. W. Tukey. A device with two stable positions, such as a relay or a flip-flop circuit, can store one bit of information. N such devices can store N bits…[1]

A complementary way of measuring information is provided by Algorithmic information theory. In brief, this measures the information content of a list of symbols based on how predictable they are, or more specifically how easy it is to generate the list. The sequence below would have a very low algorithmic information measurement since it is a very predictable pattern, and as the pattern continues the measurement would not change. Shannon information would give the same information measurement for each symbol, since they are statistically random, and each new symbol would increase the measurement.

123456789101112131415161718192021

It is important to recognise the limitations of Shannon's work from the perspective of human meaning. When referring to the meaning content of a message Shannon noted “Frequently the messages have meaning… these semantic aspects of communication are irrelevant to the engineering problem. The significant aspect is that the actual message is one selected from a set of possible messages” (emphasis in original).

In Information Theory signals are part of a process, not a substance, they do something, they do not contain any specific meaning. Combining Algorithmic information theory and Information Theory we can conclude that the most random signal contains the most information as it can be interpreted in any way and cannot be compressed.

Micheal Reddy noted that “signals” of the mathematical theory are “patterns that can be exchanged”. There is no message contained in the signal, the signals covey the ability to select from a set of possible messages.” In information theory “the system must be designed to operate for each possible selection, not just the one which will actually be chosen since this is unknown at the time of design.

[edit] Information as a pattern

Information is any represented pattern. This view assumes neither accuracy nor directly communicating parties, but instead assumes a separation between an object and its representation, as well as the involvement of someone capable of understanding this relationship. This view seems therefore to require a conscious mind. Consider the following example: economic statistics represent an economy, however inaccurately. What are commonly referred to as data in computing, statistics, and other fields, are forms of information in this sense. The electro-magnetic patterns in a computer network and connected devices are related to something other than the pattern itself, such as text characters to be displayed and keyboard input. Signals, signs, and symbols are also in this category. On the other hand, according to semiotics, data is symbols with certain syntax and information is data with a certain semantic. Painting and drawing contain information to the extent that they represent something such as an assortment of objects on a table, a profile, or a landscape. In other words, when a pattern of something is transposed to a pattern of something else, the latter is information. This type of information still assumes some involvement of conscious mind, of either the entity constructing the representation, or the entity interpreting it.

If you accept that information can be defined merely as a pattern, does it not follow that neither utility nor meaning are necessary components of information? Surely a distinction must be made between raw unprocessed data and information which possesses utility, value or some quantum of meaning. Information may indeed be characterised as a pattern; it is a necessary condition, but not sufficient.

An individual entry in a telephone book, which follows a specific pattern formed by name, address and telephone number, does not become "informative" in some sense unless and until it possesses some degree of utility, value or meaning. For example, someone might look up a girlfriend's number, might order a take away etc. The vast majority of numbers will never be construed as "information" in any meaningful sense. The gap between data and information is only closed by a behavioural bridge whereby some value, utility or meaning is added to transform mere data or pattern into information.

When one constructs a representation of an object, one can selectively extract from the object (sampling) or use a system of signs to replace (encoding), or both. The sampling and encoding result in representation. An example of the former is a "sample" of a product; an example of the latter is "verbal description" of a product. Both contain information of the product, however inaccurate. When one interprets representation, one can predict a broader pattern from a limited number of observations (inference) or understand the relation between patterns of two different things (decoding). One example of the former is to sip a soup to know if it is spoiled; an example of the latter is examining footprints to determine the animal and its condition. In both cases, information sources are not constructed or presented by some "sender" of information. To repeat, information in this sense does not assume direct communication, but it assumes involvement of some conscious mind.

Regardless, information is dependent upon, but usually unrelated to and separate from, the medium or media used to express it. In other words, the position of a theoretical series of bits, or even the output once interpreted by a computer or similar device, is unimportant, except when someone or something is present to interpret the information. Therefore, a quantity of information is totally distinct from its medium.

[edit] Information as sensory input

Often information is viewed as a type of input to an organism or designed device. Inputs are of two kinds. Some inputs are important to the function of the organism (for example, food) or device (energy) by themselves. In his book Sensory Ecology, Dusenbery called these causal inputs. Other inputs (information) are important only because they are associated with causal inputs and can be used to predict the occurrence of a causal input at a later time (and perhaps another place). Some information is important because of association with other information but eventually there must be a connection to a causal input. In practice, information is usually carried by weak stimuli that must be detected by specialized sensory systems and amplified by energy inputs before they can be functional to the organism or device. For example, light is often a causal input to plants but provides information to animals. The colored light reflected from a flower is too weak to do much photosynthetic work but the visual system of the bee detects it and the bee's nervous system uses the information to guide the bee to the flower, where the bee often finds nectar or pollen, which are causal inputs, serving a nutritional function.

