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Old 09-09-2020, 04:06 PM   #1
Run To Me
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Default 7 Feb 2000

February 7, 2000 - From the mouth of the Lord

On Sunday afternoons, my dad often makes himself available to a group of our friends for a scripture study class. He enjoys teaching the people, but he doesn't force himself on them. He makes himself available, and allows them to invite him.

Yesterday was Sunday, the sabbath day. Some of our group wanted to study together. Others did not, for whatever reason (later my Dad and myself discovered that two of the parents of our group were not in agreement concerning our studying), and as a result of this, no class was held. My dad didn't go to anyone's house to teach them about the Lord. He made out some lessons and he and I delivered them to those few who had wanted to study. But we had no class.

I presided over the communion service yesterday morning. The verses that I had chosen for the call to worship had come from the Second Book of Nephi, Chapter 6. At the time that I stood and read these words to the congregation, I did not realize their significance. I didn't realize that the words were speaking directly to certain people in that room, all I knew was that it was my opening scripture.

In the prayer service immediately preceding the communion service, my dear friend Myron Harbottle mentioned several things that were consistent with the scripture and with the particular sentiments that I had in mind. Specifically, he pointed out the need for an adult commitment to a childlike enthusiasm. He mentioned that until the kingdom became something that was more important to us than anything else, something that excited us more than anything else, until we sought God with all our hearts and with all the strength that we had, we would not have the kingdom. He also said that several families were sitting awfully close to the door, by which he meant that they weren't sure if they wanted to make this adult commitment or not. They weren't quite sure if they wanted to seek God more than any other thing, and therefore were teetering halfway in and halfway out. Myron said that these families had better make up their minds, because a time was swiftly approaching that there would be no room for those who were teetering.

My dad and myself watched these things unfold before our eyes. We were able to clearly see the attitudes of those who wanted to seek God, and those who did not.

This morning, I was woke up to hymn 546. The hymn in itself is unimportant (just a short prayer for a meal) but one of the scripture references led me to the 58th chapter of Isaiah, which coincides closely with the passage from the Second Book of Nephi that had been my call to worship.


Isaiah 58: 11-14

11 And the Lord shall guide thee continually, and satisfy thy soul in drought, and make fat thy bones; and thou shalt be like a watered garden, and like a spring of water, whose waters fail not.


II Nephi 6: 99-102

99 Come, my brethren, every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters; and he that hath no money, come buy and eat; yea, come buy wine and milk without money and without price.

100 Wherefore, do not spend money for that which is of no worth, nor your labor for that which can not satisfy.

101 Hearken diligently unto me, and remember the words which I have spoken; and come unto the Holy One of Israel,

102 And feast upon that which perisheth not, neither can be corrupted, and let your soul delight in fatness.


12 And they that shall be of thee shall build the old waste places; thou shalt raise up the foundations of many generations; and thou shalt be called, The repairer of the breach, The restorer of the paths to dwell in.

13 If thou turn away thy foot from the sabbath, from doing thy pleasure on my holy day; and call the sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord, honorable; and shalt honor him, not doing thine own ways, nor finding thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own words;

14 Then shalt thou delight thyself in the Lord; and I will cause thee to ride upon the high places of the earth, and feed thee with the heritage of Jacob thy father;


for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it.

 
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Old 09-09-2020, 08:57 PM   #2
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I'm done with this place.
The administration sucks, the mods suck, 95% of the members suck, the discussions suck, everything about this place sucks. Over the past year or so this went from a pretty decent board to a complete shithole. It used to be fun to post here, but there's really no point anymore unless you're in on the big neverending Netphorian circle jerk (which is pretty disgusting).

To those 95% of you who hate me, I wish you nothing but the absolute worst of luck in your pathetic lives. This goes especially for people like Trotsky, spprick and Ravenguy.

To the few of you who may not have anything negative to say about me, you're dumb if you keep posting here. Go somewhere else. There are other Pumpkins message boards with better admins, better topics and better people. Stop giving into Netphoria. Just stop. This place feeds off of your activity and potential to donate so you can have access to their stupid forums. It's all a facade. Nimrod is from what I understand someone who plays a big role in paying for this place, and he doesn't even like the Pumpkins that much. Wake up, this place is a joke.

I am asking a mod or admin to do one of two things: permanently ban my account or delete it. The choice is yours. I'd rather you delete it, but you usually don't do anything right, so I can't expect that to happen.

I'm out of here. It was fun while it lasted, but this place is just a monumental waste of time now. Fuck off and goodbye you dysfunctional creeps.

 
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Old 09-09-2020, 09:04 PM   #3
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Quote:
Originally Posted by smashingjj View Post
I'm done with this place.
The administration sucks, the mods suck, 95% of the members suck, the discussions suck, everything about this place sucks. Over the past year or so this went from a pretty decent board to a complete shithole. It used to be fun to post here, but there's really no point anymore unless you're in on the big neverending Netphorian circle jerk (which is pretty disgusting).

To those 95% of you who hate me, I wish you nothing but the absolute worst of luck in your pathetic lives. This goes especially for people like Trotsky, spprick and Ravenguy.

To the few of you who may not have anything negative to say about me, you're dumb if you keep posting here. Go somewhere else. There are other Pumpkins message boards with better admins, better topics and better people. Stop giving into Netphoria. Just stop. This place feeds off of your activity and potential to donate so you can have access to their stupid forums. It's all a facade. Nimrod is from what I understand someone who plays a big role in paying for this place, and he doesn't even like the Pumpkins that much. Wake up, this place is a joke.

I am asking a mod or admin to do one of two things: permanently ban my account or delete it. The choice is yours. I'd rather you delete it, but you usually don't do anything right, so I can't expect that to happen.

I'm out of here. It was fun while it lasted, but this place is just a monumental waste of time now. Fuck off and goodbye you dysfunctional creeps.
Who did this come from?

 
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Old 09-09-2020, 09:17 PM   #4
Joey Goldberg
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cocksure

 
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Old 09-09-2020, 09:27 PM   #5
smashingjj
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Originally Posted by Joey Goldberg View Post
cocksure
no, he quoted it from someone else

 
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Old 09-09-2020, 09:28 PM   #6
Joey Goldberg
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Originally Posted by smashingjj View Post
no, he quoted it from someone else
That's it.

Fuck it.

I'm done with this place.
The administration sucks, the mods suck, 95% of the members suck, the discussions suck, everything about this place sucks. Over the past year or so this went from a pretty decent board to a complete shithole. It used to be fun to post here, but there's really no point anymore unless you're in on the big neverending Netphorian circle jerk (which is pretty disgusting).

To those 95% of you who hate me, I wish you nothing but the absolute worst of luck in your pathetic lives. This goes especially for people like Trotsky, spprick and Ravenguy.

To the few of you who may not have anything negative to say about me, you're dumb if you keep posting here. Go somewhere else. There are other Pumpkins message boards with better admins, better topics and better people. Stop giving into Netphoria. Just stop. This place feeds off of your activity and potential to donate so you can have access to their stupid forums. It's all a facade. Nimrod is from what I understand someone who plays a big role in paying for this place, and he doesn't even like the Pumpkins that much. Wake up, this place is a joke.

I am asking a mod or admin to do one of two things: permanently ban my account or delete it. The choice is yours. I'd rather you delete it, but you usually don't do anything right, so I can't expect that to happen.

I'm out of here. It was fun while it lasted, but this place is just a monumental waste of time now. Fuck off and goodbye you dysfunctional creeps.

 
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Old 09-09-2020, 09:30 PM   #7
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Originally Posted by astrosfan179
Quote from Billy, 'So as a final 'fuck you'', I say Pakula, I am utterly disgusted with the quality of Netphoria and I will offer negative feedback wherever I go.

And, whalah, the posts 'why don't you just leave' will appear, and I don't care...this is for the moderators or Pakula. Not for faggots like smashingjj.

That's right I called you out.

 
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Old 09-10-2020, 09:45 AM   #8
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ARK BROUGHT TO JERUSALEM (15:1–16:43)
The Israelites could not worship God as they pleased. They were to accommodate themselves to the rituals He had ordained. This most important principle is taught by Chronicles regarding worship and praise. Thus, worship was effective, constructive, and beneficial to the worshippers so long as it was performed in accordance with inspired revelation.

1 CHR 15:1–16:43 NKJV
1 David built houses for himself in the City of David; and he prepared a place for the ark of God, and pitched a tent for it.
2 Then David said, “No one may carry the ark of God but the Levites, for the LORD has chosen them to carry the ark of God and to minister before Him forever.”
3 And David gathered all Israel together at Jerusalem, to bring up the ark of the LORD to its place, which he had prepared for it.
4 Then David assembled the children of Aaron and the Levites:
5 of the sons of Kohath, Uriel the chief, and one hundred and twenty of his brethren;
6 of the sons of Merari, Asaiah the chief, and two hundred and twenty of his brethren;
7 of the sons of Gershom, Joel the chief, and one hundred and thirty of his brethren;
8 of the sons of Elizaphan, Shemaiah the chief, and two hundred of his brethren;
9 of the sons of Hebron, Eliel the chief, and eighty of his brethren;
10 of the sons of Uzziel, Amminadab the chief, and one hundred and twelve of his brethren.
11 And David called for Zadok and Abiathar the priests, and for the Levites: for Uriel, Asaiah, Joel, Shemaiah, Eliel, and Amminadab.
12 He said to them, “You are the heads of the fathers’ houses of the Levites; sanctify yourselves, you and your brethren, that you may bring up the ark of the LORD God of Israel to the place I have prepared for it.
13 For because you did not do it the first time, the LORD our God broke out against us, because we did not consult Him about the proper order.”
14 So the priests and the Levites sanctified themselves to bring up the ark of the LORD God of Israel.
15 And the children of the Levites bore the ark of God on their shoulders, by its poles, as Moses had commanded according to the word of the LORD .
16 Then David spoke to the leaders of the Levites to appoint their brethren to be the singers accompanied by instruments of music, stringed instruments, harps, and cymbals, by raising the voice with resounding joy.
17 So the Levites appointed Heman the son of Joel; and of his brethren, Asaph the son of Berechiah; and of their brethren, the sons of Merari, Ethan the son of Kushaiah;
18 and with them their brethren of the second rank: Zechariah, Ben, Jaaziel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Unni, Eliab, Benaiah, Maaseiah, Mattithiah, Elipheleh, Mikneiah, Obed-Edom, and Jeiel, the gatekeepers;
19 the singers, Heman, Asaph, and Ethan, were to sound the cymbals of bronze;
20 Zechariah, Aziel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Unni, Eliab, Maaseiah, and Benaiah, with strings according to Alamoth;
21 Mattithiah, Elipheleh, Mikneiah, Obed-Edom, Jeiel, and Azaziah, to direct with harps on the Sheminith;
22 Chenaniah, leader of the Levites, was instructor in charge of the music, because he was skillful;
23 Berechiah and Elkanah were doorkeepers for the ark;
24 Shebaniah, Joshaphat, Nethanel, Amasai, Zechariah, Benaiah, and Eliezer, the priests, were to blow the trumpets before the ark of God; and Obed-Edom and Jehiah, doorkeepers for the ark.
25 So David, the elders of Israel, and the captains over thousands went to bring up the ark of the covenant of the LORD from the house of Obed-Edom with joy.
26 And so it was, when God helped the Levites who bore the ark of the covenant of the LORD, that they offered seven bulls and seven rams.
27 David was clothed with a robe of fine linen, as were all the Levites who bore the ark, the singers, and Chenaniah the music master with the singers. David also wore a linen ephod.
28 Thus all Israel brought up the ark of the covenant of the LORD with shouting and with the sound of the horn, with trumpets and with cymbals, making music with stringed instruments and harps.
29 And it happened, as the ark of the covenant of the LORD came to the City of David, that Michal, Saul’s daughter, looked through a window and saw King David whirling and playing music; and she despised him in her heart.
16:1 So they brought the ark of God, and set it in the midst of the tabernacle that David had erected for it. Then they offered burnt offerings and peace offerings before God.
2 And when David had finished offering the burnt offerings and the peace offerings, he blessed the people in the name of the LORD.
3 Then he distributed to everyone of Israel, both man and woman, to everyone a loaf of bread, a piece of meat, and a cake of raisins.

4 And he appointed some of the Levites to minister before the ark of the LORD, to commemorate, to thank, and to praise the LORD God of Israel:
5 Asaph the chief, and next to him Zechariah, then Jeiel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Mattithiah, Eliab, Benaiah, and Obed-Edom: Jeiel with stringed instruments and harps, but Asaph made music with cymbals;
6 Benaiah and Jahaziel the priests regularly blew the trumpets before the ark of the covenant of God.
7 On that day David first delivered this psalm into the hand of Asaph and his brethren, to thank the LORD:
8 Oh, give thanks to the LORD!
Call upon His name;
Make known His deeds among the peoples!
9 Sing to Him, sing psalms to Him;
Talk of all His wondrous works!
10 Glory in His holy name;
Let the hearts of those rejoice who seek the LORD!
11 Seek the Lord and His strength;
Seek His face evermore!
12 Remember His marvelous works which He has done,
His wonders, and the judgments of His mouth,
13 O seed of Israel His servant,
You children of Jacob, His chosen ones!

14 He is the LORD our God;
His judgments are in all the earth.
15 Remember His covenant forever,
The word which He commanded, for a thousand generations,
16 The covenant which He made with Abraham,
And His oath to Isaac,
17 And confirmed it to Jacob for a statute,
To Israel for an everlasting covenant,
18 Saying, “To you I will give the land of Canaan
As the allotment of your inheritance,”
19 When you were few in number,
Indeed very few, and strangers in it.
20 When they went from one nation to another,
And from one kingdom to another people,
21 He permitted no man to do them wrong;
Yes, He rebuked kings for their sakes,
22 Saying, “Do not touch My anointed ones,
And do My prophets no harm.”
23 Sing to the LORD, all the earth;
Proclaim the good news of His salvation from day to day.
24 Declare His glory among the nations,
His wonders among all peoples.

25 For the LORD is great and greatly to be praised;
He is also to be feared above all gods.
26 For all the gods of the peoples are idols,
But the LORD made the heavens.
27 Honor and majesty are before Him;
Strength and gladness are in His place.
28 Give to the LORD, O families of the peoples,
Give to the LORD glory and strength.
29 Give to the LORD the glory due His name;
Bring an offering, and come before Him.
Oh, worship the LORD in the beauty of holiness!
30 Tremble before Him, all the earth.
The world also is firmly established,
It shall not be moved.
31 Let the heavens rejoice, and let the earth be glad;
And let them say among the nations, “The LORD reigns.”
32 Let the sea roar, and all its fullness;
Let the field rejoice, and all that is in it.
33 Then the trees of the woods shall rejoice before the LORD,
For He is coming to judge the earth.
34 Oh, give thanks to the LORD, for He is good!
For His mercy endures forever.
35 And say, “Save us, O God of our salvation;
Gather us together, and deliver us from the Gentiles,
To give thanks to Your holy name,
To triumph in Your praise.”
36 Blessed be the LORD God of Israel
From everlasting to everlasting!
And all the people said, “Amen!” and praised the LORD.
37 So he left Asaph and his brothers there before the ark of the covenant of the LORD to minister before the ark regularly, as every day’s work required;
38 and Obed-Edom with his sixty-eight brethren, including Obed-Edom the son of Jeduthun, and Hosah, to be gatekeepers;
39 and Zadok the priest and his brethren the priests, before the tabernacle of the LORD at the high place that was at Gibeon,
40 to offer burnt offerings to the LORD on the altar of burnt offering regularly morning and evening, and to do according to all that is written in the Law of the LORD which He commanded Israel;
41 and with them Heman and Jeduthun and the rest who were chosen, who were designated by name, to give thanks to the LORD, because His mercy endures forever;
42 and with them Heman and Jeduthun, to sound aloud with trumpets and cymbals and the musical instruments of God. Now the sons of Jeduthun were gatekeepers.
43 Then all the people departed, every man to his house; and David returned to bless his house.

1 CHR 15:1–16:43 ESV
1 David built houses for himself in the city of David. And he prepared a place for the ark of God and pitched a tent for it.
2 Then David said that no one but the Levites may carry the ark of God, for the LORD had chosen them to carry the ark of the LORD and to minister to him forever.
3 And David assembled all Israel at Jerusalem to bring up the ark of the LORD to its place, which he had prepared for it.
4 And David gathered together the sons of Aaron and the Levites:
5 of the sons of Kohath, Uriel the chief, with 120 of his brothers;
6 of the sons of Merari, Asaiah the chief, with 220 of his brothers;
7 of the sons of Gershom, Joel the chief, with 130 of his brothers;
8 of the sons of Elizaphan, Shemaiah the chief, with 200 of his brothers;
9 of the sons of Hebron, Eliel the chief, with 80 of his brothers;
10 of the sons of Uzziel, Amminadab the chief, with 112 of his brothers.
11 Then David summoned the priests Zadok and Abiathar, and the Levites Uriel, Asaiah, Joel, Shemaiah, Eliel, and Amminadab,
12 and said to them, “You are the heads of the fathers’ houses of the Levites. Consecrate yourselves, you and your brothers, so that you may bring up the ark of the LORD, the God of Israel, to the place that I have prepared for it.
13 Because you did not carry it the first time, the LORD our God broke out against us, because we did not seek him according to the rule.”
14 So the priests and the Levites consecrated themselves to bring up the ark of the LORD, the God of Israel.
15 And the Levites carried the ark of God on their shoulders with the poles, as Moses had commanded according to the word of the LORD.
16 David also commanded the chiefs of the Levites to appoint their brothers as the singers who should play loudly on musical instruments, on harps and lyres and cymbals, to raise sounds of joy.
17 So the Levites appointed Heman the son of Joel; and of his brothers Asaph the son of Berechiah; and of the sons of Merari, their brothers, Ethan the son of Kushaiah;
18 and with them their brothers of the second order, Zechariah, Jaaziel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Unni, Eliab, Benaiah, Maaseiah, Mattithiah, Eliphelehu, and Mikneiah, and the gatekeepers Obed-edom and Jeiel.
19 The singers, Heman, Asaph, and Ethan, were to sound bronze cymbals;
20 Zechariah, Aziel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Unni, Eliab, Maaseiah, and Benaiah were to play harps according to Alamoth;
21 but Mattithiah, Eliphelehu, Mikneiah, Obed-edom, Jeiel, and Azaziah were to lead with lyres according to the Sheminith.
22 Chenaniah, leader of the Levites in music, should direct the music, for he understood it.
23 Berechiah and Elkanah were to be gatekeepers for the ark.
24 Shebaniah, Joshaphat, Nethanel, Amasai, Zechariah, Benaiah, and Eliezer, the priests, should blow the trumpets before the ark of God. Obed-edom and Jehiah were to be gatekeepers for the ark.
25 So David and the elders of Israel and the commanders of thousands went to bring up the ark of the covenant of the LORD from the house of Obed-edom with rejoicing.
26 And because God helped the Levites who were carrying the ark of the covenant of the LORD, they sacrificed seven bulls and seven rams.
27 David was clothed with a robe of fine linen, as also were all the Levites who were carrying the ark, and the singers and Chenaniah the leader of the music of the singers. And David wore a linen ephod.
28 So all Israel brought up the ark of the covenant of the LORD with shouting, to the sound of the horn, trumpets, and cymbals, and made loud music on harps and lyres.
29 And as the ark of the covenant of the LORD came to the city of David, Michal the daughter of Saul looked out of the window and saw King David dancing and celebrating, and she despised him in her heart.
16:1 And they brought in the ark of God and set it inside the tent that David had pitched for it, and they offered burnt offerings and peace offerings before God.
2 And when David had finished offering the burnt offerings and the peace offerings, he blessed the people in the name of the LORD
3 and distributed to all Israel, both men and women, to each a loaf of bread, a portion of meat, and a cake of raisins.
4 Then he appointed some of the Levites as ministers before the ark of the LORD, to invoke, to thank, and to praise the LORD, the God of Israel.
5 Asaph was the chief, and second to him were Zechariah, Jeiel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Mattithiah, Eliab, Benaiah, Obed-edom, and Jeiel, who were to play harps and lyres; Asaph was to sound the cymbals,
6 and Benaiah and Jahaziel the priests were to blow trumpets regularly before the ark of the covenant of God.
7 Then on that day David first appointed that thanksgiving be sung to the LORD by Asaph and his brothers.
8 Oh give thanks to the LORD; call upon his name;
make known his deeds among the peoples!
9 Sing to him, sing praises to him;
tell of all his wondrous works!
10 Glory in his holy name;
let the hearts of those who seek the LORD rejoice!
11 Seek the LORD and his strength;
seek his presence continually!
12 Remember the wondrous works that he has done,
his miracles and the judgments he uttered,
13 O offspring of Israel his servant,
children of Jacob, his chosen ones!
14 He is the LORD our God;
his judgments are in all the earth.
15 Remember his covenant forever,
the word that he commanded, for a thousand generations,
16 the covenant that he made with Abraham,
his sworn promise to Isaac,
17 which he confirmed to Jacob as a statute,
to Israel as an everlasting covenant,
18 saying, “To you I will give the land of Canaan,
as your portion for an inheritance.”
19 When you were few in number,
of little account, and sojourners in it,
20 wandering from nation to nation,
from one kingdom to another people,
21 he allowed no one to oppress them;
he rebuked kings on their account,
22 saying, “Touch not my anointed ones,
do my prophets no harm!”
23 Sing to the LORD, all the earth!
Tell of his salvation from day to day.
24 Declare his glory among the nations,
his marvelous works among all the peoples!
25 For great is the LORD, and greatly to be praised,
and he is to be feared above all gods.
26 For all the gods of the peoples are worthless idols,
but the LORD made the heavens.
27 Splendor and majesty are before him;
strength and joy are in his place.
28 Ascribe to the LORD, O families of the peoples,
ascribe to the LORD glory and strength!
29 Ascribe to the LORD the glory due his name;
bring an offering and come before him!
Worship the LORD in the splendor of holiness;
30 tremble before him, all the earth;
yes, the world is established; it shall never be moved.
31 Let the heavens be glad, and let the earth rejoice,
and let them say among the nations, “The LORD reigns!”
32 Let the sea roar, and all that fills it;
let the field exult, and everything in it!
33 Then shall the trees of the forest sing for joy
before the LORD, for he comes to judge the earth.
34 Oh give thanks to the LORD, for he is good;
for his steadfast love endures forever!
35 Say also:
“Save us, O God of our salvation,
and gather and deliver us from among the nations,
that we may give thanks to your holy name
and glory in your praise.
36 Blessed be the LORD, the God of Israel,
from everlasting to everlasting!”
Then all the people said, “Amen!” and praised the LORD.
37 So David left Asaph and his brothers there before the ark of the covenant of the LORD to minister regularly before the ark as each day required,
38 and also Obed-edom and his sixty-eight brothers, while Obed-edom, the son of Jeduthun, and Hosah were to be gatekeepers.
39 And he left Zadok the priest and his brothers the priests before the tabernacle of the LORD in the high place that was at Gibeon
40 to offer burnt offerings to the LORD on the altar of burnt offering regularly morning and evening, to do all that is written in the Law of the LORD that he commanded Israel.
41 With them were Heman and Jeduthun and the rest of those chosen and expressly named to give thanks to the LORD, for his steadfast love endures forever.
42 Heman and Jeduthun had trumpets and cymbals for the music and instruments for sacred song. The sons of Jeduthun were appointed to the gate.
43 Then all the people departed each to his house, and David went home to bless his household.