Information is any type of sensory input. When an organism with a nervous system receives an input, it transforms the input into an electrical signal. This is regarded information by some. The idea of representation is still relevant, but in a slightly different manner. That is, while abstract painting does not represent anything concretely, when the viewer sees the painting, it is nevertheless transformed into electrical signals that create a representation of the painting. Defined this way, information does not have to be related to truth, communication, or representation of an object. Entertainment in general is not intended to be informative. Music, the performing arts, amusement parks, works of fiction and so on are thus forms of information in this sense, but they are not forms of information according to the previous definitions above. Consider another example: food supplies both nutrition and taste for those who eat it. If information is equated to sensory input, then nutrition is not information but taste is.

[edit] Information as an influence which leads to a transformation

Information is any type of pattern that influences the formation or transformation of other patterns. In this sense, there is no need for a conscious mind to perceive, much less appreciate, the pattern. Consider, for example, DNA. The sequence of nucleotides is a pattern that influences the formation and development of an organism without any need for a conscious mind. Systems theory at times seems to refer to information in this sense, assuming information does not necessarily involve any conscious mind, and patterns circulating (due to feedback) in the system can be called information. In other words, it can be said that information in this sense is something potentially perceived as representation, though not created or presented for that purpose.

When Marshall McLuhan speaks of media and their effects on human cultures, he refers to the structure of artifacts that in turn shape our behaviors and mindsets. Also, pheromones are often said to be "information" in this sense.

In 2003, J. D. Bekenstein claimed there is a growing trend in physics to define the physical world as being made of information itself (and thus information is defined in this way).

See the section below on information as a property in physics. (Also see Gregory Bateson.)

[edit] Information as a property in physics

Main article: Physical information

Information has a well defined meaning in physics. Examples of this ******* the phenomenon of quantum entanglement where particles can interact without reference to their separation or the speed of light. Information itself cannot travel faster than light even if the information is transmitted indirectly. This could lead to the fact that all attempts at physically observing a particle with an "entangled" relationship to another are slowed down, even though the particles are not connected in any other way other than by the information they carry.

Another link is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment. In this experiment, a direct relationship between information and another physical property, entropy, is demonstrated. A consequence is that it is impossible to destroy information without increasing the entropy of a system; in practical terms this often means generating heat. Thus, in the study of logic gates, the theoretical lower bound of thermal energy released by an AND gate is more than for the NOT gate (because information is destroyed in an AND gate and simply converted in a NOT gate). Physical information is of particular importance in the theory of quantum computers.

[edit] Etymology

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the earliest historical meaning of the word information in English was the act of informing, or giving form or shape to the mind, as in education, instruction, or training. A quote from 1387: "Five books come down from heaven for information of mankind." It was also used for an item of training, e.g. a particular instruction. "Melibee had heard the great skills and reasons of Dame Prudence, and her wise information and techniques." (1386)

The English word was apparently derived by adding the common "noun of action" ending "-ation" (descended through French from Latin "-tio") to the earlier verb to inform, in the sense of to give form to the mind, to discipline, instruct, teach: "Men so wise should go and inform their kings." (1330) Inform itself comes (via French) from the Latin verb informare, to give form to, to form an idea of. Furthermore, Latin itself already even contained the word informatio meaning concept or idea, but the extent to which this may have influenced the development of the word information in English is unclear.

As a final note, the ancient Greek word for form was eidos, and this word was famously used in a technical philosophical sense by Plato (and later Aristotle) to denote the ideal identity or essence of something (see The Forms).

[edit] Information as Records

Records are a specialized form of information. Essentially records are information produced as by-products of business activities or transactions or consciously as a record of such activities or transactions and retained because of their value. Primarily the value is as evidence of the activities of the organization but they may also be retained for their informational value. Sound Records management ensures that the integrity of records is preserved for as long as they are required.

The international standard on Records management, ISO 15489, defines records as "information created, received, and maintained as evidence and information by an organization or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business". The International Committee on Archives (ICA) Committee on electronic records defined a record as, "a specific piece of recorded information generated, collected or received in the initiation, conduct or completion of an activity and that comprises sufficient content, context and structure to provide proof or evidence of that activity".

Records may be retained because of their business value, as part of the Corporate memory of the organization or to meet legal, fiscal or accountability requirements imposed on the organization. Willis (2005) expressed the view that sound management of business records and information delivered “…six key requirements for good Corporate governance … transparency; accountability; due process; compliance; meeting statutory and common law requirements; and security of personal and corporate information.

[edit] References

1. [The Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. 27, p. 379, (July 1948).

Look up Information in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

* Bekenstein, Jacob D. (2003, August). Information in the holographic universe. Scientific American. Retrieved from http://www.referencenter.com

* Luciano Floridi, (2005). 'Is Information Meaningful Data?', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 70 (2), pp. 351 - 370. Available online at http://www.wolfson.ox.ac.uk/~floridi/pdf/iimd.pdf

* Luciano Floridi, (2005). 'Semantic Conceptions of Information', The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2005 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Available online at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/information-semantic/

[edit] See also

* Informatics
* Information architecture
* Information broker
* Information entropy
* Information geometry
* Information highway
* Information mapping
* Information overload
* Information processing
* Information processor
* Information sensitivity
* Information science
* Information system
* Information technology
* Information theory
* Infosphere
* Accuracy
* Abstraction
* Algorithmic information theory



* Classified information
* Complexity
o Complex system
o Complex adaptive system
* Cybernetics
* Exformation
* Fisher information
* Free Information Infrastructure
* Freedom of information
* Infornography
* Library and Information Science
* Medium



* Metadata
* Observation
* Philosophy of information
* Physical information
* Prediction
* Propaganda model
* Relevance
* Receiver operating characteristic
* Satisficing
* Shannon–Hartley theorem
o Claude Shannon
o Ralph Hartley
* Systems theory

[hide]
v • d • e
Major fields of technology
Applied science Artificial intelligence • Ceramic engineering • Computing technology • Electronics • Energy • Energy storage • Engineering physics • Environmental technology • Materials science & engineering • Microtechnology • Nanotechnology • Nuclear technology • Optical engineering
Information and communication Communication • Graphics • Music technology • Speech recognition • Visual technology
Industry Construction • Financial engineering • Manufacturing • Machinery • Mining
Military Bombs • Guns and Ammunition • Military technology and equipment • Naval engineering

Domestic Domestic appliances • Domestic technology • Educational technology • Food technology
Engineering Aerospace • Agricultural • Architectural • Bioengineering • Biochemical • Biomedical • Ceramic • Chemical • Civil • Computer • Construction • Electrical • Electronic • Environmental • Industrial • Materials • Mechanical • Mechatronics • Metallurgical • Mining • Naval • Nuclear • Petroleum • Software • Structural • Systems • Textile • Tissue
Health and safety Biomedical engineering • Bioinformatics • Biotechnology • Cheminformatics • Fire protection technology • Health technologies • Pharmaceuticals • Safety engineering • Sanitary engineering
Transport Aerospace • Aerospace engineering • Marine engineering • Motor vehicles • Space technology • Transport

[edit] External links

* Semantic Conceptions of Information Review by Luciano Floridi for the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
* Principia Cybernetica entry on negentropy
* Fisher Information, a New Paradigm for Science: Introduction, Uncertainty principles, Wave equations, Ideas of Escher, Kant, Plato and Wheeler. This essay is continually revised in the light of ongoing research.
* Information, Consciousness & Health
* How Much Information? 2003 an attempt to estimate how much new information is created each year (study was produced by faculty and students at the School of Information Management and Systems at the University of California at Berkeley.)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information"

Categories: Cleanup from April 2007 | All pages needing cleanup | Articles with unsourced statements since April 2007 | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements since February 2007 | Articles w

Exactly.

Studio
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For a one-room apartment, see Studio apartment.
For the illustrated magazine, see Studio Magazine.
Look up studio in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Adriaen van Ostade. Self portrait. 1663. Gemäldegalerie.
Adriaen van Ostade. Self portrait. 1663. Gemäldegalerie.

A studio is an artist's workroom, or an artist and his or her employees who work within that studio. This can be for the purpose of painting, pottery (ceramics), sculpture, photography, cinematography, animation, radio or television broadcasting or the making of music.

The etymology for the word "studio" is derived from the Italian word, from Latin studium, from studere, meaning to study or zeal.

The French term for studio, atelier, in addition to designating an artist's studio is used to characterize the studio of a fashion designer. Atelier also has the connotation of being the home of an alchemist or wizard.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Art studio
* 2 Software studio
* 3 Production studios
o 3.1 Movie Studio
o 3.2 Animation studio
o 3.3 Comics studio
o 3.4 Recording studio
o 3.5 Television studio
o 3.6 Radio studio
o 3.7 Photographic studio
o 3.8 Mastering studio
o 3.9 Slang Uses

[edit] Art studio
Artist Jane Frank in her studio, 1960s or 1970s. The studio of a contemporary mixed media artist can be quite a messy affair.
Artist Jane Frank in her studio, 1960s or 1970s. The studio of a contemporary mixed media artist can be quite a messy affair.