15:1–3 David saw that God blessed Obed-Edom (see 2 Sam 6:12). Therefore, he planned to continue the transferal of the ark to Jerusalem despite his fears regarding Uzzah’s death. Now, this second time, he wanted to do it according to the instructions God gave in the Pentateuch (15:2). The Levites were to carry it. Verse 2 indicates that David was willing to follow the sacred instructions (found in Num 4:15; Deut 10:8). The job of bringing the ark included all Israel. Reverence to God and obedience to His instructions included not only the leaders but all members of His people.
15:4–10 David gathered representatives from the three Levitical families (6:1–15 [MT 6:16–30]); namely, Gershom, Kohath, and Merari. These men were descendants of Aaron and Moses, spiritual leaders knowledgeable about the sacred writings.
15:11–15 David prepared the Levites to carry the ark according to what God had revealed through Moses (15:15). This is the first reference to Moses in Chronicles. This time, David wanted to do everything according to what had been revealed to him from the Pentateuch. Verse 13 indicates the reason for the failure of the first attempt to bring the ark (see also ch. 13). Chapter 15 could be placed in contrast to chapter 10. Notice that Saul and his family were completely destroyed because of his failure to seek God (10:13–14), David, on the contrary, sought the Lord before attempting to bring the ark in the second attempt (13:1–3). Although he sought the Lord the first time (ch. 13), he failed because he did not seek Him according to what had been prescribed (15:13).
Three things had to be accomplished to succeed in this enterprise: (a) Levites should carry the ark (15:12); (b) they should be sanctified before officiating (15:12); and (c) they should consult God concerning the proper order (15:13).
15:16–18 David started to organize the choral music for praising God in His sanctuary, but he did not do it alone. David did not usurp the right of the Levites and priests in sacral matters; he allowed them to choose suitable musicians (15:16). Thus, David delegated; in matters the Levites were assigned to and responsible for, he did not interfere. The musicians were supposed to sing accompanied by musical instruments. David instructed them to use instruments of music. This might be a reference to Deuteronomy 10:8; 18:5; Numbers 10:10. A short list of instruments is presented—harps, lyres, and cymbals. They should also sing by raising the voice with resounding joy (15:16). Compare this with chapter 13, where there is only one verse regarding music organization (13:8), while here in chapter 15, a large portion of the text was devoted to music organization.
David organized a chorale of singers and musicians under prophetic supervision (2 Chr 29:25). The instruments used for the music were called musical instruments of God (16:42). The kinnor “lyre,” translated as harp in the NKJV, was built as a sound box with two arms connected by a wooden crossbar for the strings (Ps 81:2). The nebel “harp,” translated as stringed instruments in the NKJV, is possibly a vertical, angular harp bigger than the kinnor (1 Kgs 10:12; Isa 5:12; 14:11; Amos 6:5). The cymbals (metsiltayim) were made of bronze; they were to assert publicly the beginning of the sacred song or a stanza in the song.
15:19–21 The temple music was first organized by David under God’s authorization through the prophets Nathan and Gad (2 Chr 29:25c). This process of organization went through three stages. The establishment of the choir for the transferal of the ark was the first stage (ch. 15). The second stage took place when the ark was placed in its tent close to David’s palace. Thus, David inaugurated the regular performance of the choral music in Jerusalem and Gibeon (16:4–6; 37–42). The third stage was at the end of his reign (23:2–26:32); it included the plan for the musicians to worship God in the temple that Solomon would build. The terms alamoth and sheminith (15:20–21) may be a reference to the style or melody of the psalm to be sung.
15:22–24 A detailed organization of the parade was made with Chenaniah as the designed leader. He was probably the conductor of the choir (see 15:27). The trumpet was always a priestly instrument. Thus, seven priests were assigned to blow the trumpets (15:24). God ordained these trumpets to Moses (Num 10:1–8). They were to be used in wartime so Israel would be symbolically “remembered” by God, giving them victory over their foes (Num 10:9). The trumpets should be sounded over the burnt and peace offerings as well (Num 10:10) so God would “remember” their spiritual needs and give them victory over temptations.
15:25–16:3 God helped the Levites. The process of transferring the ark was successful, and everyone was rejoicing. God helped the Levites (15:26), in contrast to 13:10–12, where God opposed the transferal of His ark when His instructions were not followed, leading to the death of Uzzah and to filling David with fear and anger. In this second moving of the ark, the Levites participating in the procession were playing instruments (15:28). These instruments were assigned to them in 15:19–21, 24; 16:5. The ram’s horn, the shofar, was added to this parade (see 2 Sam 6:15).
The short episode with Michal, daughter of Saul, indicates (15:29) that she was not preoccupied with worshipping God but only with David’s humble behavior. She was arrogant (15:29). This enhanced the contrast between Saul’s family in avoiding God and David’s reign in consulting, seeking, and humbly doing God’s will.
David’s dance (raqad “to skip, dance, leap”) was a ritual prescribed neither by God nor by His prophets. It represented a cultural way of expressing gladness (sachaq “to play” an instrument) before God (15:29). God did not reprove David because of leaping and skipping before Him. Each culture has its own way of demonstrating gladness that may not be appropriate in another culture, time, or setting. Therefore, one should be careful not to superimpose a cultural behavior upon another culture. No mention of dancing in the temple occurs in the times of Hezekiah (2 Chr 29:25), Josiah (2 Chr 35:15), Ezra (Ezra 3:10–11), or Nehemiah (Neh 12:27). This was possibly a part of celebrating the inauguration of the building. But on various occasions, dancing could have been practiced in the women’s court of the temple. See also various passages with this same term (Pss 29:6; 114:4, 6; Eccl 3:4; Isa 13:21; Joel 2:5; Nah 3:2; and see excursus on music by Lilianne Doukhan, pp. XX). [LINE EDITOR NOTE: PAGE NUMBER FOR THIS EXCURSUS WILL NEED TO BE INSERTED AT PAGE-LAYOUT STAGE]
Chapter 16:2 reads that David offered the sacrifice. This means that the priests carried out and performed the ritual under the orders of King David. David blessed the people as Moses had done in the past after setting the tent of meeting in the desert (Exod 33:7; Deut 33:1). Thus, David is recognized in Chronicles as the second Moses by establishing the temple worship and the choral rite that began with the transferal of the ark. The musical arrangement of the procession was as follows:

1. Conductor: Chenaniah
2. Gatekeepers: Berechiah and Elkanah
3. Seven priestly trumpeters: Shebaniah, Joshaphat, Nethanel, Amasai, Zechariah, Benaiah, and Eliezer
4. Bearers of the ark: Levites
5. Choir and musicians: Levites
a. Lyre players: Mattithiah, Elipheleh, Mikneiah, Obed-Edom, Jeiel, and Azaziah
b. Harpists: Zechariah, Aziel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Unni, Eliab, Maaseiah, and Benaiah
c. Cymbal players: Ethan, Heman, and Asaph

 
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16:4–7 David appointed the Levites to minister before the ark of the Lord and to accomplish three things: to commemorate, to give thanks, and to praise the Lord. The first was a function of the priests (Num 10:10); the last two of the Levites assigned to the choral music (23:30–31).
Verse 5 introduces again the musicians with harps and lyres and Asaph with cymbals. The priests would blow the trumpets “continually” or “daily” (tamid) before the ark of the covenant, announcing the time of the sacrifice. The trumpets did not accompany the singing—they just carried forward the momentum of the sacrificial service (16:6). David started to praise God in this way, with various instruments in use and with choral singing before the ark of the covenant. Thus, he prepared a psalm for Asaph to praise God with the newly established music choir.

16:8–36. LITERARY STRUCTURE OF THE LORD’S SONG OF THANKSGIVING, A PSALM OF DAVID
I. The psalm of thanksgiving (16:8–34)
A. General call to thanksgiving (16:8)
B. Israel’s praise (16:9–22)
1. Call to musical praise (16:9–11)
2. Double call to remembrance (16:12–22)
a. Remembrance of the Lord’s work
i. Call to remember the Lord (16:12)
ii. Identity and status of audience (16:13)
iii. Content of remembrance (16:14)
b. Remembrance of the Lord’s covenant
i. Call to remember the covenant with the ancestors (16:15–18)
ii. Protection of Israel as a result of His covenant (16:19–22)
C. International praise (16:23–30)
1. The praise of the whole earth (16:23–27)
a. Call to singing (16:23–24)
b. Reason for song (16:25–27)
2. The praise of His people (16:28–30)
a. Call to prostration in sacrificial worship (16:28–30a)
b. Reason for prostration (16:30b)
D. Cosmic praise (16:31–33)
1. Command for universal proclamation of the Lord’s kingship (16:31–32)
2. Result of proclamation (16:33)
E. Final call to thanksgiving (16:34)
II. Summary petition (16:35–36a)
A. Petition for Israel’s deliverance (16:35)
B. Doxology (16:36a)

The transferal of the ark of God to Jerusalem culminated with the inauguration of the second stage of the temple music, namely, the choral service. This music service before the ark, and later on before the altar, was perpetuated throughout Israel’s history until the postexilic period. In this psalm, David is as a herald of the universal King to Israel and to the nations. David appointed the musicians as representatives of his authority and gave them this psalm. By singing this psalm and playing the instruments, they were announcing the presence of the Lord and calling the audience to join them in proclaiming His holy name before the ark. In this way the singers were inviting the congregation to praise God.
16:37–43 David appointed Asaph, with a group of Levite musicians, to perform to mark the presence of the ark of the covenant at the tent he had prepared for it in Jerusalem. David also appointed Zadok to continue the ritual services at Gibeon, where the original sanctuary was, before moving the ark to Jerusalem.
Notice, however, that the ark was in the house of Abinadab at Kirjath Jearim since the death of the two sons of Eli (1 Sam 6:20–7:1) and the tent of the sanctuary was somewhere else. An explanation is made in Chronicles regarding the presence of the sanctuary in Gibeon (21:29) for Joshua and Samuel had placed it in Shiloh (Josh 18:2; 1 Sam 4:3–4, 12).
The twenty years the ark stayed in Kirjath Jearim, mentioned in 1 Samuel 7:2, is probably a reference to the time when the sanctuary was moved to Gibeon from Shiloh. Observe that Solomon offered a thousand sacrifices upon the bronze altar that was at Gibeon (2 Chr 1:3–13), while the ark continued to be in the tent prepared for it by David. After Solomon completed the temple, the ark was brought to the new temple, and the utensils were brought from the sanctuary at Gibeon. David established this service of praise before the ark under God’s authority, to last while the temple would exist, and with it, “the musical instruments for sacred song” (16:42 ESV).
In those days Israel was supposed to seek and worship God in the divinely appointed place as a corporate body and in a cultic practice that pleased Him (2 Chr 7:12–16). On the other hand, as individuals, they could have their worship at their own places, for instance, the weekly Sabbath worship. Spiritual, political, and material success came as a natural consequence of their allegiance to God (22:13; 2 Chr 31:21). The material fruit of faithfulness to God was the possession of the land (28:8; 2 Chr 33:8). Unfaithfulness to God—revealed in their false worship, especially related to false gods—resulted in the loss of the land, in the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple, and in the Babylonian exile (2 Chr 7:19–22).
The Chronicler affirms that the choral music at Jerusalem was not based on David’s royal authority but on the direct command of God through His prophets Nathan and Gad (2 Chr 29:25). David received divine authorization for this choir project, and he proceeded to organize the musicians, the music, and instruments for the worship of God in His temple. This section describes the first stage of David’s organization of the music in the temple. Psalms were part of the comprehensive ritual of worshipping God. Notice that God established the rituals of the sanctuary as a means for the people to interact with Him and to teach and guide them; thus, music was a significant part of this didactical interaction. Therefore, music is an important component in the liturgy of God’s worship.

DAVID WISHES TO BUILD GOD’S HOUSE IN JERUSALEM BUT IS PREVENTED (17:1–27)
1 CHR 17:1–27 NKJV
1 Now it came to pass, when David was dwelling in his house, that David said to Nathan the prophet, “See now, I dwell in a house of cedar, but the ark of the covenant of the LORD is under tent curtains.”
2 Then Nathan said to David, “Do all that is in your heart, for God is with you.”
3 But it happened that night that the word of God came to Nathan, saying,
4 “Go and tell My servant David, ‘Thus says the LORD: “You shall not build Me a house to dwell in.
5 For I have not dwelt in a house since the time that I brought up Israel, even to this day, but have gone from tent to tent, and from one tabernacle to another.
6 Wherever I have moved about with all Israel, have I ever spoken a word to any of the judges of Israel, whom I commanded to shepherd My people, saying, ‘Why have you not built Me a house of cedar?’ ” ’
7 Now therefore, thus shall you say to My servant David, ‘Thus says the LORD of hosts: “I took you from the sheepfold, from following the sheep, to be ruler over My people Israel.
8 And I have been with you wherever you have gone, and have cut off all your enemies from before you, and have made you a name like the name of the great men who are on the earth. 9 Moreover I will appoint a place for My people Israel, and will plant them, that they may dwell in a place of their own and move no more; nor shall the sons of wickedness oppress them anymore, as previously,
10 since the time that I commanded judges to be over My people Israel. Also I will subdue all your enemies. Furthermore I tell you that the LORD will build you a house.
11 And it shall be, when your days are fulfilled, when you must go to be with your fathers, that I will set up your seed after you, who will be of your sons; and I will establish his kingdom.
12 He shall build Me a house, and I will establish his throne forever.
13 I will be his Father, and he shall be My son; and I will not take My mercy away from him, as I took it from him who was before you.
14 And I will establish him in My house and in My kingdom forever; and his throne shall be established forever.” ’ ”
15 According to all these words and according to all this vision, so Nathan spoke to David.
16 Then King David went in and sat before the LORD; and he said: “Who am I, O LORD God? And what is my house, that You have brought me this far?
17 And yet this was a small thing in Your sight, O God; and You have also spoken of Your servant’s house for a great while to come, and have regarded me according to the rank of a man of high degree, O LORD God.
18 What more can David say to You for the honor of Your servant? For You know Your servant. 19 O LORD, for Your servant’s sake, and according to Your own heart, You have done all this greatness, in making known all these great things.
20 O LORD, there is none like You, nor is there any God besides You, according to all that we have heard with our ears.
21 And who is like Your people Israel, the one nation on the earth whom God went to redeem for Himself as a people—to make for Yourself a name by great and awesome deeds, by driving out nations from before Your people whom You redeemed from Egypt?
22 For You have made Your people Israel Your very own people forever; and You, LORD, have become their God.
23 “And now, O LORD, the word which You have spoken concerning Your servant and concerning his house, let it be established forever, and do as You have said.
24 So let it be established, that Your name may be magnified forever, saying, ‘The LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, is Israel’s God.’ And let the house of Your servant David be established before You.
25 For You, O my God, have revealed to Your servant that You will build him a house. Therefore Your servant has found it in his heart to pray before You.
26 And now, LORD, You are God, and have promised this goodness to Your servant.
27 Now You have been pleased to bless the house of Your servant, that it may continue before You forever; for You have blessed it, O LORD, and it shall be blessed forever.”

1 CHR 17:1–27 ESV
1 Now when David lived in his house, David said to Nathan the prophet, “Behold, I dwell in a house of cedar, but the ark of the covenant of the LORD is under a tent.”
2 And Nathan said to David, “Do all that is in your heart, for God is with you.”
3 But that same night the word of the LORD came to Nathan,
4 “Go and tell my servant David, ‘Thus says the LORD: It is not you who will build me a house to dwell in.
5 For I have not lived in a house since the day I brought up Israel to this day, but I have gone from tent to tent and from dwelling to dwelling.
6 In all places where I have moved with all Israel, did I speak a word with any of the judges of Israel, whom I commanded to shepherd my people, saying, “Why have you not built me a house of cedar?” ’
7 Now, therefore, thus shall you say to my servant David, ‘Thus says the LORD of hosts, I took you from the pasture, from following the sheep, to be prince over my people Israel,
8 and I have been with you wherever you have gone and have cut off all your enemies from before you. And I will make for you a name, like the name of the great ones of the earth.
9 And I will appoint a place for my people Israel and will plant them, that they may dwell in their own place and be disturbed no more. And violent men shall waste them no more, as formerly,
10 from the time that I appointed judges over my people Israel. And I will subdue all your enemies. Moreover, I declare to you that the LORD will build you a house.
11 When your days are fulfilled to walk with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring after you, one of your own sons, and I will establish his kingdom.
12 He shall build a house for me, and I will establish his throne forever.
13 I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son. I will not take my steadfast love from him, as I took it from him who was before you,
14 but I will confirm him in my house and in my kingdom forever, and his throne shall be established forever.’ ”
15 In accordance with all these words, and in accordance with all this vision, Nathan spoke to David.
16 Then King David went in and sat before the LORD and said, “Who am I, O LORD God, and what is my house, that you have brought me thus far?
17 And this was a small thing in your eyes, O God. You have also spoken of your servant’s house for a great while to come, and have shown me future generations, O LORD God!
18 And what more can David say to you for honoring your servant? For you know your servant. 19 For your servant’s sake, O LORD, and according to your own heart, you have done all this greatness, in making known all these great things.
20 There is none like you, O LORD, and there is no God besides you, according to all that we have heard with our ears.
21 And who is like your people Israel, the one nation on earth whom God went to redeem to be his people, making for yourself a name for great and awesome things, in driving out nations before your people whom you redeemed from Egypt?
22 And you made your people Israel to be your people forever, and you, O LORD, became their God.
23 And now, O LORD, let the word that you have spoken concerning your servant and concerning his house be established forever, and do as you have spoken,
24 and your name will be established and magnified forever, saying, ‘The LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, is Israel’s God,’ and the house of your servant David will be established before you.
25 For you, my God, have revealed to your servant that you will build a house for him. Therefore your servant has found courage to pray before you.
26 And now, O LORD, you are God, and you have promised this good thing to your servant. 27 Now you have been pleased to bless the house of your servant, that it may continue forever before you, for it is you, O LORD, who have blessed, and it is blessed forever.”