The studio of a successful artist, especially from the 15th to the 19th centuries, characterized all the assistants, thus the designation of paintings as "from the workshop of..." or "studio of..." An art studio is sometimes called an atelier, especially in earlier eras. In contemporary, English language use, "atelier" can also refer to the Atelier Method, a training method for artists that usually takes place in a professional artist's studio.

Studio pottery is made by an individual potter working on his own in his studio, rather than in a ceramics factory (although there may be a design studio within a larger manufacturing site).

The term atelier also refers to a printmaking studio, where master printmakers, work collaboratively with painters & sculpters who want to make limited editions of their art using printing presses, such as lithography, gravure and screen printing.

[edit] Software studio

[edit] Production studios

Production studios are those studios which act as centres for the production in any of the arts; alternatively they can also be the financial and commercial entity behind such endeavours.

[edit] Movie Studio

Main article: Movie studio

A movie studio is a company which develops, equips and maintains a controlled environment for the making of a film. This environment may be interior (sound stage), exterior (backlot) or both.

[edit] Animation studio

Animation studios, like movie studios, may be production facilities, or financial entities. In some cases, especially in Anime they continue the tradition of a studio where a Master or group of talented individuals oversee the work of lesser artists and crafts persons in realising their vision.

[edit] Comics studio

Artists, predominantly those producing comics, still employ small studios of staff to assist in the creation of a comic strip, comic book or graphic novel. In the early days of Dan Dare, Frank Hampson employed a number of staff at his studio to help with the production of the strip. Eddie Campbell is another creator who has assembled a small studio of colleagues to help him in his art, and the comic book industry of the United States has based its production methods upon the studio system employed at its beginnings.

[edit] Recording studio

Main article: Recording studio

A recording studio is a facility for sound recording which generally consists of at least two rooms: the studio or live room, and the control room, where the sound from the studio is recorded and manipulated. designed so that they have good acoustics and that there is good isolation between the rooms.

[edit] Television studio

Main article: Television studio

A television studio is an installation in which television or video productions take place, either for live television, for recording live on tape, or for the acquisition of raw footage for postproduction. The design of a studio is similar to, and derived from, movie studios, with a few amendments for the special requirements of television production. A professional television studio generally has several rooms, which are kept separate for noise and practicality reasons.

[edit] Radio studio

A radio studio is a room in which a radio program or show is produced, either for live broadcast or for recording for a later broadcast. The room is soundproofed to avoid unwanted noise being mixed into the broadcast.

[edit] Photographic studio

Main article: Photographic studio

A photographic studio is both a workspace and a corporate body. As a workspace it provides space to take, develop, print and duplicate photographs.

[edit] Mastering studio

An audio/video recording studio specialized in the post-production stage for musical and/or video recordings (After the initial, first/rough draft or mix recording is complete).

Tasks may ******* but not be limited to: editing, mixing, video post-production and audio mastering, to produce a finished version ready for broadcast, replication and digital distribution. In music applications, a mastering studio may use different types of equipment and tools than the traditional production studios like: a frequency spectrum analyzer for accurate frequency band measurement, a phase scope to gauge stereo depth, etc.


[edit] Slang Uses

Main article: Slang

Most recently the term studio has been popular among the youth as a slang term.(for example) One boy tells a friend that he has come up with an amazing idea, the boy tells the friend the idea, the friend doesn't like the idea and may tell the boy, "I ain't feelin that shit man you gotta take that shit back to the studio or somethin." Basically what the friend is saying is that the boy needs to take his idea and work on it in a sarcastic manner. The line can be shortened with just the word Studio, however it is mostly used as an inside joke.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Studio"

Categories: Arts | Rooms

Information
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For other uses, see Information (disambiguation).

Information is the result of processing, manipulating and organizing data in a way that adds to the knowledge of the receiver. In other words, it is the context in which data is taken.[citation needed]

Information as a concept bears a diversity of meanings, from everyday usage to technical settings. Generally speaking, the concept of information is closely related to notions of constraint, communication, control, data, form, instruction, knowledge, meaning, mental stimulus, pattern, perception, and representation.