In this section, the emphasis is on the desire David had to build a house for the Lord in the newly conquered city of Jerusalem (17:1; see also 11:4–9). On the other hand, it was the Lord who promised David to build for him a house, a dynasty (17:10). The Davidic dynasty, however, would be established under the condition of obedience to the covenant (28:9).
17:1–2 The word house (bayit) is used in this text as a reference to both temple and dynasty. The prophet Nathan had an important part in David’s history (2 Sam 12; 1 Kgs 1–2) though his role in several incidents is omitted in Chronicles. Notice that the preposition “under” may be an indication that the ark was under a simple tent. This was probably not the original tabernacle built by Moses. According to Klein, “in Chronicles the tent is a mere awning.” The heart of David was willing to do the will of God. Hence, the prophet Nathan gives him the green light to pursue his desire.
17:3 That same night the word of God came to Nathan changing the plans set by David regarding the construction of the temple. This word was a “vision” (chazon, 17:15). God is the one who should direct the plans of His house, as was the case with Moses in the desert (Exod 25:40).
17:4–6 My servant David. Observe that Moses, Joshua, and David are called by the title “my servant.” The formula “thus says the LORD” occurs here twice, increasing the authority of the source from which the vision came (17:4, 7). God did not forbid the construction of the temple (17:4). He only explains that David was not the one chosen for this task. In 22:8 and 29:3 the reason is explicitly presented—David was a man of war. The ark of the covenant had, by this time, spent more than four hundred years in a tent. It seems that a new tent was built from time to time to replace the old one as it deteriorated (17:5; see also 16:39; 1 Sam 3:3). During these years God never asked His judges to build Him a permanent house, even though they were already in the promised land (17:6).
17:7 I took you from the sheepfold. Verse 7 brings up the place from which David came. David had former experience that helped him to be a good and humble leader. He had been a shepherd. Thus, God chose him as the new shepherd for His people, Israel (1 Sam 16:1–13). God chooses His leaders based on their former experience and on their willingness to serve and obey God’s will. Notice that David became the “leader” or “officer” (nagid), not the “king” (melek), as we would expect. The term “king” would imply similarity with the kings of other nations, but nagid is a term indicating a “leader,” designated as under the authority of a superior power.
17:8–9 I have been with you. The protection of David and the blessings he received from God included the people as a whole. When the leader is righteous before God, the entire nation is blessed. God would plant His people in the land forever and would give them peace. Enemies from the time of the judges, such as the Arameans (Judg 3:8), the Moabites (Judg 3:12), King Jabin (Judg 4:2), the Midianites (Judg 6:1), the Philistines and Ammonites (Judg 10:8), and several others would cease to be a threat to Israel.
17:10 The LORD will build you a house. God would be the reason and the source of their peace, not the king (17:10). Since David desired to build a house for the Lord, God Himself would build a house for David—a dynasty that would last forever, under certain conditions (22:12–13; 28:7). Based on his family’s social status, David did not have any lineage that would qualify him as a monarch. God was the only source of David’s success and legitimacy.
17:11 When your days are fulfilled. This text implies that there is no immortal element in human nature. David would die as every ancestor of his had (Gen 49:33; Deut 31:16). David would not go immediately to heaven at his death but would remain dead, as his ancestors had. God would raise up a son to continue his royal lineage to shepherd Israel. The formula “lie down with your ancestors” occurs on various occasions in 2 Chronicles (as follows) with reference to David’s descendants (Rehoboam, 12:16; Abijah, 13:22; Asa, 16:13; Jehoshaphat, 21:1; Amaziah, 26:2; Uzziah, 26:23; Jotham, 27:9; Ahaz, 28:27; Hezekiah, 32:33; Manasseh, 33:20).
17:12 I will stablish his throne forever. God chose one of David’s sons to reign over Israel. Though his son’s name is not mentioned here, God promises to establish his throne—not David’s throne—forever. God is the one who chooses and who establishes the leaders He needs. Solomon and David are the “ideal kings” in Chronicles; they are not only the builders of the temple, but they are also the reformers of the religious life of the nation. In this way they were worthy of imitation by subsequent kings.
17:13–14 I will be his Father. The Lord is adopting David’s son as his own son (see Ps 2:7). Therefore, by implication, all subsequent kings, descendants of David, would be God’s sons too. This involves privileges and responsibilities. If David’s descendants continued to be faithful to God, He would never remove His support and blessings as He removed them from Saul. In 28:5 David made it clear that God chose Solomon to be on the throne of Israel. In 17:14 Solomon would be installed in God’s house and in God’s kingdom. Solomon should never think, in his heart, that the kingdom was his and that the throne was inherited from David. Both the kingdom and the throne are ultimately God’s property, and the king is only a nagid “a leader, ruler, chief” under the authority of God. This should not be forgotten.
17:15 This verse indicates that God gave the message in 17:4–14 through a vision (chazon). Thus, it was a divine revelation.
17:16–27 David’s response to God is found in these verses. David probably entered the tent where the ark was placed. This is the first instance of the word “king” (melek) used with reference to David. In his prayer, David humbles himself before God; he exalts God as the redeemer of Israel (17:21). Notice that David does not mention in his prayer the temple he was planning to build, but he gives emphasis to the plan God had to build a house, a dynasty for him (17:24–25).

DAVID’S VICTORIES OVER HIS ENEMIES (18:1–17)
1 CHR 18:1–17 NKJV
1 After this it came to pass that David attacked the Philistines, subdued them, and took Gath and its towns from the hand of the Philistines.
2 Then he defeated Moab, and the Moabites became David’s servants, and brought tribute.
3 And David defeated Hadadezer king of Zobah as far as Hamath, as he went to establish his power by the River Euphrates.
4 David took from him one thousand chariots, seven thousand horsemen, and twenty thousand foot soldiers. Also David hamstrung all the chariot horses, except that he spared enough of them for one hundred chariots.
5 When the Syrians of Damascus came to help Hadadezer king of Zobah, David killed twenty–two thousand of the Syrians.
6 Then David put garrisons in Syria of Damascus; and the Syrians became David’s servants, and brought tribute. So the LORD preserved David wherever he went.
7 And David took the shields of gold that were on the servants of Hadadezer, and brought them to Jerusalem.
8 Also from Tibhath and from Chun, cities of Hadadezer, David brought a large amount of bronze, with which Solomon made the bronze Sea, the pillars, and the articles of bronze.
9 Now when Tou king of Hamath heard that David had defeated all the army of Hadadezer king of Zobah,
10 he sent Hadoram his son to King David, to greet him and bless him, because he had fought against Hadadezer and defeated him (for Hadadezer had been at war with Tou); and Hadoram brought with him all kinds of articles of gold, silver, and bronze.
11 King David also dedicated these to the LORD, along with the silver and gold that he had brought from all these nations—from Edom, from Moab, from the people of Ammon, from the Philistines, and from Amalek.
12 Moreover Abishai the son of Zeruiah killed eighteen thousand Edomites in the Valley of Salt. 13 He also put garrisons in Edom, and all the Edomites became David’s servants. And the LORD preserved David wherever he went.
14 So David reigned over all Israel, and administered judgment and justice to all his people. 15 Joab the son of Zeruiah was over the army; Jehoshaphat the son of Ahilud was recorder; 16 Zadok the son of Ahitub and Abimelech the son of Abiathar were the priests; Shavsha was the scribe;
17 Benaiah the son of Jehoiada was over the Cherethites and the Pelethites; and David’s sons were chief ministers at the king’s side.

1 CHR 18:1–17 ESV
1 After this David defeated the Philistines and subdued them, and he took Gath and its villages out of the hand of the Philistines.
2 And he defeated Moab, and the Moabites became servants to David and brought tribute.
3 David also defeated Hadadezer king of Zobah–Hamath, as he went to set up his monument at the river Euphrates.
4 And David took from him 1,000 chariots, 7,000 horsemen, and 20,000 foot soldiers. And David hamstrung all the chariot horses, but left enough for 100 chariots.
5 And when the Syrians of Damascus came to help Hadadezer king of Zobah, David struck down 22,000 men of the Syrians.
6 Then David put garrisons in Syria of Damascus, and the Syrians became servants to David and brought tribute. And the LORD gave victory to David wherever he went.
7 And David took the shields of gold that were carried by the servants of Hadadezer and brought them to Jerusalem.
8 And from Tibhath and from Cun, cities of Hadadezer, David took a large amount of bronze. With it Solomon made the bronze sea and the pillars and the vessels of bronze.
9 When Tou king of Hamath heard that David had defeated the whole army of Hadadezer, king of Zobah,
10 he sent his son Hadoram to King David, to ask about his health and to bless him because he had fought against Hadadezer and defeated him; for Hadadezer had often been at war with Tou. And he sent all sorts of articles of gold, of silver, and of bronze.
11 These also King David dedicated to the LORD, together with the silver and gold that he had carried off from all the nations, from Edom, Moab, the Ammonites, the Philistines, and Amalek.
12 And Abishai, the son of Zeruiah, killed 18,000 Edomites in the Valley of Salt.
13 Then he put garrisons in Edom, and all the Edomites became David’s servants. And the LORD gave victory to David wherever he went.
14 So David reigned over all Israel, and he administered justice and equity to all his people. 15 And Joab the son of Zeruiah was over the army; and Jehoshaphat the son of Ahilud was recorder;
16 and Zadok the son of Ahitub and Ahimelech the son of Abiathar were priests; and Shavsha was secretary;
17 and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada was over the Cherethites and the Pelethites; and David’s sons were the chief officials in the service of the king.

The victories of David are listed in chapter 18 as an indication of God’s blessing upon His kingdom. He fought against the Philistines, Moabites, Hadadezer of Zobah, the Arameans, Edomites, Ammonites, and Amalekites. Notice that he set aside all the gold and precious metals for the temple. They were not used to exalt himself, but God. The Chronicler omitted several events found in 2 Samuel 9–20 and 1 Kings 1–2 that were considered irrelevant for the purpose of his narrative.
18:1–6 The verb “to defeat” (nakah) occurs eleven times in chapters 18–20, bringing to the mind of the reader the words that God would be with David (17:8, 10; 20:4). David subdued Gath; he defeated Moab and Hadadezer. David set up a “monument” (yad) on the Euphrates River, indicating that his influence reached up to this natural border with the Arameans. David hamstrung most of the horses he captured following the instruction of Deuteronomy 17:16 (see 18:4). These animals were used for war and for the display of pride. Therefore, they were made useless for that purpose. God was always to be the source of David’s accomplishments (18:6).
18:7–8 David set aside the spoils of metals obtained in the war for the temple (18:8). In this way the Chronicler shows how David made preparations to build the temple.
18:9–13 The king Tou mentioned here is of uncertain origin. His name seems to be of Hurrian descent. Tou made an alliance with David by sending his own son to congratulate David on his victory.
All the utensils David could gather were dedicated to God (18:10–11). Abishai (18:12), Joab (18:15), and Asahel (2:16) were the sons of David’s sister Zeruiah. They served in David’s army. Again, it is mentioned that God was the source of David’s victories (18:13c).
18:14–17 Here is found a list of David’s officials who served in various positions. Joab became general in the army by helping to conquer Jerusalem (11:6). The Cherethites and Pelethites supported Solomon during Adonijah’s attempt to usurp the throne. In 1 Samuel 30:14 it is wrtten that there was a group called the Cherethites living close by Ziklag; they probably joined David’s army. The sons of David had some official positions in the government. But the text does not mention which of his sons mentioned here worked in David’s government.
God was the source of victory for His people. The resources obtained from God’s blessing were returned as assets to His temple and worship. Nothing was used for personal prosperity.

GOD FULFILLS HIS PROMISE OF PROSPERITY TO DAVID (19:1–20:1–2)
1 CHR 19:1–20:1–2 NKJV
1 It happened after this that Nahash the king of the people of Ammon died, and his son reigned in his place.
2 Then David said, “I will show kindness to Hanun the son of Nahash, because his father showed kindness to me.” So David sent messengers to comfort him concerning his father. And David’s servants came to Hanun in the land of the people of Ammon to comfort him.
3 And the princes of the people of Ammon said to Hanun, “Do you think that David really honors your father because he has sent comforters to you? Did his servants not come to you to search and to overthrow and to spy out the land?”
4 Therefore Hanun took David’s servants, shaved them, and cut off their garments in the middle, at their buttocks, and sent them away.
5 Then some went and told David about the men; and he sent to meet them, because the men were greatly ashamed. And the king said, “Wait at Jericho until your beards have grown, and then return.”
6 When the people of Ammon saw that they had made themselves repulsive to David, Hanun and the people of Ammon sent a thousand talents of silver to hire for themselves chariots and horsemen from Mesopotamia, from Syrian Maacah, and from Zobah.
7 So they hired for themselves thirty–two thousand chariots, with the king of Maacah and his people, who came and encamped before Medeba. Also the people of Ammon gathered together from their cities, and came to battle.
8 Now when David heard of it, he sent Joab and all the army of the mighty men.
9 Then the people of Ammon came out and put themselves in battle array before the gate of the city, and the kings who had come were by themselves in the field.
10 When Joab saw that the battle line was against him before and behind, he chose some of Israel’s best, and put them in battle array against the Syrians.
11 And the rest of the people he put under the command of Abishai his brother, and they set themselves in battle array against the people of Ammon.
12 Then he said, “If the Syrians are too strong for me, then you shall help me; but if the people of Ammon are too strong for you, then I will help you.
13 Be of good courage, and let us be strong for our people and for the cities of our God. And may the LORD do what is good in His sight.”
14 So Joab and the people who were with him drew near for the battle against the Syrians, and they fled before him.
15 When the people of Ammon saw that the Syrians were fleeing, they also fled before Abishai his brother, and entered the city. So Joab went to Jerusalem.
16 Now when the Syrians saw that they had been defeated by Israel, they sent messengers and brought the Syrians who were beyond the River, and Shophach the commander of Hadadezer’s army went before them.
17 When it was told David, he gathered all Israel, crossed over the Jordan and came upon them, and set up in battle array against them. So when David had set up in battle array against the Syrians, they fought with him.
18 Then the Syrians fled before Israel; and David killed seven thousand charioteers and forty thousand foot soldiers of the Syrians, and killed Shophach the commander of the army.
19 And when the servants of Hadadezer saw that they were defeated by Israel, they made peace with David and became his servants. So the Syrians were not willing to help the people of Ammon anymore.
20:1 It happened in the spring of the year, at the time kings go out to battle, that Joab led out the armed forces and ravaged the country of the people of Ammon, and came and besieged Rabbah. But David stayed at Jerusalem. And Joab defeated Rabbah and overthrew it.
2 Then David took their king’s crown from his head, and found it to weigh a talent of gold, and there were precious stones in it. And it was set on David’s head. Also he brought out the spoil of the city in great abundance.

1 CHR 19:1–20:1–2 ESV
1 Now after this Nahash the king of the Ammonites died, and his son reigned in his place.
2 And David said, “I will deal kindly with Hanun the son of Nahash, for his father dealt kindly with me.” So David sent messengers to console him concerning his father. And David's servants came to the land of the Ammonites to Hanun to console him.
3 But the princes of the Ammonites said to Hanun, “Do you think, because David has sent comforters to you, that he is honoring your father? Have not his servants come to you to search and to overthrow and to spy out the land?”
4 So Hanun took David's servants and shaved them and cut off their garments in the middle, at their hips, and sent them away;
5 and they departed. When David was told concerning the men, he sent messengers to meet them, for the men were greatly ashamed. And the king said, “Remain at Jericho until your beards have grown and then return.”
6 When the Ammonites saw that they had become a stench to David, Hanun and the Ammonites sent 1,000 talents of silver to hire chariots and horsemen from Mesopotamia, from Aram-maacah, and from Zobah.
7 They hired 32,000 chariots and the king of Maacah with his army, who came and encamped before Medeba. And the Ammonites were mustered from their cities and came to battle.
8 When David heard of it, he sent Joab and all the army of the mighty men.
9 And the Ammonites came out and drew up in battle array at the entrance of the city, and the kings who had come were by themselves in the open country.

10 When Joab saw that the battle was set against him both in front and in the rear, he chose some of the best men of Israel and arrayed them against the Syrians.
11 The rest of his men he put in the charge of Abishai his brother, and they were arrayed against the Ammonites.
12 And he said, “If the Syrians are too strong for me, then you shall help me, but if the Ammonites are too strong for you, then I will help you.
13 Be strong, and let us use our strength for our people and for the cities of our God, and may the LORD do what seems good to him.”
14 So Joab and the people who were with him drew near before the Syrians for battle, and they fled before him.
15 And when the Ammonites saw that the Syrians fled, they likewise fled before Abishai, Joab's brother, and entered the city. Then Joab came to Jerusalem.
16 But when the Syrians saw that they had been defeated by Israel, they sent messengers and brought out the Syrians who were beyond the Euphrates, with Shophach the commander of the army of Hadadezer at their head.
17 And when it was told to David, he gathered all Israel together and crossed the Jordan and came to them and drew up his forces against them. And when David set the battle in array against the Syrians, they fought with him.
18 And the Syrians fled before Israel, and David killed of the Syrians the men of 7,000 chariots and 40,000 foot soldiers, and put to death also Shophach the commander of their army.
19 And when the servants of Hadadezer saw that they had been defeated by Israel, they made peace with David and became subject to him. So the Syrians were not willing to save the Ammonites anymore.
20:1 In the spring of the year, the time when kings go out to battle, Joab led out the army and ravaged the country of the Ammonites and came and besieged Rabbah. But David remained at Jerusalem. And Joab struck down Rabbah and overthrew it.
2 And David took the crown of their king from his head. He found that it weighed a talent of gold, and in it was a precious stone. And it was placed on David’s head. And he brought out the spoil of the city, a very great amount.

This section demonstrates how David prospered because of his faithfulness to God’s covenant. He had brought the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem and organized the musicians to officiate before the ark and the altar of sacrifice. Therefore, God fulfilled His promise of protection against his enemies (17:10). David’s victories were a confirmation that his monarchy was chosen by God. Finally, Joab destroyed Rabbah, the Ammonite capital, and David took the crown of the god Milcon. Notice however, that the Chronicler omits David’s adultery with Bathsheba and the subsequent murder of Uriah.
19:1–5 In 1 Samuel 11:1–11 the king Nahash of the Ammonites attacked the city of Jabesh Gilead. Saul went to their rescue. This event is not mentioned in Chronicles. Nahash probably became one of David’s allies. Nahash died, and David wanted to demonstrate his friendship toward the Ammonites as a token of gratitude for the help he had received several years earlier from one of Nahash’s sons, Shobi (see 2 Sam 17:27–29).
Hanun, however, seemed to be incompetent, did not take advantage of this former alliance, and was drawn into a situation of which he never could have dreamed. Hanun shaved the beards and cut the garments of David’s ambassadors (19:4). This was a shameful act that implied humiliation of the worst kind (Isa 47:2–3; Nah 3:5) in the ANE culture.
19:6–9 The Ammonites were afraid of David, and they hired the Arameans to fight with them against him. Hanun paid one thousand talents of silver to hire them. This was an expensive deal. Remember that Amaziah paid one hundred talents of silver to hire one hundred thousand men to assist him in his military campaign (2 Chr 25:6).
The enormous number of chariots indicates the might of this coming army. Perhaps, due to the shortness of time, no number is given for the Israelite army, for Joab had to muster his army in a hurry. One thing was sure—the Israelites were outnumbered and poorly equipped, regarding weapons of war. Their only chance to win was to depend on God’s promises (see 17:10).
19:10–15 Joab, though, made his strategic battle plan—the victory would be given to God (19:13c). Joab gives two reasons to be brave in the approaching battle. The first was on behalf of the people, and the second applied to the cities of God (see Josh 1:6–9; 1 Chr 11:10 for a similar exhortation). As the battle began, neither strategic alternative Joab had devised was needed for God delivered them before any action was taken by the Israelite army (19:14).
19:16–19 The Arameans did not give up easily. They hired more soldiers from beyond the river to join them. According to 2 Samuel 10:16, Hadadezer sent more troops to support his ally. The commander of Hadadezer’s army was Shophach, which is the same Shobach of 2 Samuel 10:16. This can be explained by a consonant shift from b to p. This linguistic change may happen in Semitic languages. David obtained a decisive victory over the Arameans, and Shobach was killed in battle (see also 2 Sam 10:18). After this terrible defeat, Aram refused to support the Ammonite war campaign (19:19).
20:1–2 At the time kings go out to battle. That was the best weather for this kind of endeavor. Joab led the next battle against the Ammonites while David remained in Jerusalem. The passage of 2 Samuel 11:2 introduces here the immoral relationship of David with Bathsheba. The Chronicler omits this incident. The passage of 2 Samuel 12:27–29 explains how David, though in Jerusalem, went to meet Joab at the end of the battle and then entered the conquered city. He took the crown of the god Milcom as an act of complete victory. The weight of the crown was nearly seventy pounds. This seems to have been a crown used as part of a Milcon shrine but not for daily use by any king of the Ammonites. David destroyed most of the cities of the Ammonites, bringing to an end the threat of this formidable enemy (20:3).
God fulfilled His promise of victory over Israel enemies. Whenever His people trusted in Him, they obtained success in their efforts as a nation (17:10). Success was related to obedience to and trust/faith in God.

 
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ISRAEL’S HEROES (20:3–8)
This short but interesting chapter introduces to the reader three short anecdotes demonstrating the fulfillment of God’s promise (17:10). Three Israelite heroes fight with three Philistine heroes. David’s soldiers, with the help of the Lord, of course, accomplished the victory.

1 CHR 20:3–8 NKJV
3 And he brought out the people who were in it, and put them to work with saws, with iron picks, and with axes. So David did to all the cities of the people of Ammon. Then David and all the people returned to Jerusalem.
4 Now it happened afterward that war broke out at Gezer with the Philistines, at which time Sibbechai the Hushathite killed Sippai, who was one of the sons of the giant. And they were subdued.
5 Again there was war with the Philistines, and Elhanan the son of Jair killed Lahmi the brother of Goliath the Gittite, the shaft of whose spear was like a weaver’s beam.
6 Yet again there was war at Gath, where there was a man of great stature, with twenty–four fingers and toes, six on each hand and six on each foot; and he also was born to the giant.
7 So when he defied Israel, Jonathan the son of Shimea, David’s brother, killed him.
8 These were born to the giant in Gath, and they fell by the hand of David and by the hand of his servants.

1 CHR 20:3–8 ESV
3 And he brought out the people who were in it and set them to labor with saws and iron picks and axes. And thus David did to all the cities of the Ammonites. Then David and all the people returned to Jerusalem.
4 And after this there arose war with the Philistines at Gezer. Then Sibbecai the Hushathite struck down Sippai, who was one of the descendants of the giants, and the Philistines were subdued.
5 And there was again war with the Philistines, and Elhanan the son of Jair struck down Lahmi the brother of Goliath the Gittite, the shaft of whose spear was like a weaver’s beam.
6 And there was again war at Gath, where there was a man of great stature, who had six fingers on each hand and six toes on each foot, twenty-four in number, and he also was descended from the giants.
7 And when he taunted Israel, Jonathan the son of Shimea, David’s brother, struck him down. 8 These were descended from the giants in Gath, and they fell by the hand of David and by the hand of his servants.

20:4 There is a Hushathite in the list of the thirty brave men of David in 2 Samuel 23:27. This same person is named Sibbecai in 11:29. Sibbecai is also placed in charge of the army division for the eighth month (27:1). Rephaim is a term that may be related to the non-Israelite inhabitants of Canaan (Gen 14:5; Deut 2:10–11, 20–21; Josh 12:4). The Philistines were subdued, indicating the fulfillment of 17:10.
20:5 Elhanan the son of Jair killed Lahmi the brother of Goliath. This seems to be a contradiction to 2 Samuel 21:19, where it reads that Elhanan from Bethlehem killed “Goliath the Gittite.” Both readings, however, might be allusions to different events, or perhaps words were missing in Samuel and should be added. The NKJV adds “the brother of” in 2 Samuel, thus harmonizing both passages
20:6–8 Jonathan was a relative of David, and he also killed a giant. David and his forces were depicted together as obtaining victories for Israel, thus fulfilling the promise of victory (see 17:10).
God was with His people as He had been with David. Any person can be a hero with God. David was a champion of faith against a formidable enemy; just so, many others were also heroes after him.

THE CENSUS DAVID ORDERED (21:1–22:1)
This episode has its parallel in 2 Samuel 24. David decided, on his own, without consulting God or his counselors, to make a census of his nation. The reason was probably to know the number of all able-bodied men ready for war, “men who drew the sword” (21:5). The almost sickening desire to know the number of Israel might have been an indication of David’s lack of faith in God and his complete reliance on human strength. David sinned, a plague came, and many people died. In the midst of this chaos God chose the site for the temple as a sign of deliverance for His people.

1 CHR 21:1–22:1 NKJV
1 Now Satan stood up against Israel, and moved David to number Israel.
2 So David said to Joab and to the leaders of the people, “Go, number Israel from Beersheba to Dan, and bring the number of them to me that I may know it.”
3 And Joab answered, “May the LORD make His people a hundred times more than they are. But, my lord the king, are they not all my lord’s servants? Why then does my lord require this thing? Why should he be a cause of guilt in Israel?”
4 Nevertheless the king’s word prevailed against Joab. Therefore Joab departed and went throughout all Israel and came to Jerusalem.
5 Then Joab gave the sum of the number of the people to David. All Israel had one million one hundred thousand men who drew the sword, and Judah had four hundred and seventy thousand men who drew the sword.
6 But he did not count Levi and Benjamin among them, for the king’s word was abominable to Joab.
7 And God was displeased with this thing; therefore He struck Israel.
8 So David said to God, “I have sinned greatly, because I have done this thing; but now, I pray, take away the iniquity of Your servant, for I have done very foolishly.”
9 Then the LORD spoke to Gad, David’s seer, saying,
10 “Go and tell David, saying, ‘Thus says the LORD: “I offer you three things; choose one of them for yourself, that I may do it to you.” ’ ”
11 So Gad came to David and said to him, “Thus says the LORD: ‘Choose for yourself,
12 either three years of famine, or three months to be defeated by your foes with the sword of your enemies overtaking you, or else for three days the sword of the LORD—the plague in the land, with the angel of the LORD destroying throughout all the territory of Israel.’ Now consider what answer I should take back to Him who sent me.”
13 And David said to Gad, “I am in great distress. Please let me fall into the hand of the LORD, for His mercies are very great; but do not let me fall into the hand of man.”
14 So the LORD sent a plague upon Israel, and seventy thousand men of Israel fell.
15 And God sent an angel to Jerusalem to destroy it. As he was destroying, the LORD looked and relented of the disaster, and said to the angel who was destroying, “It is enough; now restrain your hand.” And the angel of the LORD stood by the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite.
16 Then David lifted his eyes and saw the angel of the LORD standing between earth and heaven, having in his hand a drawn sword stretched out over Jerusalem. So David and the elders, clothed in sackcloth, fell on their faces.
17 And David said to God, “Was it not I who commanded the people to be numbered? I am the one who has sinned and done evil indeed; but these sheep, what have they done? Let Your hand, I pray, O LORD my God, be against me and my father’s house, but not against Your people that they should be plagued.”
18 Therefore, the angel of the LORD commanded Gad to say to David that David should go and erect an altar to the LORD on the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite.
19 So David went up at the word of Gad, which he had spoken in the name of the LORD.
20 Now Ornan turned and saw the angel; and his four sons who were with him hid themselves, but Ornan continued threshing wheat.
21 So David came to Ornan, and Ornan looked and saw David. And he went out from the threshing floor, and bowed before David with his face to the ground.
22 Then David said to Ornan, “Grant me the place of this threshing floor, that I may build an altar on it to the LORD. You shall grant it to me at the full price, that the plague may be withdrawn from the people.”
23 But Ornan said to David, “Take it to yourself, and let my lord the king do what is good in his eyes. Look, I also give you the oxen for burnt offerings, the threshing implements for wood, and the wheat for the grain offering; I give it all.”
24 Then King David said to Ornan, “No, but I will surely buy it for the full price, for I will not take what is yours for the LORD, nor offer burnt offerings with that which costs me nothing.”
25 So David gave Ornan six hundred shekels of gold by weight for the place.
26 And David built there an altar to the LORD, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings, and called on the LORD; and He answered him from heaven by fire on the altar of burnt offering.
27 So the LORD commanded the angel, and he returned his sword to its sheath.
28 At that time, when David saw that the LORD had answered him on the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite, he sacrificed there.
29 For the tabernacle of the LORD and the altar of the burnt offering, which Moses had made in the wilderness, were at that time at the high place in Gibeon.
30 But David could not go before it to inquire of God, for he was afraid of the sword of the angel of the LORD.
22:1 Then David said, “This is the house of the LORD God, and this is the altar of burnt offering for Israel.”

1 CHR 21:1–22:1 ESV
1 Then Satan stood against Israel and incited David to number Israel.
2 So David said to Joab and the commanders of the army, “Go, number Israel, from Beersheba to Dan, and bring me a report, that I may know their number.”
3 But Joab said, “May the LORD add to his people a hundred times as many as they are! Are they not, my lord the king, all of them my lord’s servants? Why then should my lord require this? Why should it be a cause of guilt for Israel?”
4 But the king’s word prevailed against Joab. So Joab departed and went throughout all Israel and came back to Jerusalem.
5 And Joab gave the sum of the numbering of the people to David. In all Israel there were 1,100,000 men who drew the sword, and in Judah 470,000 who drew the sword.
6 But he did not ******* Levi and Benjamin in the numbering, for the king’s command was abhorrent to Joab.
7 But God was displeased with this thing, and he struck Israel.
8 And David said to God, “I have sinned greatly in that I have done this thing. But now, please take away the iniquity of your servant, for I have acted very foolishly.”
9 And the LORD spoke to Gad, David’s seer, saying,
10 “Go and say to David, ‘Thus says the LORD, Three things I offer you; choose one of them, that I may do it to you.’ ”
11 So Gad came to David and said to him, “Thus says the LORD, ‘Choose what you will: 12 either three years of famine, or three months of devastation by your foes while the sword of your enemies overtakes you, or else three days of the sword of the LORD, pestilence on the land, with the angel of the LORD destroying throughout all the territory of Israel.’ Now decide what answer I shall return to him who sent me.”
13 Then David said to Gad, “I am in great distress. Let me fall into the hand of the LORD, for his mercy is very great, but do not let me fall into the hand of man.”
14 So the LORD sent a pestilence on Israel, and 70,000 men of Israel fell.
15 And God sent the angel to Jerusalem to destroy it, but as he was about to destroy it, the LORD saw, and he relented from the calamity. And he said to the angel who was working destruction, “It is enough; now stay your hand.” And the angel of the LORD was standing by the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite.
16 And David lifted his eyes and saw the angel of the LORD standing between earth and heaven, and in his hand a drawn sword stretched out over Jerusalem. Then David and the elders, clothed in sackcloth, fell upon their faces.
17 And David said to God, “Was it not I who gave command to number the people? It is I who have sinned and done great evil. But these sheep, what have they done? Please let your hand, O LORD my God, be against me and against my father’s house. But do not let the plague be on your people.”
18 Now the angel of the LORD had commanded Gad to say to David that David should go up and raise an altar to the LORD on the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite.
19 So David went up at Gad’s word, which he had spoken in the name of the LORD.
20 Now Ornan was threshing wheat. He turned and saw the angel, and his four sons who were with him hid themselves.
21 As David came to Ornan, Ornan looked and saw David and went out from the threshing floor and paid homage to David with his face to the ground.
22 And David said to Ornan, “Give me the site of the threshing floor that I may build on it an altar to the LORD—give it to me at its full price—that the plague may be averted from the people.”
23 Then Ornan said to David, “Take it, and let my lord the king do what seems good to him. See, I give the oxen for burnt offerings and the threshing sledges for the wood and the wheat for a grain offering; I give it all.”
24 But King David said to Ornan, “No, but I will buy them for the full price. I will not take for the LORD what is yours, nor offer burnt offerings that cost me nothing.”
25 So David paid Ornan 600 shekels of gold by weight for the site.
26 And David built there an altar to the LORD and presented burnt offerings and peace offerings and called on the LORD, and the LORD answered him with fire from heaven upon the altar of burnt offering.
27 Then the LORD commanded the angel, and he put his sword back into its sheath.
28 At that time, when David saw that the LORD had answered him at the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite, he sacrificed there.
29 For the tabernacle of the LORD, which Moses had made in the wilderness, and the altar of burnt offering were at that time in the high place at Gibeon,
30 but David could not go before it to inquire of God, for he was afraid of the sword of the angel of the LORD.
22:2 Then David said, “Here shall be the house of the LORD God and here the altar of burnt offering for Israel.”

21:1 Notice that Chronicles has an explanation for and not a contradiction with the census described in 2 Samuel 24:1. In Samuel God seems to be the perpetrator, while in Chronicles it is Satan who tempted David to count the men. Observe that Satan is represented as an accuser in Job 1–2 and in Zechariah 3:1–2. In Chronicles, however, he is a tempter. In Chronicles the term “Satan” is found without an article, indicating that it refers to a personal name and not just an unidentified “accuser.” Thus, for the Chronicler there is no doubt that God allowed Satan to tempt David, for David had decided to act independently from God’s will. Here David seems to be lacking faith in God and is relying on human power and numbers. David fails for not consulting God before making a decision. The counting of the people had also been done in Exodus 30:11–16 and Numbers 1 but under God’s advice.
21:2–3 Joab was the commander of David’s army (2:16; 11:6–39; 18:15; 19:8–15; 20:1–2). Joab had to count from Beersheba to Dan. It seems that these were the borders of the land in the days of David (see also 2 Chr 30:5). Joab was not willing to do the task because it seemed to demonstrate a lack of faith in God. The order was more an act of self-confidence than a military strategy. In Genesis 15:5; 22:17, God promised to make Israel more numerous than the stars of heaven. According to Joab, are they not all my lord’s servants? Why then does my lord require this thing? (21:3) For the people were completely on the side of David. David had obtained quite a few victories in chapters 18–20. Now he should have trusted in God that He would deliver him out of the oppression of any king. The problem here seems to be in the purpose and motives for the census rather than in the census itself.
21:5 Joab gave the sum of the number. The term “census/counting” (mepaqed) is in connection with Exodus 30:11–16, where one can find the word paqad “he counted” or “he took a census.” In 2 Samuel 24:9, the number is 800,000 armed men in Israel and 500,000 in Judah (a total of 1,300,000), while in 1 Chronicles 21:5 the number is 1,100,000 in “all Israel” and 470,000 in Judah (a total of 1,570,000).
The differences can be explained based on a comparison of both accounts. First, Joab took several months to finish the census, and he was not able to complete it because of the plague (27:24). Second, Joab did not number the tribes of Levi and Benjamin (21:6). Third, the number in Chronicles with 1,100,000 men of war for “all Israel” is much larger than the one in Samuel with 800,000. Samuel probably did not count the 288,000 men in the special force of David (27:1–15).
In the narrative of Samuel, the term “all” before “Israel” does not appear; therefore, this means that the numbers reflect a partial amount of the total presented in Chronicles. If we add 288,000 to the number 1,300,000 of Samuel, we have 1,588,000, which is a number very close to the one in Chronicles, 1,570,000. The difference can be explained based on the text that says that Joab did not finish his task because of the plague. Therefore, he did not reach the total number of 1,588,000.
21:6 Numbers 1:49; 2:33 state that Levi was excused from any military census. Regarding the tribe of Benjamin, they seem to have been left off the list because Joab did not have time enough to count them (27:24) or because the sanctuary was located in Gibeon, which was in the territory allotted to Benjamin (16:39; 2 Chr 1:3; see Josh 18:25).
21:7 God was displeased with the attitude of David, and thus Israel was struck. An entire community may receive the consequence of an irresponsible decision of its leader. This does not mean that God punished Israel for the sin of David. It implies that David as the king and head of his people set the example to be followed. The census took many days (in 2 Sam 24:8, it took two hundred days) and none except Joab complained about this matter. Thus, the consequence fell upon all.
21:8 David repented of his “sin” (chatta’), and he asked God to take away his “iniquity” (‘aon). These two terms indicate that David was in need of expiation and forgiveness.
21:9–12 I offer you three things. God gives the judgment with three options to be chosen from—famine, fleeing from enemies, and pestilence. It indicates that God forgives, but sometimes retribution is necessary to correct the evil done. God took the opportunity to educate the entire nation. Only God can pass judgment; He is the only one who can read the mind, motives, and intentions of the heart. Therefore, He is the only one who can judge. The main point is that leadership is a role model for good or for bad for the entire community.
21:13 David chose to fall into the hand of the LORD. David trusted that the same God who judges is the one who can deliver and save from any difficult situation. He is the God of mercy and is abounding in love (Joel 2:13).
21:14–15 After killing seventy thousand in Israel, the angel was about to destroy those living in Jerusalem. God then gave the order for the angel to stop, and he stopped by the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite. The passage of 2 Samuel 24:16 reads “Araunah,” whereas 1 Chronicles 21:15 reads Ornan. The reading of Chronicles is similar to the one found in the LXX (Orna). These are just two forms of the same name. One was probably preexilic, and the other postexilic. Remember that in the Hebrew writing system of that time, only the consonants were used. Vowels were not yet employed. Thus, a name could suffer some alteration in vocalization through history. The Jebusites were inhabitants of Canaan since ancient times (Josh 15:63; 18:16; Judg 1:21; 2 Sam 5:6).
21:16–17 David and the elders demonstrated their reverence and penance, according to the tradition of the time, with sackcloth and with falling on their faces. A similar attitude is seen in Numbers 16:22; Joshua 7:6, 10; 1 Kings 21:27; Ezra 10:1; Jonah 3:5. But these sheep, what have they done? As a good leader, David takes full responsibility for his actions and tries to absolve his people, whom he thought were innocent.
21:18 Gad spoke under divine authority. This gives the necessary support for the election of the site for the altar and, consequently, for the future temple.
21:19–21 The four sons of Ornan were hiding because they saw the angel with the sword. The presence of Ornan, a Jebusite, living at that place indicates that not all Canaanites perished. Many were incorporated into Israel. God is the God of mercy, and in Israel’s mission, all nations were to be blessed, including the Canaanites.
21:22–25 David paid six hundred shekels of gold for the entire site, including the threshing floor, the oxen, and the field, while in 2 Samuel 24:24 the price was fifty shekels of silver for only the threshing floor and the oxen, without the field. This event is similar to the transaction of Abraham with the Hittite when he bought the cave of Machpelah. Abraham bought the cave and the field altogether. Here, David obtained both the threshing floor and the field, with a few extra implements, but the price was probably divided into both properties. Notice that Ephron said to Abraham “I give you the field and the cave that is in it” (Gen 23:11).
David would not give God something that was not his. This is why he pays—in order to show that he was the actual owner and not Ornan. David did not want to just pretend to be a good king; he wanted to be transparent with both God and man. The gold he used to buy the threshing floor belonged to the nation; consequently, this transaction included the entire nation as the buyer of that property to be given as an offering to God.
21:26–27 David offered up burnt offerings and peace offerings, as he had done when he brought the ark to the tent in Jerusalem in 16:1. God answered him from heaven by fire as a token of approval and acceptance (see also Lev 9:24; Judg 6:21; 1 Kgs 18:24, 37–38; 2 Chr 7:1). These two instances of fire coming from heaven in 1–2 Chronicles are absent in the books of 1–2 Kings. This brought the plague to an end.
21:28–22:1 He was afraid of the sword of the angel of the LORD. During this episode, David was afraid to worship God in Gibeon and continued to offer sacrifices on the threshing floor of Ornan. Solomon went to Gibeon at least once (2 Chr 1:1–6), and there he offered sacrifices. God chose the threshing floor of Ornan as the site for His temple/house (2 Chr 7:16), using David as His instrument. Thus, David designated that threshing floor as the future site for the temple (see 22:1).
God is the one who chose the place for His dwelling, the place of His altar. But to accomplish this, He used His people and His chosen leader, David. In Chronicles God chose David as king, chose Jerusalem as His city, chose the site for the temple and the altar, and chose Solomon as the builder of the temple. Even though God chooses people to serve Him, each one is responsible for his or her actions, and the consequences of one person’s decisions can be positive or disastrous for the entire community of faith.
The emphasis is on the corporative responsibility in any decision. A leader must consult God and his advisors before taking any step in church administration. The second lesson is that any financial resources of the church should be carefully used for the uplifting of the kingdom of God. Finally, any religious leader should be humble to accept God’s choosing and guidance without complaints.
Two narratives compose this section (10:1–22:1). The first is about David’s enthroning, his conquest of Jerusalem, and his enemies, as well as about the city where the temple would be built (chs. 11–20). The second narrative is about David’s census and the event in which he buys the threshing floor of Ornan—the actual location for the temple (ch. 21). This indicates that God can work with human beings despite their mistakes and errors. If they are willing, God can transform any situation to fit His plans and bring about the expected blessing.

3. DAVID’S PREPARATION FOR THE BUILDING PROJECT
1 CHRONICLES 22:2–29:30

In this section the Chronicler conveys his purpose by means of two or more speeches David made—to Israel as a whole and to Solomon in particular. Here one finds the reasons why David did not build the temple and the choosing of Solomon as king and future builder of God’s house. Instructions are presented so that Solomon might start to execute the plans for a grand project that was never attempted before. The legitimacy of the new authorities David established is found in this text. Nobody can argue about it; David himself had chosen them. In the center, as expected by now, the descendants of Aaron are introduced as the most important group of people to serve before the Lord in the rituals of the temple.

DAVID’S PREPARATION FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE TEMPLE (22:2–19)
David collected the materials for the temple since he was not allowed to build it; he spoke to Solomon to encourage him and to exhort the leaders to support his son in this building project.

1 CHR 22:2–19 NKJV
2 So David commanded to gather the aliens who were in the land of Israel; and he appointed masons to cut hewn stones to build the house of God.
3 And David prepared iron in abundance for the nails of the doors of the gates and for the joints, and bronze in abundance beyond measure,
4 and cedar trees in abundance; for the Sidonians and those from Tyre brought much cedar wood to David.
5 Now David said, “Solomon my son is young and inexperienced, and the house to be built for the LORD must be exceedingly magnificent, famous and glorious throughout all countries. I will now make preparation for it.” So David made abundant preparations before his death.
6 Then he called for his son Solomon, and charged him to build a house for the LORD God of Israel.
7 And David said to Solomon: “My son, as for me, it was in my mind to build a house to the name of the LORD my God;
8 but the word of the LORD came to me, saying, ‘You have shed much blood and have made great wars; you shall not build a house for My name, because you have shed much blood on the earth in My sight.
9 Behold, a son shall be born to you, who shall be a man of rest; and I will give him rest from all his enemies all around. His name shall be Solomon, for I will give peace and quietness to Israel in his days.
10 He shall build a house for My name, and he shall be My son, and I will be his Father; and I will establish the throne of his kingdom over Israel forever.’
11 Now, my son, may the LORD be with you; and may you prosper, and build the house of the LORD your God, as He has said to you.
12 Only may the LORD give you wisdom and understanding, and give you charge concerning Israel, that you may keep the law of the LORD your God.
13 Then you will prosper, if you take care to fulfill the statutes and judgments with which the LORD charged Moses concerning Israel. Be strong and of good courage; do not fear nor be dismayed.
14 Indeed I have taken much trouble to prepare for the house of the LORD one hundred thousand talents of gold and one million talents of silver, and bronze and iron beyond measure, for it is so abundant. I have prepared timber and stone also, and you may add to them.
15 Moreover there are workmen with you in abundance: woodsmen and stonecutters, and all types of skillful men for every kind of work.
16 Of gold and silver and bronze and iron there is no limit. Arise and begin working, and the LORD be with you.”
17 David also commanded all the leaders of Israel to help Solomon his son, saying,
18 “Is not the LORD your God with you? And has He not given you rest on every side? For He has given the inhabitants of the land into my hand, and the land is subdued before the LORD and before His people.
19 Now set your heart and your soul to seek the LORD your God. Therefore arise and build the sanctuary of the LORD God, to bring the ark of the covenant of the LORD and the holy articles of God into the house that is to be built for the name of the LORD.”