Many people speak about the Information Age as the advent of the Knowledge Age[citation needed][Who says this?] or knowledge society, the information society, and information technologies, and even though informatics, information science and computer science are often in the spotlight, the word "information" is often used without careful consideration of the various meanings it has acquired.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Information as a message
o 1.1 Measuring information entropy
* 2 Information as a pattern
* 3 Information as sensory input
* 4 Information as an influence which leads to a transformation
* 5 Information as a property in physics
* 6 Etymology
* 7 Information as Records
* 8 References
* 9 See also
* 10 External links

[edit] Information as a message

Information is the state of a system of interest (curiosity). Message is the information materialized.

Information is a quality of a message from a sender to one or more receivers. Information is always about something (size of a parameter, occurrence of an event, …). Viewed in this manner, information does not have to be accurate. It may be a truth or a lie, or just the sound of a kiss. Even a disruptive noise used to inhibit the flow of communication and create misunderstanding would in this view be a form of information. However, generally speaking, if the amount of information in the received message increases the more accurate the message is.

This model assumes there is a definite sender and at least one receiver. Many refinements of the model assume the existence of a common language understood by the sender and at least one of the receivers. An important variation identifies information as that which would be communicated by a message if it were sent from a sender to a receiver capable of understanding the message. However, in requiring the existence of a definite sender, the "information as a message" model does not attach any significance to the idea that information is something that can be extracted from an environment, e.g., through observation, reading or measurement.

Information is a term with many meanings depending on context, but is as a rule closely related to such concepts as meaning, knowledge, instruction, communication, representation, and mental stimulus. Simply stated, Information is a message received and understood. In terms of data, it can be defined as a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn. There are many other aspects of information since it is the knowledge acquired through study or experience or instruction. But overall, information is the result of processing, manipulating and organizing data in a way that adds to the knowledge of the person receiving it.

Communication theory is a numerical measure of the uncertainty of an outcome, for example, we can say that "the signal contained thousands of bits of information". Communication theory tends to use the concept of information entropy, generally attributed to C.E. Shannon (see below).

Another form of information is the Fisher information, a concept of R.A. Fisher. This is used in application of statistics to estimation theory and to science in general. Fisher information is thought of as the amount of information that a message carries about an unobservable parameter. It can be computed from knowledge of the likelihood function defining the system. For example, with a normal likelihood function, the Fisher information is the reciprocal of the variance of the law. In the absence of knowledge of the likelihood law, the Fisher information may be computed from normally distributed score data as the reciprocal of their second moment.

Even though information and data are often used interchangeably, they are actually very different. Data is a set of unrelated information, and as such is of no use until it is properly evaluated. Upon evaluation, once there is some significant relation between data, and they show some relevance, then it is converted into information. Now this same data can be used for different purposes. Thus, till the data convey some information, they are not useful.

[edit] Measuring information entropy

The view of information as a message came into prominence with the publication in 1948 of an influential paper by Claude Shannon, "A Mathematical Theory of Communication." This paper provides the foundations of information theory and endows the word information not only with a technical meaning but also a measure. If the sending device is equally likely to send any one of a set of N messages, then the preferred measure of "the information produced when one message is chosen from the set" is the base two logarithm of N (This measure is called self-information). In this paper, Shannon continues:

The choice of a logarithmic base corresponds to the choice of a unit for measuring information. If the base 2 is used the resulting units may be called binary digits, or more briefly bits, a word suggested by J. W. Tukey. A device with two stable positions, such as a relay or a flip-flop circuit, can store one bit of information. N such devices can store N bits…[1]

A complementary way of measuring information is provided by Algorithmic information theory. In brief, this measures the information content of a list of symbols based on how predictable they are, or more specifically how easy it is to generate the list. The sequence below would have a very low algorithmic information measurement since it is a very predictable pattern, and as the pattern continues the measurement would not change. Shannon information would give the same information measurement for each symbol, since they are statistically random, and each new symbol would increase the measurement.

123456789101112131415161718192021

It is important to recognise the limitations of Shannon's work from the perspective of human meaning. When referring to the meaning content of a message Shannon noted “Frequently the messages have meaning… these semantic aspects of communication are irrelevant to the engineering problem. The significant aspect is that the actual message is one selected from a set of possible messages” (emphasis in original).

In Information Theory signals are part of a process, not a substance, they do something, they do not contain any specific meaning. Combining Algorithmic information theory and Information Theory we can conclude that the most random signal contains the most information as it can be interpreted in any way and cannot be compressed.

Micheal Reddy noted that “signals” of the mathematical theory are “patterns that can be exchanged”. There is no message contained in the signal, the signals covey the ability to select from a set of possible messages.” In information theory “the system must be designed to operate for each possible selection, not just the one which will actually be chosen since this is unknown at the time of design.

[edit] Information as a pattern

Information is any represented pattern. This view assumes neither accuracy nor directly communicating parties, but instead assumes a separation between an object and its representation, as well as the involvement of someone capable of understanding this relationship. This view seems therefore to require a conscious mind. Consider the following example: economic statistics represent an economy, however inaccurately. What are commonly referred to as data in computing, statistics, and other fields, are forms of information in this sense. The electro-magnetic patterns in a computer network and connected devices are related to something other than the pattern itself, such as text characters to be displayed and keyboard input. Signals, signs, and symbols are also in this category. On the other hand, according to semiotics, data is symbols with certain syntax and information is data with a certain semantic. Painting and drawing contain information to the extent that they represent something such as an assortment of objects on a table, a profile, or a landscape. In other words, when a pattern of something is transposed to a pattern of something else, the latter is information. This type of information still assumes some involvement of conscious mind, of either the entity constructing the representation, or the entity interpreting it.

If you accept that information can be defined merely as a pattern, does it not follow that neither utility nor meaning are necessary components of information? Surely a distinction must be made between raw unprocessed data and information which possesses utility, value or some quantum of meaning. Information may indeed be characterised as a pattern; it is a necessary condition, but not sufficient.

An individual entry in a telephone book, which follows a specific pattern formed by name, address and telephone number, does not become "informative" in some sense unless and until it possesses some degree of utility, value or meaning. For example, someone might look up a girlfriend's number, might order a take away etc. The vast majority of numbers will never be construed as "information" in any meaningful sense. The gap between data and information is only closed by a behavioural bridge whereby some value, utility or meaning is added to transform mere data or pattern into information.

When one constructs a representation of an object, one can selectively extract from the object (sampling) or use a system of signs to replace (encoding), or both. The sampling and encoding result in representation. An example of the former is a "sample" of a product; an example of the latter is "verbal description" of a product. Both contain information of the product, however inaccurate. When one interprets representation, one can predict a broader pattern from a limited number of observations (inference) or understand the relation between patterns of two different things (decoding). One example of the former is to sip a soup to know if it is spoiled; an example of the latter is examining footprints to determine the animal and its condition. In both cases, information sources are not constructed or presented by some "sender" of information. To repeat, information in this sense does not assume direct communication, but it assumes involvement of some conscious mind.

Regardless, information is dependent upon, but usually unrelated to and separate from, the medium or media used to express it. In other words, the position of a theoretical series of bits, or even the output once interpreted by a computer or similar device, is unimportant, except when someone or something is present to interpret the information. Therefore, a quantity of information is totally distinct from its medium.

[edit] Information as sensory input

Often information is viewed as a type of input to an organism or designed device. Inputs are of two kinds. Some inputs are important to the function of the organism (for example, food) or device (energy) by themselves. In his book Sensory Ecology, Dusenbery called these causal inputs. Other inputs (information) are important only because they are associated with causal inputs and can be used to predict the occurrence of a causal input at a later time (and perhaps another place). Some information is important because of association with other information but eventually there must be a connection to a causal input. In practice, information is usually carried by weak stimuli that must be detected by specialized sensory systems and amplified by energy inputs before they can be functional to the organism or device. For example, light is often a causal input to plants but provides information to animals. The colored light reflected from a flower is too weak to do much photosynthetic work but the visual system of the bee detects it and the bee's nervous system uses the information to guide the bee to the flower, where the bee often finds nectar or pollen, which are causal inputs, serving a nutritional function.

Information is any type of sensory input. When an organism with a nervous system receives an input, it transforms the input into an electrical signal. This is regarded information by some. The idea of representation is still relevant, but in a slightly different manner. That is, while abstract painting does not represent anything concretely, when the viewer sees the painting, it is nevertheless transformed into electrical signals that create a representation of the painting. Defined this way, information does not have to be related to truth, communication, or representation of an object. Entertainment in general is not intended to be informative. Music, the performing arts, amusement parks, works of fiction and so on are thus forms of information in this sense, but they are not forms of information according to the previous definitions above. Consider another example: food supplies both nutrition and taste for those who eat it. If information is equated to sensory input, then nutrition is not information but taste is.

[edit] Information as an influence which leads to a transformation

Information is any type of pattern that influences the formation or transformation of other patterns. In this sense, there is no need for a conscious mind to perceive, much less appreciate, the pattern. Consider, for example, DNA. The sequence of nucleotides is a pattern that influences the formation and development of an organism without any need for a conscious mind. Systems theory at times seems to refer to information in this sense, assuming information does not necessarily involve any conscious mind, and patterns circulating (due to feedback) in the system can be called information. In other words, it can be said that information in this sense is something potentially perceived as representation, though not created or presented for that purpose.