1 CHR 22:2–19 ESV
2 David commanded to gather together the resident aliens who were in the land of Israel, and he set stonecutters to prepare dressed stones for building the house of God.
3 David also provided great quantities of iron for nails for the doors of the gates and for clamps, as well as bronze in quantities beyond weighing,
4 and cedar timbers without number, for the Sidonians and Tyrians brought great quantities of cedar to David.
5 For David said, “Solomon my son is young and inexperienced, and the house that is to be built for the LORD must be exceedingly magnificent, of fame and glory throughout all lands. I will therefore make preparation for it.” So David provided materials in great quantity before his death.
6 Then he called for Solomon his son and charged him to build a house for the LORD, the God of Israel.
7 David said to Solomon, “My son, I had it in my heart to build a house to the name of the LORD my God.
8 But the word of the LORD came to me, saying, ‘You have shed much blood and have waged great wars. You shall not build a house to my name, because you have shed so much blood before me on the earth.
9 Behold, a son shall be born to you who shall be a man of rest. I will give him rest from all his surrounding enemies. For his name shall be Solomon, and I will give peace and quiet to Israel in his days.
10 He shall build a house for my name. He shall be my son, and I will be his father, and I will establish his royal throne in Israel forever.’
11 “Now, my son, the LORD be with you, so that you may succeed in building the house of the LORD your God, as he has spoken concerning you.
12 Only, may the LORD grant you discretion and understanding, that when he gives you charge over Israel you may keep the law of the LORD your God.
13 Then you will prosper if you are careful to observe the statutes and the rules that the LORD commanded Moses for Israel. Be strong and courageous. Fear not; do not be dismayed.
14 With great pains I have provided for the house of the LORD 100,000 talents of gold, a million talents of silver, and bronze and iron beyond weighing, for there is so much of it; timber and stone, too, I have provided. To these you must add.
15 You have an abundance of workmen: stonecutters, masons, carpenters, and all kinds of craftsmen without number, skilled in working
16 gold, silver, bronze, and iron. Arise and work! The LORD be with you!”
17 David also commanded all the leaders of Israel to help Solomon his son, saying,
18 “Is not the LORD your God with you? And has he not given you peace on every side? For he has delivered the inhabitants of the land into my hand, and the land is subdued before the LORD and his people.
19 Now set your mind and heart to seek the LORD your God. Arise and build the sanctuary of the LORD God, so that the ark of the covenant of the LORD and the holy vessels of God may be brought into a house built for the name of the LORD.”

22:2–5 Solomon also took a census of the aliens who were residing in Israel for the building project (2 Chr 2:17). It seems that Solomon did not enslave the Israelites but conscripted the Canaanites living in Israel. Some Israelites were summoned for a temporary service or as workers receiving their pay. In Deuteronomy 1:16; 24:17; 27:19 states that the Israelites should treat well the aliens well, and they should be kind to them.
The term masons indicates that there was a large quarrying activity at this time. The term nails indicates that the Israelites had broken the iron monopoly of the Philistines (1 Sam 13:19–22). In addition to the iron nails, Solomon used gold nails in the Most Holy Place (2 Chr 3:9).
Bronze was used to make the molten sea, the two pillars in front of the temple, and the several utensils (18:8). The king of Hamath, Tou, sent bronze as a gift for the temple (18:10). Wood was collected in abundance from Tyre (14:1). Solomon requested more wood later on (2 Chr 2:8–9). David prepared the material because he thought in his heart that his son Solomon was inexperienced or too young (na’ar). This house/temple was to be magnificent/great (lehagdil) to be known among all nations. Even in his last years of life, David was preoccupied with the future of his community of faith, thus preparing everything in his power for the future of God’s people.
22:6–16 The relationship between David and Solomon is paralleled with that of Moses and Joshua. The Chronicler seems to follow a similar account of the installation of Joshua after Moses: (a) “be strong and of good courage,” Joshua 1:9 // 1 Chronicles 22:13; 28:10, 20; (b) the description of the commission in Joshua 1:6 // 1 Chronicles 22:1–10; 28:10, 20; (c) the presence of God with them, Joshua 1:9//1 Chronicles 22:11, 18.
Joshua accomplished the mission that Moses left unfinished as Solomon was supposed to accomplish the mission left to him after the death of his father. David had it in his heart to build the temple. In 22:8 the word of God comes to David; the construction of the temple was God’s idea revealed to David through the prophet Nathan. David was the new Moses preparing for the temple as Moses prepared for the sanctuary in the desert. Solomon was going to be a man of rest (22:9), fulfilling Deuteronomy 12:9–11, where Israel is called to bring sacrifices to God once they had rest in the land. Rest was a sign of the divine promise of conquest of the land (Josh 1:13, 15; 21:44; 22:4). This promise made to Solomon was conditional (28:7, 9).
Then you will prosper (22:13) means that the logical consequence of obedience is prosperity. This can be material, spiritual, or intellectual. The amount of gold was 6,730,000 pounds, or 3,365 metric tons. The amount of silver was 67,300,000 pounds, or 33,000 metric tons. This might sound an exaggeration in our time. But remember that David conquered many nations, and there was no single geopolitical power at that time in that area. Assyria had not yet come into the international arena. Therefore, David had for years collected these precious metals from the booty he obtained from his conquests and from the tribute he received from his vassals. The lesson is that it is never too much to give to God in an attitude of gratitude and praise.
22:17–19 David also commanded … to help Solomon his son. David prepares the leaders to support his successor. Thus, each leader should prepare his coworkers to welcome a newly elected leader to accomplish the mission God wants him or her to accomplish. Here, we see no place for politics, envy, or partiality. All were to be united in one mind and pursuing one goal, with the purpose of bringing the ark of the covenant to its permanent place. Notice that David had already brought the ark to Jerusalem (chs. 13–16). Now, together with the whole company of God, they would finish the mission David had started.
The transition from David to Solomon in 1 Chronicles is peaceful, without any contender to the throne. Such was not the case in 2 Samuel 9–20 and in 1 Kings 1–2. The Chronicler omitted those troublesome events with the purpose of making clear that God is the one who chooses His leaders. Consequently, politics and envy should not exist in any administrative transition. God would take care of the election of the new king when the time arrived.

THE LEVITES’ DUTIES FOR THE FUTURE TEMPLE (23:1–31)
In this section David installs Solomon as king and appoints the duties of the Levites as officers, judges, gatekeepers, and musicians. These duties seem a reflection of the tasks they were performing in the Chronicler’s time since they had no need to carry the ark anymore, which was going to be at rest in the new temple (23:26; 28:2). The Levites could trace their families to their ancestors Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.

23:1–5. GENERAL INFORMATION
1 CHR 23:1–5 NKJV
1 So when David was old and full of days, he made his son Solomon king over Israel.
2 And he gathered together all the leaders of Israel, with the priests and the Levites.
3 Now the Levites were numbered from the age of thirty years and above; and the number of individual males was thirty-eight thousand.
4 Of these, twenty-four thousand were to look after the work of the house of the LORD, six thousand were officers and judges,
5 four thousand were gatekeepers, and four thousand praised the LORD with musical instruments, “which I made,” said David, “for giving praise.”

1 CHR 23:1–5 ESV
1 When David was old and full of days, he made Solomon his son king over Israel.
2 David assembled all the leaders of Israel and the priests and the Levites.
3 The Levites, thirty years old and upward, were numbered, and the total was 38,000 men. 4 “Twenty-four thousand of these,” David said, “shall have charge of the work in the house of the LORD, 6,000 shall be officers and judges,
5 4,000 gatekeepers, and 4,000 shall offer praises to the LORD with the instruments that I have made for praise.”

23:1 Verse 1 anticipates the whole narrative up to chapter 29:22, where David dies. At the same time that David installed Solomon as his successor, he made preparations for the temple services and for the material to be used for its construction.
23:2–5 David gathered the leaders, priests, and the Levites in order to number them for service. In Numbers 3:14–39; 4:1–49, the Levites were counted with the goal of assigning them their duties and services in the sanctuary. The Levites were never to be counted for military service in the event of a war—that was forbidden (Num 1:49–50).
The Levites from the age of thirty years and above (23:3) were to be counted on this occasion, as they were in Numbers 4:35–36, 39–40, 43–44, 47–48; the age for general services in 1 Chronicles was 20, however (see 23:24). A large number of Levites was assigned to work in the house of the Lord—38,000. This seems too large a number when compared with lesser numbers recorded elsewhere; for example, 8,580 in Numbers 4:36, 40, 44, 48, and 22,000 for the Levites a month old or more (Num 3:39). Also, those who came to David at Hebron were 4,600 Levites and 3,700 priests (12:26–27). The large number may indicate a complete counting, while the other smaller numbers could represent only a section according to their age and function. They functioned as officers, judges, gatekeepers, and musicians with the instruments David had made (23:5). The musicians and musical instruments are one of the innovations of David, which, under God’s inspiration (16:42; 2 Chr 7:6; 29:25–27; Neh 12:36; Amos 6:5), were brought into the temple services (2 Chr 7:6; 29:26–27; Neh 12:36).

23:6–11. THE LEVITES’ GENEALOGY
1 CHR 23:6–11 NKJV
6 Also David separated them into divisions among the sons of Levi: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.
7 Of the Gershonites: Laadan and Shimei.
8 The sons of Laadan: the first Jehiel, then Zetham and Joel—three in all.
9 The sons of Shimei: Shelomith, Haziel, and Haran—three in all. These were the heads of the fathers’ houses of Laadan.
10 And the sons of Shimei: Jahath, Zina, Jeush, and Beriah. These were the four sons of Shimei. 11 Jahath was the first and Zizah the second. But Jeush and Beriah did not have many sons; therefore, they were assigned as one father’s house.

1 CHR 23:6–11 ESV
6 And David organized them in divisions corresponding to the sons of Levi: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.
7 The sons of Gershon were Ladan and Shimei.
8 The sons of Ladan: Jehiel the chief, and Zetham, and Joel, three.
9 The sons of Shimei: Shelomoth, Haziel, and Haran, three. These were the heads of the fathers’ houses of Ladan.
10 And the sons of Shimei: Jahath, Zina, and Jeush and Beriah. These four were the sons of Shimei.
11 Jahath was the chief, and Zizah the second; but Jeush and Beriah did not have many sons, therefore they became counted as a single father’s house.

23:7 The first born son of Gershon was Libni and not Laadan, according to Exodus 6:17; Numbers 3:18, 21; 26:58. Laadan may have been the son of Libni, taking his place as the patriarch of his family. Gershon was his grandfather. Therefore, Libni came out of this genealogy, and Laadan was in his place in Chronicles.
(Fig. 31) 23:6–11 Genealogy of the Levites

23:12–20. THE SONS OF KOHATH
1 CHR 23:12–20 NKJV
12 The sons of Kohath: Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel—four in all.
13 The sons of Amram: Aaron and Moses; and Aaron was set apart, he and his sons forever, that he should sanctify the most holy things, to burn incense before the LORD, to minister to Him, and to give the blessing in His name forever.
14 Now the sons of Moses the man of God were reckoned to the tribe of Levi.
15 The sons of Moses were Gershon and Eliezer.
16 Of the sons of Gershon, Shebuel was the first.
17 Of the descendants of Eliezer, Rehabiah was the first. And Eliezer had no other sons, but the sons of Rehabiah were very many.
18 Of the sons of Izhar, Shelomith was the first.
19 Of the sons of Hebron, Jeriah was the first, Amariah the second, Jahaziel the third, and Jekameam the fourth.
20 Of the sons of Uzziel, Michah was the first and Jesshiah the second.

1 CHR 23:12–20 ESV
12 The sons of Kohath: Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel, four.
13 The sons of Amram: Aaron and Moses. Aaron was set apart to dedicate the most holy things, that he and his sons forever should make offerings before the LORD and minister to him and pronounce blessings in his name forever.
14 But the sons of Moses the man of God were named among the tribe of Levi.
15 The sons of Moses: Gershom and Eliezer.
16 The sons of Gershom: Shebuel the chief.
17 The sons of Eliezer: Rehabiah the chief. Eliezer had no other sons, but the sons of Rehabiah were very many.
18 The sons of Izhar: Shelomith the chief.
19 The sons of Hebron: Jeriah the chief, Amariah the second, Jahaziel the third, and Jekameam the fourth.
20 The sons of Uzziel: Micah the chief and Isshiah the second.

23:12–20 The sons of Kohath. The priestly function is presented here in a unique way. In 23:13 the priests were set apart for the most holy things (qodesh qodashim). These holy things are the altar (Exod 29:37), the altar of incense (Exod 30:10), the tabernacle and all its furniture (Exod 30:29), the incense (Exod 30:36), the showbread (Lev 24:9), any of the offerings (Lev 2:3, 10), and the sanctuary itself (Ezek 45:3).
Gershon and Eliezer, in 23:15, are the sons of Moses by his wife Zipporah (see Exod 18:3–4). Notice that in Judges 18:30, Jonathan and his sons had Gershon as their ancestor, and they served as priests for the Danites until the captivity of the northern tribes ca. 722 BC. The name Rehabiah in 23:17 comes from the root “to grow, multiply, increase in number.” He was the son of Eliezer, son of Moses (26:25).
(Fig 32) 23:12–20 Genealogy of Kohath

 
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23:21–24. The Sons of Merari
1 CHR 23:21–24 NKJV
21 The sons of Merari were Mahli and Mushi. The sons of Mahli were Eleazar and Kish.
22 And Eleazar died, and had no sons, but only daughters; and their brethren, the sons of Kish, took them as wives.
23 The sons of Mushi were Mahli, Eder, and Jeremoth—three in all.
24 These were the sons of Levi by their fathers’ houses—the heads of the fathers’ houses as they were counted individually by the number of their names, who did the work for the service of the house of the LORD, from the age of twenty years and above.

1 CHR 23:21–24 ESV

21 The sons of Merari: Mahli and Mushi. The sons of Mahli: Eleazar and Kish.
22 Eleazar died having no sons, but only daughters; their kinsmen, the sons of Kish, married them.
23 The sons of Mushi: Mahli, Eder, and Jeremoth, three.
24 These were the sons of Levi by their fathers’ houses, the heads of fathers’ houses as they were listed according to the number of the names of the individuals from twenty years old and upward who were to do the work for the service of the house of the LORD.

23:22 Eleazar … had no sons, resembling the case of Zelophehad and his daughters (Num 27:3; 1 Chr 24:28). The sons of Mushi are mentioned also in 24:30. In 23:24 the Levites were numbered from age twenty and upward. This is a different number from the one mentioned in 23:3. The difference could be related to the nature of the assignment. Thirty years old seems to be related to the duties directly connected to the supervision of the temple, and twenty years of age to the chores implied after the construction of the temple.

23:25–32. THE LEVITES’ DUTIES
1 CHR 23:25–32 NKJV
25 For David said, “The LORD God of Israel has given rest to His people, that they may dwell in Jerusalem forever”;
26 and also to the Levites, “They shall no longer carry the tabernacle, or any of the articles for its service.”
27 For by the last words of David the Levites were numbered from twenty years old and above; 28 because their duty was to help the sons of Aaron in the service of the house of the LORD, in the courts and in the chambers, in the purifying of all holy things and the work of the service of the house of God,
29 both with the showbread and the fine flour for the grain offering, with the unleavened cakes and what is baked in the pan, with what is mixed and with all kinds of measures and sizes;
30 to stand every morning to thank and praise the LORD, and likewise at evening;
31 and at every presentation of a burnt offering to the LORD on the Sabbaths and on the New Moons and on the set feasts, by number according to the ordinance governing them, regularly before the LORD;
32 and that they should attend to the needs of the tabernacle of meeting, the needs of the holy place, and the needs of the sons of Aaron their brethren in the work of the house of the LORD.

1 CHR 23:25–32 ESV
25 For David said, “The LORD, the God of Israel, has given rest to his people, and he dwells in Jerusalem forever.
26 And so the Levites no longer need to carry the tabernacle or any of the things for its service.” 27 For by the last words of David the sons of Levi were numbered from twenty years old and upward.
28 For their duty was to assist the sons of Aaron for the service of the house of the LORD, having the care of the courts and the chambers, the cleansing of all that is holy, and any work for the service of the house of God.
29 Their duty was also to assist with the showbread, the flour for the grain offering, the wafers of unleavened bread, the baked offering, the offering mixed with oil, and all measures of quantity or size.
30 And they were to stand every morning, thanking and praising the LORD, and likewise at evening,
31 and whenever burnt offerings were offered to the LORD on Sabbaths, new moons, and feast days, according to the number required of them, regularly before the LORD.
32 Thus they were to keep charge of the tent of meeting and the sanctuary, and to attend the sons of Aaron, their brothers, for the service of the house of the LORD.

23:25–27 This section contains a description of the Levites’ duties. In 17:1, 10; 22:9, the rest from wars would be accomplished only in Solomon’s time. In 22:18 David speaks to Solomon, saying, “Is not the LORD your God with you? And has He not given you rest on every side?” The Levites had no need to carry the tabernacle anymore for the ark would be at rest in the temple. Therefore, new duties were assigned to them. The duties of the Levites listed in Numbers 3–4 had no use any longer because of the temple project (Deut 12:10–11). Second Chronicles 35:3 summarizes the duties of the Levites—they were to serve God and the people. Only those who were twenty years or older were counted as participants in the Levites’ duties in the temple (23:27).
23:28 The purifying of all holy things probably means, according to Klein, that it is a reference to janitorial duties; for example, the daily cleaning of the sanctuary had nothing to do with the ritual of purification. They were responsible for the bread (9:32), for the grain offering (9:29), for the unleavened bread (Exod 29:2, 23), for the baked offering, and for all measures and quantities (Lev 2:5; 6:14; 1 Chr 9:31; Ezek 4:3). This last duty related to measuring might be a reference to honesty in the process of calculating the offerings (Lev 19:35). In 23:30 it is understood that the musicians would remain constantly in the presence of the Lord. The word tamid “continually, daily” implies the constant presence of the Levites at the temple (16:6, 37, 40; 2 Chr 2:3–4; 24:14). Keep in mind that the role of the musicians was not mentioned in the Pentateuch. In Chronicles, however, every time an offering was to be presented to the Lord, the musicians were to be there praising Him (23:31).
23:31 On the Sabbaths, and on the New Moons, and on the set feasts. This makes reference to the daily morning and evening sacrifices (Num 28:11–31; 29:12–38; 2 Chr 2:3–4; 8:13; 31:3) or to the annual religious cycle of solemn feasts. For the instruction on the tent of meeting, see Numbers 18:3–4; for the sons of Aaron, see Numbers 3:7, 18:12; for the instruction about the Holy Place, see Numbers 3:28, 32. The Levites were expected to follow revealed instructions in performing their services; they were not left to their own ideas regarding worship and praise or in regard to the rituals of the sanctuary.
Here, David as the new Moses gives instructions regarding the Levites and priests and their duties and service. They were supposed to follow these instructions in their daily chores and in the daily service in the temple. This chapter supports the sanctity of the Levite ministry. Even after the building of the temple, they were the ones to continue to serve before the Lord.

THE PRIESTLY COURSES (24:1–31)
This section shows David, assisted by Zadok and Ahimelech, casting lots for the twenty-four annual working shifts of the priests. The descendants of Eleazar received sixteen of these shifts, while Ithamar’s descendants received half of that amount. Also, the listing of Levites in 24:20–31 is presented, indicating the importance of the Levites as assistants to the priests’ ministry.

24:1–19. GENERAL INFORMATION: THE REST OF THE LEVITES
1 CHR 24:1–19 NKJV
1 Now these are the divisions of the sons of Aaron. The sons of Aaron were Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.
2 And Nadab and Abihu died before their father, and had no children; therefore, Eleazar and Ithamar ministered as priests.
3 Then David with Zadok of the sons of Eleazar, and Ahimelech of the sons of Ithamar, divided them according to the schedule of their service.
4 There were more leaders found of the sons of Eleazar than of the sons of Ithamar, and thus they were divided. Among the sons of Eleazar were sixteen heads of their fathers’ houses, and eight heads of their fathers’ houses among the sons of Ithamar.
5 Thus they were divided by lot, one group as another, for there were officials of the sanctuary and officials of the house of God, from the sons of Eleazar and from the sons of Ithamar.
6 And the scribe, Shemaiah the son of Nethanel, one of the Levites, wrote them down before the king, the leaders, Zadok the priest, Ahimelech the son of Abiathar, and the heads of the fathers’ houses of the priests and Levites, one father’s house taken for Eleazar and one for Ithamar.
7 Now the first lot fell to Jehoiarib, the second to Jedaiah,
8 the third to Harim, the fourth to Seorim,
9 the fifth to Malchijah, the sixth to Mijamin,
10 the seventh to Hakkoz, the eighth to Abijah,
11 the ninth to Jeshua, the tenth to Shecaniah,
12 the eleventh to Eliashib, the twelfth to Jakim,
13 the thirteenth to Huppah, the fourteenth to Jeshebeab,
14 the fifteenth to Bilgah, the sixteenth to Immer,
15 the seventeenth to Hezir, the eighteenth to Happizzez,
16 the nineteenth to Pethahiah, the twentieth to Jehezekel,
17 the twenty-first to Jachin, the twenty-second to Gamul,
18 the twenty-third to Delaiah, the twenty-fourth to Maaziah.
19 This was the schedule of their service for coming into the house of the LORD according to their ordinance by the hand of Aaron their father, as the LORDGod of Israel had commanded him.