When Marshall McLuhan speaks of media and their effects on human cultures, he refers to the structure of artifacts that in turn shape our behaviors and mindsets. Also, pheromones are often said to be "information" in this sense.

In 2003, J. D. Bekenstein claimed there is a growing trend in physics to define the physical world as being made of information itself (and thus information is defined in this way).

See the section below on information as a property in physics. (Also see Gregory Bateson.)

[edit] Information as a property in physics

Main article: Physical information

Information has a well defined meaning in physics. Examples of this ******* the phenomenon of quantum entanglement where particles can interact without reference to their separation or the speed of light. Information itself cannot travel faster than light even if the information is transmitted indirectly. This could lead to the fact that all attempts at physically observing a particle with an "entangled" relationship to another are slowed down, even though the particles are not connected in any other way other than by the information they carry.

Another link is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment. In this experiment, a direct relationship between information and another physical property, entropy, is demonstrated. A consequence is that it is impossible to destroy information without increasing the entropy of a system; in practical terms this often means generating heat. Thus, in the study of logic gates, the theoretical lower bound of thermal energy released by an AND gate is more than for the NOT gate (because information is destroyed in an AND gate and simply converted in a NOT gate). Physical information is of particular importance in the theory of quantum computers.

[edit] Etymology

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the earliest historical meaning of the word information in English was the act of informing, or giving form or shape to the mind, as in education, instruction, or training. A quote from 1387: "Five books come down from heaven for information of mankind." It was also used for an item of training, e.g. a particular instruction. "Melibee had heard the great skills and reasons of Dame Prudence, and her wise information and techniques." (1386)

The English word was apparently derived by adding the common "noun of action" ending "-ation" (descended through French from Latin "-tio") to the earlier verb to inform, in the sense of to give form to the mind, to discipline, instruct, teach: "Men so wise should go and inform their kings." (1330) Inform itself comes (via French) from the Latin verb informare, to give form to, to form an idea of. Furthermore, Latin itself already even contained the word informatio meaning concept or idea, but the extent to which this may have influenced the development of the word information in English is unclear.

As a final note, the ancient Greek word for form was eidos, and this word was famously used in a technical philosophical sense by Plato (and later Aristotle) to denote the ideal identity or essence of something (see The Forms).

[edit] Information as Records

Records are a specialized form of information. Essentially records are information produced as by-products of business activities or transactions or consciously as a record of such activities or transactions and retained because of their value. Primarily the value is as evidence of the activities of the organization but they may also be retained for their informational value. Sound Records management ensures that the integrity of records is preserved for as long as they are required.

The international standard on Records management, ISO 15489, defines records as "information created, received, and maintained as evidence and information by an organization or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business". The International Committee on Archives (ICA) Committee on electronic records defined a record as, "a specific piece of recorded information generated, collected or received in the initiation, conduct or completion of an activity and that comprises sufficient content, context and structure to provide proof or evidence of that activity".

Records may be retained because of their business value, as part of the Corporate memory of the organization or to meet legal, fiscal or accountability requirements imposed on the organization. Willis (2005) expressed the view that sound management of business records and information delivered “…six key requirements for good Corporate governance … transparency; accountability; due process; compliance; meeting statutory and common law requirements; and security of personal and corporate information.

[edit] References

1. [The Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. 27, p. 379, (July 1948).

Look up Information in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

* Bekenstein, Jacob D. (2003, August). Information in the holographic universe. Scientific American. Retrieved from http://www.referencenter.com

* Luciano Floridi, (2005). 'Is Information Meaningful Data?', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 70 (2), pp. 351 - 370. Available online at http://www.wolfson.ox.ac.uk/~floridi/pdf/iimd.pdf

* Luciano Floridi, (2005). 'Semantic Conceptions of Information', The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2005 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Available online at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/information-semantic/

[edit] See also

* Informatics
* Information architecture
* Information broker
* Information entropy
* Information geometry
* Information highway
* Information mapping
* Information overload
* Information processing
* Information processor
* Information sensitivity
* Information science
* Information system
* Information technology
* Information theory
* Infosphere
* Accuracy
* Abstraction
* Algorithmic information theory



* Classified information
* Complexity
o Complex system
o Complex adaptive system
* Cybernetics
* Exformation
* Fisher information
* Free Information Infrastructure
* Freedom of information
* Infornography
* Library and Information Science
* Medium