1 CHR 24:1–19 ESV
1 The divisions of the sons of Aaron were these. The sons of Aaron: Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.
2 But Nadab and Abihu died before their father and had no children, so Eleazar and Ithamar became the priests.
3 With the help of Zadok of the sons of Eleazar, and Ahimelech of the sons of Ithamar, David organized them according to the appointed duties in their service.
4 Since more chief men were found among the sons of Eleazar than among the sons of Ithamar, they organized them under sixteen heads of fathers’ houses of the sons of Eleazar, and eight of the sons of Ithamar.
5 They divided them by lot, all alike, for there were sacred officers and officers of God among both the sons of Eleazar and the sons of Ithamar.
6 And the scribe Shemaiah, the son of Nethanel, a Levite, recorded them in the presence of the king and the princes and Zadok the priest and Ahimelech the son of Abiathar and the heads of the fathers’ houses of the priests and of the Levites, one father’s house being chosen for Eleazar and one chosen for Ithamar.
7 The first lot fell to Jehoiarib, the second to Jedaiah,
8 the third to Harim, the fourth to Seorim,
9 the fifth to Malchijah, the sixth to Mijamin,
10 the seventh to Hakkoz, the eighth to Abijah,
11 the ninth to Jeshua, the tenth to Shecaniah,
12 the eleventh to Eliashib, the twelfth to Jakim,
13 the thirteenth to Huppah, the fourteenth to Jeshebeab,
14 the fifteenth to Bilgah, the sixteenth to Immer,
15 the seventeenth to Hezir, the eighteenth to Happizzez,
16 the nineteenth to Pethahiah, the twentieth to Jehezkel,
17 the twenty-first to Jachin, the twenty-second to Gamul,
18 the twenty-third to Delaiah, the twenty-fourth to Maaziah.
19 These had as their appointed duty in their service to come into the house of the LORD according to the procedure established for them by Aaron their father, as the LORD God of Israel had commanded him.

24:1–2 Nadab and Abihu died (Lev 10:2) because they had offered “profane fire” to God (see Lev 10:1; Num 3:4; 26:61). The Chronicler, however, omits any reference to their sin. Since Nadab and Abihu died without a child, their brothers Eleazar and Ithamar became priests in their stead.
24:3 According to the priestly genealogies, Zadok and Eleazar are somehow related (6:3–9, 50–53). The connection, however, between Ahimelech and Ithamar seems to be ambiguous, if not confusing. According to 1 Samuel, Abiathar was the son of Ahimelech (1 Sam 23:6; 30:7), and Ahimelech’s brother was most probably Ahijah. Ahijah was the son of Ahitub, Ichabod’s older brother. Ahitub was the son of Phinehas, and Phinehas was the son of Eli (1 Sam 14:3). Hence, Abiathar was a descendant of Eli.
Abiathar was the only priest who escaped Saul’s slaughter of the priests at Nob (1 Sam 22:20–21), and he and Zadok were priests under David (2 Sam 15:35; 17:15; 1 Chr 15:11; 1 Kgs 4:4). The only exception to the relationship of Abiathar and Ahimelech, as son and father in the book of Samuel, is 2 Samuel 8:17, which has Zadok as the son of Ahitub and Ahimelech as the son of Abiathar. The genealogy of Eli is not plainly outlined in the OT, and any suggestion remains hypothetical. If Ahimelech, the great grandson of Eli (1 Sam 22:9, 11, 20; 14:3), is the same as the one in 1 Chronicles 24:3, then Eli was a descendant of Aaron’s son Ithamar through an unknown relative. According to 1 Samuel and 1 Chronicles, the most probable genealogy of Eli is as follows: Eli had Phinehas, and Phinehas had Ichabod and Ahitub. Ahitub had Ahimelech and Ahijah. Ahimelech had Abiathar.
Fig. 33, Ithamar 24:3
24:4–5 The priests were divided in courses: sixteen for Eleazar’s descendants and eight for Ithamar’s. They divided the courses by lots, thus giving divine authority to the choosing. The casting of lots was recognized as an expression of faith in God, in the process of choosing. God meets people where they are regarding their culture, but no cultural view or practice should ever be made an excuse for sin. The difference in numbers here—eight versus sixteen—indicates the importance God chose for Eleazar’s descendants over his brother Ithamar’s.
24:6 The scribe Shemaiah wrote everything as evidence for any future dispute regarding who had the right as priests. The courses or shifts were chosen, one from Eleazar and one from Ithamar, until the numbers reached a total of twenty–four.
24:7–18 The order of the twenty-four names chosen by lot is listed in these verses as a sure evidence for future generations regarding their legitimate authority and responsibilities as priests.
24:19 Such instructions were given to Aaron: “Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying, ‘Command Aaron and his sons’ ” (Lev 6:8–9). God also spoke to Aaron directly (Exod 4:27; Lev 10:8; Num 18:1, 8, 20). The descriptions of the tasks of the priests are given in 23:28–32; 25:1–6; 26:14–18; 26:30–32; but here in this text the Chronicler does not provide any descriptions of priestly tasks. He only writes of “their appointed duty in their service” (ESV) as a possible reference to what was written in the Pentateuch or to what he had written in previous chapters.

24:20–31. THE REST OF THE LEVITES; THE GENEALOGY OF KOHATH
1 CHR 24:20–31 NKJV
20 And the rest of the sons of Levi: of the sons of Amram, Shubael; of the sons of Shubael, Jehdeiah.
21 Concerning Rehabiah, of the sons of Rehabiah, the first was Isshiah.
22 Of the Izharites, Shelomoth; of the sons of Shelomoth, Jahath.
23 Of the sons of Hebron, Jeriah was the first, Amariah the second, Jahaziel the third, and Jekameam the fourth.
24 Of the sons of Uzziel, Michah; of the sons of Michah, Shamir.
25 The brother of Michah, Isshiah; of the sons of Isshiah, Zechariah.
26 The sons of Merari were Mahli and Mushi; the son of Jaaziah, Beno.
27 The sons of Merari by Jaaziah were Beno, Shoham, Zaccur, and Ibri.
28 Of Mahli: Eleazar, who had no sons.
29 Of Kish: the son of Kish, Jerahmeel.
30 Also the sons of Mushi were Mahli, Eder, and Jerimoth. These were the sons of the Levites according to their fathers’ houses.
31 These also cast lots just as their brothers the sons of Aaron did, in the presence of King David, Zadok, Ahimelech, and the heads of the fathers’ houses of the priests and Levites. The chief fathers did just as their younger brethren.

1 CHR 24:20–31 ESV
20 And of the rest of the sons of Levi: of the sons of Amram, Shubael; of the sons of Shubael, Jehdeiah.
21 Of Rehabiah: of the sons of Rehabiah, Isshiah the chief.
22 Of the Izharites, Shelomoth; of the sons of Shelomoth, Jahath.
23 The sons of Hebron: Jeriah the chief, Amariah the second, Jahaziel the third, Jekameam the fourth.
24 The sons of Uzziel, Micah; of the sons of Micah, Shamir.
25 The brother of Micah, Isshiah; of the sons of Isshiah, Zechariah.
26 The sons of Merari: Mahli and Mushi. The sons of Jaaziah: Beno.
27 The sons of Merari: of Jaaziah, Beno, Shoham, Zaccur, and Ibri.
28 Of Mahli: Eleazar, who had no sons.
29 Of Kish, the sons of Kish: Jerahmeel.
30 The sons of Mushi: Mahli, Eder, and Jerimoth. These were the sons of the Levites according to their fathers’ houses.
31 These also, the head of each father’s house and his younger brother alike, cast lots, just as their brothers the sons of Aaron, in the presence of King David, Zadok, Ahimelech, and the heads of fathers’ houses of the priests and of the Levites.
(Fig. 34) 24:21–23 Genealogy of Merari

24:26–31 In addition to Mahli and Mushi (Exod 6:19; Num 3:20; 1 Chr 6:19), the Chronicler added Jaaziah and then lists three descendants of his, namely, Shoham, Zaccur, and Ibri. In the NKJV the name of Beno appears as Jaaziah’s son, but this name is just the phrase “his son.” Consequently, it should not be considered as a personal name.
The listing of the priests emphasizes their importance in the temple services. The temple could not continue without its most important ministers, the priests. The postexilic community was not to forget this in their experience.

THE LEVITICAL SINGERS (25:1–31)
The first section of this chapter presents a list of twenty-four sons of Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun. They were the leaders of singers that ministered in the temple (25:1–7). The second section is an account of how these leaders were arranged by casting lots into twenty–four courses, or work shifts, for the temple (25:8–31).

1 CHR 25:1–31 NKJV
1 Moreover David and the captains of the army separated for the service some of the sons of Asaph, of Heman, and of Jeduthun, who should prophesy with harps, stringed instruments, and cymbals. And the number of the skilled men performing their service was:
2 Of the sons of Asaph: Zaccur, Joseph, Nethaniah, and Asharelah; the sons of Asaph were under the direction of Asaph, who prophesied according to the order of the king.
3 Of Jeduthun, the sons of Jeduthun: Gedaliah, Zeri, Jeshaiah, Shimei, Hashabiah, and Mattithiah, six, under the direction of their father Jeduthun, who prophesied with a harp to give thanks and to praise the LORD.
4 Of Heman, the sons of Heman: Bukkiah, Mattaniah, Uzziel, Shebuel, Jerimoth, Hananiah, Hanani, Eliathah, Giddalti, Romamti–Ezer, Joshbekashah, Mallothi, Hothir, and Mahazioth. 5 All these were the sons of Heman the king’s seer in the words of God, to exalt his horn. For God gave Heman fourteen sons and three daughters.
6 All these were under the direction of their father for the music in the house of the LORD, with cymbals, stringed instruments, and harps, for the service of the house of God. Asaph, Jeduthun, and Heman were under the authority of the king.
7 So the number of them, with their brethren who were instructed in the songs of the LORD, all who were skillful, was two hundred and eighty-eight.
8 And they cast lots for their duty, the small as well as the great, the teacher with the student.
9 Now the first lot for Asaph came out for Joseph; the second for Gedaliah, him with his brethren and sons, twelve;
10 the third for Zaccur, his sons and his brethren, twelve;
11 the fourth for Jizri, his sons and his brethren, twelve;
12 the fifth for Nethaniah, his sons and his brethren, twelve;
13 the sixth for Bukkiah, his sons and his brethren, twelve;
14 the seventh for Jesharelah, his sons and his brethren, twelve;
15 the eighth for Jeshaiah, his sons and his brethren, twelve;
16 the ninth for Mattaniah, his sons and his brethren, twelve;
17 the tenth for Shimei, his sons and his brethren, twelve;
18 the eleventh for Azarel, his sons and his brethren, twelve;
19 the twelfth for Hashabiah, his sons and his brethren, twelve;
20 the thirteenth for Shubael, his sons and his brethren, twelve;
21 the fourteenth for Mattithiah, his sons and his brethren, twelve;
22 the fifteenth for Jeremoth, his sons and his brethren, twelve;
23 the sixteenth for Hananiah, his sons and his brethren, twelve;
24 the seventeenth for Joshbekashah, his sons and his brethren, twelve;
25 the eighteenth for Hanani, his sons and his brethren, twelve;
26 the nineteenth for Mallothi, his sons and his brethren, twelve;
27 the twentieth for Eliathah, his sons and his brethren, twelve;
28 the twenty-first for Hothir, his sons and his brethren, twelve;
29 the twenty-second for Giddalti, his sons and his brethren, twelve;
30 the twenty-third for Mahazioth, his sons and his brethren, twelve;
31 the twenty-fourth for Romamti-Ezer, his sons and his brethren, twelve.

1 CHR 25:1–31 ESV
1 David and the chiefs of the service also set apart for the service the sons of Asaph, and of Heman, and of Jeduthun, who prophesied with lyres, with harps, and with cymbals. The list of those who did the work and of their duties was:
2 Of the sons of Asaph: Zaccur, Joseph, Nethaniah, and Asharelah, sons of Asaph, under the direction of Asaph, who prophesied under the direction of the king.
3 Of Jeduthun, the sons of Jeduthun: Gedaliah, Zeri, Jeshaiah, Shimei, Hashabiah, and Mattithiah, six, under the direction of their father Jeduthun, who prophesied with the lyre in thanksgiving and praise to the Lord.
4 Of Heman, the sons of Heman: Bukkiah, Mattaniah, Uzziel, Shebuel and Jerimoth, Hananiah, Hanani, Eliathah, Giddalti, and Romamti–ezer, Joshbekashah, Mallothi, Hothir, Mahazioth.
5 All these were the sons of Heman the king’s seer, according to the promise of God to exalt him, for God had given Heman fourteen sons and three daughters.
6 They were all under the direction of their father in the music in the house of the LORD with cymbals, harps, and lyres for the service of the house of God. Asaph, Jeduthun, and Heman were under the order of the king.
7 The number of them along with their brothers, who were trained in singing to the LORD, all who were skillful, was 288.
8 And they cast lots for their duties, small and great, teacher and pupil alike.
9 The first lot fell for Asaph to Joseph; the second to Gedaliah, to him and his brothers and his sons, twelve;
10 the third to Zaccur, his sons and his brothers, twelve;
11 the fourth to Izri, his sons and his brothers, twelve;
12 the fifth to Nethaniah, his sons and his brothers, twelve;
13 the sixth to Bukkiah, his sons and his brothers, twelve;
14 the seventh to Jesharelah, his sons and his brothers, twelve;
15 the eighth to Jeshaiah, his sons and his brothers, twelve;
16 the ninth to Mattaniah, his sons and his brothers, twelve;
17 the tenth to Shimei, his sons and his brothers, twelve;
18 the eleventh to Azarel, his sons and his brothers, twelve;
19 the twelfth to Hashabiah, his sons and his brothers, twelve;
20 to the thirteenth, Shubael, his sons and his brothers, twelve;
21 to the fourteenth, Mattithiah, his sons and his brothers, twelve;
22 to the fifteenth, to Jeremoth, his sons and his brothers, twelve;
23 to the sixteenth, to Hananiah, his sons and his brothers, twelve;
24 to the seventeenth, to Joshbekashah, his sons and his brothers, twelve;
25 to the eighteenth, to Hanani, his sons and his brothers, twelve;
26 to the nineteenth, to Mallothi, his sons and his brothers, twelve;
27 to the twentieth, to Eliathah, his sons and his brothers, twelve;
28 to the twenty-first, to Hothir, his sons and his brothers, twelve;
29 to the twenty-second, to Giddalti, his sons and his brothers, twelve;
30 to the twenty-third, to Mahazioth, his sons and his brothers, twelve;
31 to the twenty-fourth, to Romamti-ezer, his sons and his brothers, twelve.

25:1 The captains of the army (שׂרי הצבא, sare hatsaba’), this phrase does not imply that officers of the regular army were Levites, but that David intended to ******* the majority of his people in the process of leadership and decision-making (26:26; 2 Chr 33:11). The phrase “the leaders of the Levites” occurs in 15:16, where David commands them to appoint singers at the transfer of the ark. David was assisted by two priests, Zadok and Ahimelech (24:1–2), when he appointed the twenty-four priestly courses. This is evidence of the excellent leadership David created by delegating authority and by providing the opportunity for leadership to those who feared God, understood His matters, and worked for the glory of His kingdom on earth.
25:2 Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun (2 Chr 5:12) are the leaders chosen to assist David in the process of choosing and organizing the musicians. Asaph is the central figure, the most important of the three. Jeduthun seems to have been replaced later by Ethan. This replacement is found in the general genealogy (1 Chr 15:19). Heman later becomes more preeminent than Asaph (25:9). Thus, there is no place for envy or politics in acquiring power and position. God is the one who chooses His leaders through His institution.
The sentence, who should prophesy with harps, stringed instruments, and cymbals, emphasizes one of the central functions of the musicians, namely, the prophetic function. Levi was first, the chosen tribe to serve as minister in various ways, including music. Second, they supplied the temple with singers, and third, they had the prophetic gift. The instruments would have an effect on the musicians and on the audience (15:19, 28)—they would prepare the heart and mind during and after the rituals, especially during sacrifices.
Notice that Saul met a group of prophets playing musical instruments and prophesied together with them (1 Sam 10:5–6). Elisha prophesied also, accompanied by instruments (2 Kgs 3:15). King Hezekiah said that musicians should praise God “with the words of David and of Asaph the seer” (2 Chr 29:30). David, Asaph, Heman, Ethan, and Korah wrote many psalms. They were all singers and musicians. Therefore, one can see that music was a ministry called by God, as were the priests and regular Levites. They devoted their lives completely to the service of God. Therefore, they were entitled to receive from the resources of the temple. There was no independent ministry for the musicians aside from their work at the temple—they worked full time for the temple.
25:3 Mattithiah played the lyre in the transferal of the ark to Jerusalem (15:18, 21; 16:5). Jeduthun was replaced by Ethan later in the list of singers (6:29 [MT 44]; 15:17, 19).
These musicians were to prophesy with a harp; they were to give thanks and to praise the Lord. The verbs “to thank” and “to praise” are related to the musicians’ activities (16:4; 23:30; 2 Chr 31:2). The musicians were in charge of the instruments, lyrics, and the singing of sacred songs or hymns (psalms).
25:4 A similar name to Bukkiah (buqqiah) is found in Nehemiah 11:17; 12:9. It is Bakbukiah (baqbuqiah), mentioned with Mattaniah’s associates. He was a gatekeeper guarding storerooms in Nehemiah’s time (Neh 12:25). One may identify Bakbukiah with Bukkiah, but this is just a possibility. Mattaniah is listed as a descendant of Asaph in Nehemiah 11:17, 22. Mattaniah was responsible for the thanksgiving songs.
Hananiah, Hanani, Eliathah, Giddalti, Romamti-Ezer, Joshbekashah, Mallothi, Hothir, and Mahazioth: these nine names have meanings related to the action of praising, which was one of their functions. Hanani was the name of a chief musician in the time of Nehemiah (Neh 12:36). Some have suggested that the combination of these names is a poem. A possible translation of the names as a poem is as follows:

Hananiah, Hanani Yah(weh) has been gracious, gracious to me
Eliathah My God, you are
Giddalti, Romamti-Ezer I have magnified, exalted [you], my helper
Joshbekashah, Mallothi [I have uttered?] my petition
Hothir, Mahaziot He caused visions to continue

These men were Levites; even their names invited others to praise God. In the OT personal names were important to the life experience of their bearers (Gen 32:28; 1 Sam 25:25; Deut 28:58), as will be the case with the saved ones receive a new name (Rev 2:17; 3:12).
25:5 The phrase king’s seer in the words of God implies that the word of god was the foundation of this spiritual leader. It was not the position that gave him knowledge; it was the words of God. No spiritual leadership can succeed without the guidance of God’s words. Chronicles mentions various seers, all of whom are considered prophets, e.g., Gad (21:9; 29:29); Iddo (2 Chr 9:29; 12:15); Hanani (2 Chr 19:2); Asaph (2 Chr 29:30); Jeduthun (2 Chr 35:15); and Heman the king’s seer. Therefore, all three ancestors of the musicians were called “seer” in Chronicles, and all of them were singers and musicians. Their purpose was to exalt God according to His word. To exalt his horn—horn means salvation, deliverance (Ps 148:14).
25:6–7 The singers were under the guidance of their fathers, and their fathers were under the guidance of the king, with the purpose of singing in the temple. This guidance implied instructions regarding music (psalms, lyrics in general) and instruments. Cymbals, harps, and lyres were the same instruments used by David in the transferal of the ark to Jerusalem (15:28). They were instructed in the songs of the LORD, all who were skillful. All musicians, old and young, should have the guidance of those more experienced in this ministry. These mentors should fear God, should love His word, be trained in singing, be skilled in composition, and have a deep understanding of music.
This verse is a reference to the twenty-four working shifts, each with twelve singers, totaling 288 members. Regarding the returnees, Ezra 2:41 gives the number of 128 singers, and Nehemiah 7:44 has 148. This indicates that music and musicians were important throughout the history of God’s people.
25:8 They cast lots for their duty. The casting of lots was believed to allow the guidance of God in their dealing in various situations. This is not a principle still used today, as it was used in the time of the Chronicler, to settle doubts and to make decisions. (This same practice in Acts 1 is found.) Today, we have the entire Bible, where we can find answers to our questions and guidance for our plans (Isa 8:20; Ps 119:105). The small as well as the great. This shows the impartiality of the process of choosing. Young and old alike were allowed to be involved and were purposely chosen to participate in this venture.
The phrase the teacher with the student demonstrates that despite of the level of musical skills among the singers, all were included. The musicians were not to become an exclusive group of people where only the supposed best were invited to sing and play. This was a time and a place of opportunity for worshipping God. Both the most instructed and most knowledgeable ones were to mingle together with the least instructed—this is a great lesson for all generations.
25:9–31 This section presents the result of casting lots. The phrase, his sons and his brethren, twelve, indicates that each shift of the twenty-four would consist of twelve singers. The Mishnah reads concerning the temple musicians that “they played on never less than two harps or more than six,” and “there were never less than nine lyres, and their number could be increased without end; but of cymbals there was but one.” The first lot was for Joseph, one of the sons of Asaph (25:2).
In Chronicles musicians represent an important component of worship. They were organized in shifts, and their schedule and skills were accordingly employed in playing various instruments. Music in worship today is a ministry as sacred as was the ministry of the Levites in the temple.

 
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THE GATEKEEPERS, TREASURERS, OFFICERS, AND JUDGES (26:1–32)
This chapter presents the genealogy of the gatekeepers and their duties. Some Levites were treasurers of the sanctuary, while others were treasurers of things captured in war and dedicated by David and his officials. Over all the treasuries was Shubael, the son of Gershom, the oldest son of Moses. Chenaniah and his associates were officers and judges. The Kohathite Hebronites were overseers over the Israelite territory.
This chapter can be outlined as follows:

1. Divisions of gatekeepers (26:1–19)
a. List of gatekeepers (26:1–11)
b. Assignment of gatekeepers (26:12–19)
2. List of Levitical treasurers, officers, and judges (26:20–32)
a. Treasuries (26:20–28)
b. Officers and judges (26:29–32)

1 CHR 26:1–32 NKJV
1 Concerning the divisions of the gatekeepers: of the Korahites, Meshelemiah the son of Kore, of the sons of Asaph.
2 And the sons of Meshelemiah were Zechariah the firstborn, Jediael the second, Zebadiah the third, Jathniel the fourth,
3 Elam the fifth, Jehohanan the sixth, Eliehoenai the seventh.
4 Moreover the sons of Obed-Edom were Shemaiah the firstborn, Jehozabad the second, Joah the third, Sacar the fourth, Nethanel the fifth,
5 Ammiel the sixth, Issachar the seventh, Peulthai the eighth; for God blessed him.
6 Also to Shemaiah his son were sons born who governed their fathers’ houses, because they were men of great ability.
7 The sons of Shemaiah were Othni, Rephael, Obed, and Elzabad, whose brothers Elihu and Semachiah were able men.
8 All these were of the sons of Obed-Edom, they and their sons and their brethren, able men with strength for the work: sixty-two of Obed-Edom.
9 And Meshelemiah had sons and brethren, eighteen able men.
10 Also Hosah, of the children of Merari, had sons: Shimri the first (for though he was not the firstborn, his father made him the first),
11 Hilkiah the second, Tebaliah the third, Zechariah the fourth; all the sons and brethren of Hosah were thirteen.
12 Among these were the divisions of the gatekeepers, among the chief men, having duties just like their brethren, to serve in the house of the LORD.
13 And they cast lots for each gate, the small as well as the great, according to their father’s house.
14 The lot for the East Gate fell to Shelemiah. Then they cast lots for his son Zechariah, a wise counselor, and his lot came out for the North Gate;
15 to Obed-Edom the South Gate, and to his sons the storehouse.
16 To Shuppim and Hosah the lot came out for the West Gate, with the Shallecheth Gate on the ascending highway—watchman opposite watchman.
17 On the east were six Levites, on the north four each day, on the south four each day, and for the storehouse two by two.
18 As for the Parbar on the west, there were four on the highway and two at the Parbar.
19 These were the divisions of the gatekeepers among the sons of Korah and among the sons of Merari.
20 Of the Levites, Ahijah was over the treasuries of the house of God and over the treasuries of the dedicated things.
21 The sons of Laadan, the descendants of the Gershonites of Laadan, heads of their fathers’ houses, of Laadan the Gershonite: Jehieli.
22 The sons of Jehieli, Zetham and Joel his brother, were over the treasuries of the house of the LORD.
23 Of the Amramites, the Izharites, the Hebronites, and the Uzzielites:
24 Shebuel the son of Gershom, the son of Moses, was overseer of the treasuries.
25 And his brethren by Eliezer were Rehabiah his son, Jeshaiah his son, Joram his son, Zichri his son, and Shelomith his son.
26 This Shelomith and his brethren were over all the treasuries of the dedicated things which King David and the heads of fathers’ houses, the captains over thousands and hundreds, and the captains of the army, had dedicated.
27 Some of the spoils won in battles they dedicated to maintain the house of the LORD.
28 And all that Samuel the seer, Saul the son of Kish, Abner the son of Ner, and Joab the son of Zeruiah had dedicated, every dedicated thing, was under the hand of Shelomith and his brethren.
29 Of the Izharites, Chenaniah and his sons performed duties as officials and judges over Israel outside Jerusalem.
30 Of the Hebronites, Hashabiah and his brethren, one thousand seven hundred able men, had the oversight of Israel on the west side of the Jordan for all the business of the LORD, and in the service of the king.
31 Among the Hebronites, Jerijah was head of the Hebronites according to his genealogy of the fathers. In the fortieth year of the reign of David they were sought, and there were found among them capable men at Jazer of Gilead.
32 And his brethren were two thousand seven hundred able men, heads of fathers’ houses, whom King David made officials over the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half–tribe of Manasseh, for every matter pertaining to God and the affairs of the king.

1 CHR 26:1–32 ESV
1 As for the divisions of the gatekeepers: of the Korahites, Meshelemiah the son of Kore, of the sons of Asaph.
2 And Meshelemiah had sons: Zechariah the firstborn, Jediael the second, Zebadiah the third, Jathniel the fourth,
3 Elam the fifth, Jehohanan the sixth, Eliehoenai the seventh.
4 And Obed-edom had sons: Shemaiah the firstborn, Jehozabad the second, Joah the third, Sachar the fourth, Nethanel the fifth,
5 Ammiel the sixth, Issachar the seventh, Peullethai the eighth, for God blessed him.
6 Also to his son Shemaiah were sons born who were rulers in their fathers’ houses, for they were men of great ability.
7 The sons of Shemaiah: Othni, Rephael, Obed and Elzabad, whose brothers were able men, Elihu and Semachiah.
8 All these were of the sons of Obed-edom with their sons and brothers, able men qualified for the service; sixty–two of Obed-edom.
9 And Meshelemiah had sons and brothers, able men, eighteen.
10 And Hosah, of the sons of Merari, had sons: Shimri the chief (for though he was not the firstborn, his father made him chief),
11 Hilkiah the second, Tebaliah the third, Zechariah the fourth: all the sons and brothers of Hosah were thirteen.
12 These divisions of the gatekeepers, corresponding to their chief men, had duties, just as their brothers did, ministering in the house of the LORD.
13 And they cast lots by fathers’ houses, small and great alike, for their gates.
14 The lot for the east fell to Shelemiah. They cast lots also for his son Zechariah, a shrewd counselor, and his lot came out for the north.
15 Obed-edom’s came out for the south, and to his sons was allotted the gatehouse.
16 For Shuppim and Hosah it came out for the west, at the gate of Shallecheth on the road that goes up. Watch corresponded to watch.
17 On the east there were six each day, on the north four each day, on the south four each day, as well as two and two at the gatehouse.
18 And for the colonnade on the west there were four at the road and two at the colonnade. 19 These were the divisions of the gatekeepers among the Korahites and the sons of Merari.
20 And of the Levites, Ahijah had charge of the treasuries of the house of God and the treasuries of the dedicated gifts.
21 The sons of Ladan, the sons of the Gershonites belonging to Ladan, the heads of the fathers’ houses belonging to Ladan the Gershonite: Jehieli.
22 The sons of Jehieli, Zetham, and Joel his brother, were in charge of the treasuries of the house of the LORD.
23 Of the Amramites, the Izharites, the Hebronites, and the Uzzielites—
24 and Shebuel the son of Gershom, son of Moses, was chief officer in charge of the treasuries. 25 His brothers: from Eliezer were his son Rehabiah, and his son Jeshaiah, and his son Joram, and his son Zichri, and his son Shelomoth.
26 This Shelomoth and his brothers were in charge of all the treasuries of the dedicated gifts that David the king and the heads of the fathers’ houses and the officers of the thousands and the hundreds and the commanders of the army had dedicated.
27 From spoil won in battles they dedicated gifts for the maintenance of the house of the LORD. 28 Also all that Samuel the seer and Saul the son of Kish and Abner the son of Ner and Joab the son of Zeruiah had dedicated—all dedicated gifts were in the care of Shelomoth and his brothers.
29 Of the Izharites, Chenaniah and his sons were appointed to external duties for Israel, as officers and judges.
30 Of the Hebronites, Hashabiah and his brothers, 1,700 men of ability, had the oversight of Israel westward of the Jordan for all the work of the LORD and for the service of the king.
31 Of the Hebronites, Jerijah was chief of the Hebronites of whatever genealogy or fathers’ houses. (In the fortieth year of David’s reign search was made and men of great ability among them were found at Jazer in Gilead.)
32 King David appointed him and his brothers, 2,700 men of ability, heads of fathers’ houses, to have the oversight of the Reubenites, the Gadites and the half–tribe of the Manassites for everything pertaining to God and for the affairs of the king.

26:1–11 Obed-Edom was a Levitical singer (15:21; 16:5) and a gatekeeper (15:18, 24; 16:38). He was in charge of the ark of the covenant (16:38). There is no genealogical connection, however, between Obed-Edom and Levi, but according to this text, he was somehow related to the Korah/Kohath lineage. The ark stayed at his house after the death of Uzzah. In 13:13 and 2 Samuel 6:10–11, Obed-Edom is called the Gittite from Gath. God blessed him. This clause comes from 13:14 and 2 Samuel 6:11. God blessed the house of Obed-Edom because the ark had stayed with him for three months.
26:12–19 This section presents the assignment of gatekeepers to positions to serve in the house of the LORD. The kind of service is not delineated here. They were supposed to be available in their respective shifts to ministry in the sanctuary, and later on in the temple, assisting the priests and the other Levites as they were fulfilling their duties.
They cast lots for each gate (26:14). To be at the gates was a task of the gatekeepers, as their title already indicates. They were probably a kind of guard for the sanctuary and served as inspectors of those who would ingress into the sacred place. Each shift was chosen by the casting of lots. This custom was, as earlier discussed, to show faith in God’s providential will and choosing, without human interference. Keep in mind that they did not yet have the entire biblical revelation as we have now; therefore, God revealed His will using some methods that are not needed or useful today, so this should not serve as an excuse to continue this practice.
And to his sons the storehouse (26:15). This is a reference to the storage spaces located at the gates of the city. It was very common to build stores at the gate to place in them any collected taxes, donations, or gifts for the sanctuary.
26:20–28 This Shelomith and his brethren were over all the treasuries of the dedicated things which King David and the heads of fathers’ houses, the captains over thousands and hundreds, and the captains of the army, had dedicated (26:27). These Levites were treasurers over the financial interests of the sanctuary. To be a treasurer in those days, a person was supposed to be a Levite, a faithful minister of the sanctuary. This was a calling from God and not a secular matter. David had brought a large amount of gold and silver, which he had taken from Hadadezer, to Jerusalem (18:7–8). He also dedicated to Yahweh gifts that had been sent to him from Tou of Hamath, in addition to gold and silver he had taken from the Edomites, Moabites, Ammonites, Philistines, and Amalekites (18:11). David made quite a few donations to the temple (22:14; 29:2). The Chronicler mentions also the gifts of the military officials (see parallel text, 29:6–9; Num 31:48–54; Ezra 8:33–34).
26:29–32 One thousand seven hundred. This number may be related to the officers and judges in 26:29–32. The sum of the 4,400 people mentioned in 26:30–32, plus the 1,700 and the unknown number of Chenaniah and his sons in 26:29 might come close to the 6,000 officers and judges mentioned in 23:4. In the service of the king. This expression and the parallel one found in 26:32, “for everything pertaining to God and for the affairs of the king” (ESV), may indicate the act of collecting taxes for the sanctuary and for the government.
The judges, treasurers, and bureaucratic officials of the kingdom were people God chose for His service and for the service of the kingdom. They feared God and knew their Bible (as it then existed), for they were from among the Levites.

MILITARY DIVISIONS AND OFFICERS (27:1–34)
This section is organized into four small subdivisions. The first lists twelve military divisions, each with 24,000 soldiers (27:1–15). The second lists the chief officers of Israel’s tribes (27:16–24). The third contains the twelve supervisors over the crown’s property (27:25–31). The fourth introduces the seven advisors to the king (27:32–34). This section as a whole seems to have the intention of showing to the postexilic readers how the organization of David’s government was made. It has some parallels to chapter 11.

1 CHR 27:1–34 NKJV
1 And the children of Israel, according to their number, the heads of fathers’ houses, the captains of thousands and hundreds and their officers, served the king in every matter of the military divisions. These divisions came in and went out month by month throughout all the months of the year, each division having twenty-four thousand.
2 Over the first division for the first month was Jashobeam the son of Zabdiel, and in his division were twenty-four thousand;
3 he was of the children of Perez, and the chief of all the captains of the army for the first month. 4 Over the division of the second month was Dodai an Ahohite, and of his division Mikloth also was the leader; in his division were twenty-four thousand.
5 The third captain of the army for the third month was Benaiah, the son of Jehoiada the priest, who was chief; in his division were twenty-four thousand.
6 This was the Benaiah who was mighty among the thirty, and was over the thirty; in his division was Ammizabad his son.
7 The fourth captain for the fourth month was Asahel the brother of Joab, and Zebadiah his son after him; in his division were twenty-four thousand.
8 The fifth captain for the fifth month was Shamhuth the Izrahite; in his division were twenty-four thousand.
9 The sixth captain for the sixth month was Ira the son of Ikkesh the Tekoite; in his division were twenty-four thousand.
10 The seventh captain for the seventh month was Helez the Pelonite, of the children of Ephraim; in his division were twenty-four thousand.
11 The eighth captain for the eighth month was Sibbechai the Hushathite, of the Zarhites; in his division were twenty-four thousand.
12 The ninth captain for the ninth month was Abiezer the Anathothite, of the Benjamites; in his division were twenty-four thousand.
13 The tenth captain for the tenth month was Maharai the Netophathite, of the Zarhites; in his division were twenty-four thousand.
14 The eleventh captain for the eleventh month was Benaiah the Pirathonite, of the children of Ephraim; in his division were twenty-four thousand.
15 The twelfth captain for the twelfth month was Heldai the Netophathite, of Othniel; in his division were twenty-four thousand.
16 Furthermore, over the tribes of Israel: the officer over the Reubenites was Eliezer the son of Zichri; over the Simeonites, Shephatiah the son of Maachah;
17 over the Levites, Hashabiah the son of Kemuel; over the Aaronites, Zadok;
18 over Judah, Elihu, one of David’s brothers; over Issachar, Omri the son of Michael;
19 over Zebulun, Ishmaiah the son of Obadiah; over Naphtali, Jerimoth the son of Azriel; 20 over the children of Ephraim, Hoshea the son of Azaziah; over the half–tribe of Manasseh, Joel the son of Pedaiah;
21 over the half-tribe of Manasseh in Gilead, Iddo the son of Zechariah; over Benjamin, Jaasiel the son of Abner;
22 over Dan, Azarel the son of Jeroham. These were the leaders of the tribes of Israel.
23 But David did not take the number of those twenty years old and under, because the LORD had said He would multiply Israel like the stars of the heavens.
24 Joab the son of Zeruiah began a census, but he did not finish, for wrath came upon Israel because of this census; nor was the number recorded in the account of the chronicles of King David.
25 And Azmaveth the son of Adiel was over the king’s treasuries; and Jehonathan the son of Uzziah was over the storehouses in the field, in the cities, in the villages, and in the fortresses. 26 Ezri the son of Chelub was over those who did the work of the field for tilling the ground. 27 And Shimei the Ramathite was over the vineyards, and Zabdi the Shiphmite was over the produce of the vineyards for the supply of wine.
28 Baal-Hanan the Gederite was over the olive trees and the sycamore trees that were in the lowlands, and Joash was over the store of oil.
29 And Shitrai the Sharonite was over the herds that fed in Sharon, and Shaphat the son of Adlai was over the herds that were in the valleys.
30 Obil the Ishmaelite was over the camels, Jehdeiah the Meronothite was over the donkeys, 31 and Jaziz the Hagrite was over the flocks. All these were the officials over King David’s property.
32 Also Jehonathan, David’s uncle, was a counselor, a wise man, and a scribe; and Jehiel the son of Hachmoni was with the king’s sons.
33 Ahithophel was the king’s counselor, and Hushai the Archite was the king’s companion. 34 After Ahithophel was Jehoiada the son of Benaiah, then Abiathar. And the general of the king’s army was Joab.

1 CHR 27:1–34 ESV
1 This is the number of the people of Israel, the heads of fathers’ houses, the commanders of thousands and hundreds, and their officers who served the king in all matters concerning the divisions that came and went, month after month throughout the year, each division numbering 24,000:
2 Jashobeam the son of Zabdiel was in charge of the first division in the first month; in his division were 24,000.
3 He was a descendant of Perez and was chief of all the commanders. He served for the first month.
4 Dodai the Ahohite was in charge of the division of the second month; in his division were 24,000.
5 The third commander, for the third month, was Benaiah, the son of Jehoiada the chief priest; in his division were 24,000.
6 This is the Benaiah who was a mighty man of the thirty and in command of the thirty; Ammizabad his son was in charge of his division.
7 Asahel the brother of Joab was fourth, for the fourth month, and his son Zebadiah after him; in his division were 24,000.
8 The fifth commander, for the fifth month, was Shamhuth the Izrahite; in his division were 24,000.
9 Sixth, for the sixth month, was Ira, the son of Ikkesh the Tekoite; in his division were 24,000. 10 Seventh, for the seventh month, was Helez the Pelonite, of the sons of Ephraim; in his division were 24,000.
11 Eighth, for the eighth month, was Sibbecai the Hushathite, of the Zerahites; in his division were 24,000.
12 Ninth, for the ninth month, was Abiezer of Anathoth, a Benjaminite; in his division were 24,000.
13 Tenth, for the tenth month, was Maharai of Netophah, of the Zerahites; in his division were 24,000.
14 Eleventh, for the eleventh month, was Benaiah of Pirathon, of the sons of Ephraim; in his division were 24,000.
15 Twelfth, for the twelfth month, was Heldai the Netophathite, of Othniel; in his division were 24,000.
16 Over the tribes of Israel, for the Reubenites, Eliezer the son of Zichri was chief officer; for the Simeonites, Shephatiah the son of Maacah;
17 for Levi, Hashabiah the son of Kemuel; for Aaron, Zadok;
18 for Judah, Elihu, one of David’s brothers; for Issachar, Omri the son of Michael;
19 for Zebulun, Ishmaiah the son of Obadiah; for Naphtali, Jeremoth the son of Azriel;
20 for the Ephraimites, Hoshea the son of Azaziah; for the half-tribe of Manasseh, Joel the son of Pedaiah;
21 for the half-tribe of Manasseh in Gilead, Iddo the son of Zechariah; for Benjamin, Jaasiel the son of Abner;
22 for Dan, Azarel the son of Jeroham. These were the leaders of the tribes of Israel.
23 David did not count those below twenty years of age, for the LORD had promised to make Israel as many as the stars of heaven.
24 Joab the son of Zeruiah began to count, but did not finish. Yet wrath came upon Israel for this, and the number was not entered in the chronicles of King David.
25 Over the king’s treasuries was Azmaveth the son of Adiel; and over the treasuries in the country, in the cities, in the villages, and in the towers, was Jonathan the son of Uzziah;
26 and over those who did the work of the field for tilling the soil was Ezri the son of Chelub; 27 and over the vineyards was Shimei the Ramathite; and over the produce of the vineyards for the wine cellars was Zabdi the Shiphmite.
28 Over the olive and sycamore trees in the Shephelah was Baal-hanan the Gederite; and over the stores of oil was Joash.
29 Over the herds that pastured in Sharon was Shitrai the Sharonite; over the herds in the valleys was Shaphat the son of Adlai.
30 Over the camels was Obil the Ishmaelite; and over the donkeys was Jehdeiah the Meronothite. Over the flocks was Jaziz the Hagrite.
31 All these were stewards of King David’s property.
32 Jonathan, David’s uncle, was a counselor, being a man of understanding and a scribe. He and Jehiel the son of Hachmoni attended the king’s sons.
33 Ahithophel was the king’s counselor, and Hushai the Archite was the king’s friend. 34 Ahithophel was succeeded by Jehoiada the son of Benaiah, and Abiathar. Joab was commander of the king’s army.