* Metadata
* Observation
* Philosophy of information
* Physical information
* Prediction
* Propaganda model
* Relevance
* Receiver operating characteristic
* Satisficing
* Shannon–Hartley theorem
o Claude Shannon
o Ralph Hartley
* Systems theory

[hide]
v • d • e
Major fields of technology
Applied science Artificial intelligence • Ceramic engineering • Computing technology • Electronics • Energy • Energy storage • Engineering physics • Environmental technology • Materials science & engineering • Microtechnology • Nanotechnology • Nuclear technology • Optical engineering
Information and communication Communication • Graphics • Music technology • Speech recognition • Visual technology
Industry Construction • Financial engineering • Manufacturing • Machinery • Mining
Military Bombs • Guns and Ammunition • Military technology and equipment • Naval engineering
Domestic Domestic appliances • Domestic technology • Educational technology • Food technology
Engineering Aerospace • Agricultural • Architectural • Bioengineering • Biochemical • Biomedical • Ceramic • Chemical • Civil • Computer • Construction • Electrical • Electronic • Environmental • Industrial • Materials • Mechanical • Mechatronics • Metallurgical • Mining • Naval • Nuclear • Petroleum • Software • Structural • Systems • Textile • Tissue
Health and safety Biomedical engineering • Bioinformatics • Biotechnology • Cheminformatics • Fire protection technology • Health technologies • Pharmaceuticals • Safety engineering • Sanitary engineering
Transport Aerospace • Aerospace engineering • Marine engineering • Motor vehicles • Space technology • Transport

[edit] External links

* Semantic Conceptions of Information Review by Luciano Floridi for the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
* Principia Cybernetica entry on negentropy
* Fisher Information, a New Paradigm for Science: Introduction, Uncertainty principles, Wave equations, Ideas of Escher, Kant, Plato and Wheeler. This essay is continually revised in the light of ongoing research.
* Information, Consciousness & Health
* How Much Information? 2003 an attempt to estimate how much new information is created each year (study was produced by faculty and students at the School of Information Management and Systems at the University of California at Berkeley.)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information"

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Old 06-09-2007, 08:17 PM   #26
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wtf? Is this why spfc has been down for so long?? ah well.....

 
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Old 06-10-2007, 03:04 AM   #27
davin
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Quote:
Originally Posted by standing
yeah. you also *******d the billysolo track that you could only get by pre-ordering on itunes. As far as I can tell that song has only been released in digital form. I guess working against inclusion of Rarities and BSides is: Nothing new is there. It's just a compilation of available things never available together. AND it's 150 dollars US price makes it inaccesible to everyone.
well first off, includign the song on the songlist is different that including the rarities & b-sides collection in the "discography". i don't necessarily agree the later should be a true part of the discography.

and also, tilt was on another comp. cd as xyumachine mentioned. so not the same thing.

 
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Old 06-10-2007, 03:16 AM   #28
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Quote:
Originally Posted by MFQueso
wtf? Is this why spfc has been down for so long?? ah well.....
http://forums.netphoria.org/showthread.php?t=142383

 
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Old 06-10-2007, 04:36 AM   #29
standing
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Quote:
Originally Posted by davin
well first off, includign the song on the songlist is different that including the rarities & b-sides collection in the "discography". i don't necessarily agree the later should be a true part of the discography.

and also, tilt was on another comp. cd as xyumachine mentioned. so not the same thing.

I completely respect your call if you don't wanna ******* it. But I really consider the release rather official and includible. In its defense: A) It was officially released in a way that allowed the band to profit from it. B) They probably could have released it physically, but they are living out gatmog, and they had to do something to mirror zero's entire back catalogue being released on the new z-disc format. C) I can't give you a direct quote, but I read in either a billy or jimmy interview once that those two directly picked the songs to be *******d in this release. D) Not including it because it isn't physically released is not a forward-thinking call. That is probably just the future of music. (Same with movie rentals: Netflix will one day just stream a movie to you for the rental price.). Like, What if spfc was formed before cds? Would only cassette releases be *******d? I would bet that 35 years from now there will be no physically released music. So we have to start including official digital releases.
Again, I COMPLETELY respect your decision, just throwing in my 2-cents.
ps- some may think my 35 year prediction is exaggerated. But if you look at what downloadable music has done to album sales AND most people's attention spans for music from a single artist in just (maybe) 15 years, I think it's completely believable that 35 more years of this progression could completely do in printed music.

 
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Old 06-10-2007, 04:50 AM   #30
Esty
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Quote:
Originally Posted by standing
Again, I COMPLETELY respect your decision
What a faggot.

 
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