27:1–15 Benaiah was an officer in the time of David (27:5) and continued to be an officer in the time of Solomon (2 Sam 8:18; 1 Kgs 1–2). Under Solomon’s order, he executed Joab (1 Kgs 2:33–34). In 11:20–21 Abshai is a military officer, commander of the thirty, but in chapter 27 his position is taken by Benaiah. This might be a possible reference to Abshai’s death by the time of Benaiah’s appointment as officer. In 27:6, Ammizabad, Benaiah’s son, takes his place as officer over the thirty. This is not a reference to his death but to the rise of Benaiah to the place of Joab. In 27:7 Asahel, the brother of Joab, is substituted by his own son Zabadiah. This seems to be an allusion to Asahel’s death at the hands of Abner (2 Sam 2:18–23). Verse 15 is a reference to the clan of Othniel son of Caleb.
27:16–24 The list of the chief officers of the tribes of Israel is introduced using the Hebrew term nagid. This term has several possible translations, depending on its context. It can have the following meanings: “chief officer,” (27:16); “ruler or king” (5:2; 11:2; 17:7; 28:4; 29:22; 2 Chr 6:5; 11:22); “temple official” (9:11; 2 Chr 31:13; 35:8); or “financial officer” (26:14; 2 Chr 31:12). These leaders were called sarai when they were considered together as a group (see 27:22).
The name Elihu could well imply one of the following possibilities: (a) a reference to the eighth son of Jesse (1 Sam 16:1–11); (b) a misspelling of Eliab, brother of David, as the LXX translates it; (c) or just a simple reference to a close relative of David, namely, a person taken from David’s relatives or from Jesse’s clan. Verse 24 refers to the book of the chronicles of King David, with the same name which is used for the entire book of Chronicles (1–2 Chr). This means that events were written down in a book and afterward selected and compiled into the book we now have as 1–2 Chronicles (2 Chr 20:34; 33:18).
27:25–31 Azmaveth was the father of Jeziel and Pelet, two Benjamites who joined David at Hebron (12:3). The tilling of the ground seems to imply the preparation of the soil for planting and probably the care it needed to produce crops according to the annual seasons (27:26). David also had an overseer for the vineyards and wine cellars (27:27), for the sycamore and olive trees, and for the cattle and flocks (27:31). An Ishmaelite is mentioned by name in 27:30—a possible reference to an expert in camel raising. The Ishmaelites were experts in this trade since ancient times (see Gen 37:25). All of these overseers were responsible to keep food and provisions flowing to the royal house, as well as to the families of the officials.
Verse 33 makes reference to Ahitophel. He was a counselor of David (2 Sam 15:12), but later, he defected to Absalom (2 Sam 16:21–33). Hushai remained loyal to David and pretended to be Absalom’s counselor (2 Sam 16:16). The commander of the army was Joab (27:34). Nothing is said about his defection to Adonijah, neither is his death mentioned in Chronicles. Keep in mind that the purpose of Chronicles is to show the centrality of the temple in Israel’s spiritual life. God is not preoccupied only about the spiritual affairs of His people. He also allows a certain degree of autonomy for self-government and self-organization.

THE FINAL SPEECHES OF DAVID (28:1–21)
This chapter presents the final speeches of David to his officials and to Solomon before his death. This is divided into five parts: (a) introduction (28:1); (b) David’s speech to his officials (28:2–8); (c) address to Solomon (28:9–10); (d) plan for the temple (28:11–19); (e) David’s speech of encouragement to Solomon (28:20–21).

1 CHR 28:1–21 NKJV
1 Now David assembled at Jerusalem all the leaders of Israel: the officers of the tribes and the captains of the divisions who served the king, the captains over thousands and captains over hundreds, and the stewards over all the substance and possessions of the king and of his sons, with the officials, the valiant men, and all the mighty men of valor.
2 Then King David rose to his feet and said, “Hear me, my brethren and my people: I had it in my heart to build a house of rest for the ark of the covenant of the LORD, and for the footstool of our God, and had made preparations to build it.
3 But God said to me, ‘You shall not build a house for My name, because you have been a man of war and have shed blood.’
4 However the LORD God of Israel chose me above all the house of my father to be king over Israel forever, for He has chosen Judah to be the ruler. And of the house of Judah, the house of my father, and among the sons of my father, He was pleased with me to make me king over all Israel.
5 And of all my sons (for the LORD has given me many sons) He has chosen my son Solomon to sit on the throne of the kingdom of the LORD over Israel.
6 Now He said to me, ‘It is your son Solomon who shall build My house and My courts; for I have chosen him to be My son, and I will be his Father.
7 Moreover I will establish his kingdom forever, if he is steadfast to observe My commandments and My judgments, as it is this day.’
8 Now therefore, in the sight of all Israel, the assembly of the LORD, and in the hearing of our God, be careful to seek out all the commandments of the LORD your God, that you may possess this good land, and leave it as an inheritance for your children after you forever.
9 “As for you, my son Solomon, know the God of your father, and serve Him with a loyal heart and with a willing mind; for the LORD searches all hearts and understands all the intent of the thoughts. If you seek Him, He will be found by you; but if you forsake Him, He will cast you off forever.
10 Consider now, for the LORD has chosen you to build a house for the sanctuary; be strong, and do it.”
11 Then David gave his son Solomon the plans for the vestibule, its houses, its treasuries, its upper chambers, its inner chambers, and the place of the mercy seat;
12 and the plans for all that he had by the Spirit, of the courts of the house of the LORD, of all the chambers all around, of the treasuries of the house of God, and of the treasuries for the dedicated things;
13 also for the division of the priests and the Levites, for all the work of the service of the house of the LORD, and for all the articles of service in the house of the LORD.
14 He gave gold by weight for things of gold, for all articles used in every kind of service; also silver for all articles of silver by weight, for all articles used in every kind of service;
15 the weight for the lampstands of gold, and their lamps of gold, by weight for each lampstand and its lamps; for the lampstands of silver by weight, for the lampstand and its lamps, according to the use of each lampstand.
16 And by weight he gave gold for the tables of the showbread, for each table, and silver for the tables of silver;
17 also pure gold for the forks, the basins, the pitchers of pure gold, and the golden bowls—he gave gold by weight for every bowl; and for the silver bowls, silver by weight for every bowl; 18 and refined gold by weight for the altar of incense, and for the construction of the chariot, that is, the gold cherubim that spread their wings and overshadowed the ark of the covenant of the LORD.
19 “All this,” said David, “the LORD made me understand in writing, by His hand upon me, all the works of these plans.”
20 And David said to his son Solomon, “Be strong and of good courage, and do it; do not fear nor be dismayed, for the LORD God—my God—will be with you. He will not leave you nor forsake you, until you have finished all the work for the service of the house of the LORD. 21 Here are the divisions of the priests and the Levites for all the service of the house of God; and every willing craftsman will be with you for all manner of workmanship, for every kind of service; also the leaders and all the people will be completely at your command.”

1 CHR 28:1–21 ESV
1 David assembled at Jerusalem all the officials of Israel, the officials of the tribes, the officers of the divisions that served the king, the commanders of thousands, the commanders of hundreds, the stewards of all the property and livestock of the king and his sons, together with the palace officials, the mighty men and all the seasoned warriors.
2 Then King David rose to his feet and said: “Hear me, my brothers and my people. I had it in my heart to build a house of rest for the ark of the covenant of the LORD and for the footstool of our God, and I made preparations for building.
3 But God said to me, ‘You may not build a house for my name, for you are a man of war and have shed blood.’
4 Yet the LORD God of Israel chose me from all my father’s house to be king over Israel forever. For he chose Judah as leader, and in the house of Judah my father’s house, and among my father’s sons he took pleasure in me to make me king over all Israel.
5 And of all my sons (for the LORD has given me many sons) he has chosen Solomon my son to sit on the throne of the kingdom of the LORD over Israel.
6 He said to me, ‘It is Solomon your son who shall build my house and my courts, for I have chosen him to be my son, and I will be his father.
7 I will establish his kingdom forever if he continues strong in keeping my commandments and my rules, as he is today.’
8 Now therefore in the sight of all Israel, the assembly of the LORD, and in the hearing of our God, observe and seek out all the commandments of the LORD your God, that you may possess this good land and leave it for an inheritance to your children after you forever.
9 “And you, Solomon my son, know the God of your father and serve him with a whole heart and with a willing mind, for the LORD searches all hearts and understands every plan and thought. If you seek him, he will be found by you, but if you forsake him, he will cast you off forever.
10 Be careful now, for the LORD has chosen you to build a house for the sanctuary; be strong and do it.”
11 Then David gave Solomon his son the plan of the vestibule of the temple, and of its houses, its treasuries, its upper rooms, and its inner chambers, and of the room for the mercy seat;
12 and the plan of all that he had in mind for the courts of the house of the LORD, all the surrounding chambers, the treasuries of the house of God, and the treasuries for dedicated gifts; 13 for the divisions of the priests and of the Levites, and all the work of the service in the house of the Lord; for all the vessels for the service in the house of the LORD,
14 the weight of gold for all golden vessels for each service, the weight of silver vessels for each service,
15 the weight of the golden lampstands and their lamps, the weight of gold for each lampstand and its lamps, the weight of silver for a lampstand and its lamps, according to the use of each lampstand in the service,
16 the weight of gold for each table for the showbread, the silver for the silver tables,
17 and pure gold for the forks, the basins and the cups; for the golden bowls and the weight of each; for the silver bowls and the weight of each;
18 for the altar of incense made of refined gold, and its weight; also his plan for the golden chariot of the cherubim that spread their wings and covered the ark of the covenant of the LORD. 19 “All this he made clear to me in writing from the hand of the LORD, all the work to be done according to the plan.”
20 Then David said to Solomon his son, “Be strong and courageous and do it. Do not be afraid and do not be dismayed, for the LORD God, even my God, is with you. He will not leave you or forsake you, until all the work for the service of the house of the LORD is finished.
21 And behold the divisions of the priests and the Levites for all the service of the house of God; and with you in all the work will be every willing man who has skill for any kind of service; also the officers and all the people will be wholly at your command.”

28:1 David gathered an assembly (qahal) composed of leaders of the tribes (27:16–22), the leaders of the divisions (27:2–15), the leaders of thousands and of the hundreds (27:1), and those leaders who took care of David’s goods (27:25–31). The Hebrew term for “leader,” in every instance, is sar “leader,” written with the consonant sin. On the other hand, in 2 Kings 25:19 the term sar “eunuchs,” written with samek, indicates an official in charge of a battalion; this term seems to be a generic reference to an official of the court and not to a person who was castrated. Also, many officials of low rank were summoned to be present; the mighty “men of valor” could ******* valiant soldiers.
28:2–8 David had in mind to prepare a house of rest for the ark of the covenant (28:2). The expression house of rest (beit menuchah) seems to be a reference to the resting from wars brought in during Solomon’s government over the land of Israel (22:9; Num 10:33–36). The temple would be the footstool of our God, as in Psalms 99:5; 132:7. David was disqualified as builder, but he was accepted as the organizer of the project and the one responsible for collecting and storing the materials (see also 22:3, 8, 14). Solomon, the man of rest, was the one allowed to build the temple (28:9–13); even his name may imply peace.
In Chronicles Solomon is clearly shown as the chosen one to build the temple, as nowhere else in the Bible. In Chronicles, however, the real King of Israel was God. Therefore, Solomon and David were supposed to sit on the throne of the kingdom of the LORD (28:5). The divine oracle of 28:6 is mentioned in 22:10. Solomon’s kingdom would be established forever under the condition of obedience to God’s commandments (28:7).
In the sight of all Israel (28:8). David made a call for obedience to all the people, including the new king. In the kingdom of Israel, all should be obedient to God’s commandments. This is a parallel to Moses’s speech to Joshua in the sight of the whole congregation (Deut 31:7). They should keep (shamar) His commandments and seek (darash) God. These are two verbs mostly used in a context of worship in the OT (Deut 6:14; 1 Chr 15:13). The condition for possessing and continuing to remain in the land was obedience (28:8).
28:9–10 Know the God of your father points to the true God whom David worshipped. Elijah used this expression, “God of your father,” in his letter to Jehoram (2 Chr 21:12). This expression is not rare in Chronicles (2 Chr 13:18; 20:33). Motives and intentions are important in the service of God. Therefore, Solomon is called to serve Him with a loyal heart and with a willing mind, for God is omniscient. He can read the mind and the motives of the heart (1 Sam 16:7; 1 Chr 29:17; Pss 7:10 [MT 9]; 139:1; Jer 11:20). There is no way to deceive Him. David presents the secret to success: If you seek Him, He will be found by you. This seeking is the same darash—a seeking that implies obedience and willingness to serve Him. This expression is also found in 2 Chronicles 15:2 with reference to King Asa. But if you forsake Him, He will cast you off forever. This was a condition. God’s chosen leaders should always seek Him for guidance and instructions. In 1 Kings 11:4 Solomon’s heart was not always according to God’s will. The Chronicler, however, does not mention the sins of Solomon. His intention was to show the importance of being faithful to God’s covenant of grace and love, which were presented in the rituals of the sanctuary and later in the temple. Solomon was the one chosen to build the temple (miqdash). This term occurs five times in 2 Chronicles (2 Chr 20:8; 26:18; 29:21; 30:8; 36:17).
28:11–19 David gave to Solomon the model or pattern (tabnit, 28:12) that he should follow to build the temple in a similar manner as the pattern God gave to Moses at Sinai (Exod 25:9, 40; 27:8): the plans for all that he had by the Spirit. David is portrayed here as a second Moses who received the pattern from God’s hands (see 28:19). God gave every detail to David (28:19). The expression His hand upon me is a sign of divine inspiration. This expression is common in Ezekiel, the prophet who received the vision of a new temple (Ezek 1:3; 3:14, 22; 8:1; 33:22; 37:1; 40:1). Therefore, the pattern of the temple and its details was not an idea of David’s or Solomon’s—it was God’s idea. In 28:18 the gold was for the chariot, that is, the gold cherubim, thus implying that God’s throne was mobile, as it is depicted later in Ezekiel’s vision (Ezek 1, 10, 43; see also Ps 18:11).
28:20–21 David addresses Solomon with words of encouragement found in several places where induction into an office was mentioned (Deut 1:21; 31:7, 23; Josh 1:6, 9; 8:1; 1 Chr 22:13; 28:10). God would not forsake Solomon; it was a promise to him of His presence. It was God’s plan, therefore, that He would follow through together with His servant Solomon the king. The same is true today. God will be with His servants who are willing to serve Him and follow His instructions. The last verse emphasizes the participation and collaboration of the entire congregation. Solomon was not the only one called to build the temple; all of Israel were to do their part in the process, according to their talents and means.

DAVID’S OFFERINGS, FINAL PRAYER, AND THE ENTHRONEMENT OF SOLOMON (29:1–30)
This chapter can be divided into four parts: (a) the general freewill offerings for the construction of the temple (29:1–9); (b) David offers his final prayer to God (29:10–20); (c) Solomon is crowned king over Israel, together with the anointing of Zadok as the priest (29:21–25); (d) the death of David and a brief account of his reign (29:26–30).

1 CHR 29:1–30 NKJV
1 Furthermore King David said to all the assembly: “My son Solomon, whom alone God has chosen, is young and inexperienced; and the work is great, because the temple is not for man but for the LORD God.
2 Now for the house of my God I have prepared with all my might: gold for things to be made of gold, silver for things of silver, bronze for things of bronze, iron for things of iron, wood for things of wood, onyx stones, stones to be set, glistening stones of various colors, all kinds of precious stones, and marble slabs in abundance.
3 Moreover, because I have set my affection on the house of my God, I have given to the house of my God, over and above all that I have prepared for the holy house, my own special treasure of gold and silver:
4 three thousand talents of gold, of the gold of Ophir, and seven thousand talents of refined silver, to overlay the walls of the houses;
5 the gold for things of gold and the silver for things of silver, and for all kinds of work to be done by the hands of craftsmen. Who then is willing to consecrate himself this day to the LORD?”
6 Then the leaders of the fathers’ houses, leaders of the tribes of Israel, the captains of thousands and of hundreds, with the officers over the king’s work, offered willingly.
7 They gave for the work of the house of God five thousand talents and ten thousand darics of gold, ten thousand talents of silver, eighteen thousand talents of bronze, and one hundred thousand talents of iron.
8 And whoever had precious stones gave them to the treasury of the house of the LORD, into the hand of Jehiel the Gershonite.
9 Then the people rejoiced, for they had offered willingly, because with a loyal heart they had offered willingly to the LORD; and King David also rejoiced greatly.
10 Therefore David blessed the LORD before all the assembly; and David said:
“Blessed are You, LORD God of Israel, our Father, forever and ever.
11 Yours, O LORD, is the greatness,
The power and the glory,
The victory and the majesty;
For all that is in heaven and in earth is Yours;
Yours is the kingdom, O LORD,
And You are exalted as head over all.
12 Both riches and honor come from You,
And You reign over all.
In Your hand is power and might;
In Your hand it is to make great
And to give strength to all.
13 “Now therefore, our God,
We thank You
And praise Your glorious name.
14 But who am I, and who are my people,
That we should be able to offer so willingly as this?
For all things come from You,
And of Your own we have given You.
15 For we are aliens and pilgrims before You,
As were all our fathers;
Our days on earth are as a shadow,
And without hope.
16 “O LORD our God, all this abundance that we have prepared to build You a house for Your holy name is from Your hand, and is all Your own.
17 I know also, my God, that You test the heart and have pleasure in uprightness. As for me, in the uprightness of my heart I have willingly offered all these things; and now with joy I have seen Your people, who are present here to offer willingly to You.
18 O LORD God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, our fathers, keep this forever in the intent of the thoughts of the heart of Your people, and fix their heart toward You.
19 And give my son Solomon a loyal heart to keep Your commandments and Your testimonies and Your statutes, to do all these things, and to build the temple for which I have made provision.”
20 Then David said to all the assembly, “Now bless the LORD your God.” So all the assembly blessed the LORD God of their fathers, and bowed their heads and prostrated themselves before the LORD and the king.
21 And they made sacrifices to the LORD and offered burnt offerings to the LORD on the next day: a thousand bulls, a thousand rams, a thousand lambs, with their drink offerings, and sacrifices in abundance for all Israel.
22 So they ate and drank before the LORD with great gladness on that day. And they made Solomon the son of David king the second time, and anointed him before the LORD to be the leader, and Zadok to be priest.
23 Then Solomon sat on the throne of the LORD as king instead of David his father, and prospered; and all Israel obeyed him.
24 All the leaders and the mighty men, and also all the sons of King David, submitted themselves to King Solomon.
25 So the LORD exalted Solomon exceedingly in the sight of all Israel, and bestowed on him such royal majesty as had not been on any king before him in Israel.
26 Thus David the son of Jesse reigned over all Israel.
27 And the period that he reigned over Israel was forty years; seven years he reigned in Hebron, and thirty–three years he reigned in Jerusalem.
28 So he died in a good old age, full of days and riches and honor; and Solomon his son reigned in his place.
29 Now the acts of King David, first and last, indeed they are written in the book of Samuel the seer, in the book of Nathan the prophet, and in the book of Gad the seer,
30 with all his reign and his might, and the events that happened to him, to Israel, and to all the kingdoms of the lands.

1 CHR 29:1–30 ESV
1 And David the king said to all the assembly, “Solomon my son, whom alone God has chosen, is young and inexperienced, and the work is great, for the palace will not be for man but for the LORD God.
2 So I have provided for the house of my God, so far as I was able, the gold for the things of gold, the silver for the things of silver, and the bronze for the things of bronze, the iron for the things of iron, and wood for the things of wood, besides great quantities of onyx and stones for setting, antimony, colored stones, all sorts of precious stones and marble.
3 Moreover, in addition to all that I have provided for the holy house, I have a treasure of my own of gold and silver, and because of my devotion to the house of my God I give it to the house of my God:
4 3,000 talents of gold, of the gold of Ophir, and 7,000 talents of refined silver, for overlaying the walls of the house,
5 and for all the work to be done by craftsmen, gold for the things of gold and silver for the things of silver. Who then will offer willingly, consecrating himself today to the LORD?”
6 Then the leaders of fathers’ houses made their freewill offerings, as did also the leaders of the tribes, the commanders of thousands and of hundreds, and the officers over the king’s work. 7 They gave for the service of the house of God 5,000 talents and 10,000 darics of gold, 10,000 talents of silver, 18,000 talents of bronze and 100,000 talents of iron.
8 And whoever had precious stones gave them to the treasury of the house of the LORD, in the care of Jehiel the Gershonite.
9 Then the people rejoiced because they had given willingly, for with a whole heart they had offered freely to the LORD. David the king also rejoiced greatly.
10 Therefore David blessed the LORD in the presence of all the assembly. And David said: “Blessed are you, O LORD, the God of Israel our father, forever and ever.
11 Yours, O LORD, is the greatness and the power and the glory and the victory and the majesty, for all that is in the heavens and in the earth is yours. Yours is the kingdom, O LORD, and you are exalted as head above all.
12 Both riches and honor come from you, and you rule over all. In your hand are power and might, and in your hand it is to make great and to give strength to all.
13 And now we thank you, our God, and praise your glorious name.
14 “But who am I, and what is my people, that we should be able thus to offer willingly? For all things come from you, and of your own have we given you.
15 For we are strangers before you and sojourners, as all our fathers were. Our days on the earth are like a shadow, and there is no abiding.
16 O LORD our God, all this abundance that we have provided for building you a house for your holy name comes from your hand and is all your own.
17 I know, my God, that you test the heart and have pleasure in uprightness. In the uprightness of my heart I have freely offered all these things, and now I have seen your people, who are present here, offering freely and joyously to you.
18 O LORD, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, our fathers, keep forever such purposes and thoughts in the hearts of your people, and direct their hearts toward you.
19 Grant to Solomon my son a whole heart that he may keep your commandments, your testimonies, and your statutes, performing all, and that he may build the palace for which I have made provision.”
20 Then David said to all the assembly, “Bless the LORD your God.” And all the assembly blessed the LORD, the God of their fathers, and bowed their heads and paid homage to the LORD and to the king.
21 And they offered sacrifices to the LORD, and on the next day offered burnt offerings to the LORD, 1,000 bulls, 1,000 rams, and 1,000 lambs, with their drink offerings, and sacrifices in abundance for all Israel.
22 And they ate and drank before the LORD on that day with great gladness. And they made Solomon the son of David king the second time, and they anointed him as prince for the LORD, and Zadok as priest.
23 Then Solomon sat on the throne of the LORD as king in place of David his father. And he prospered, and all Israel obeyed him.
24 All the leaders and the mighty men, and also all the sons of King David, pledged their allegiance to King Solomon.
25 And the LORD made Solomon very great in the sight of all Israel and bestowed on him such royal majesty as had not been on any king before him in Israel.
26 Thus David the son of Jesse reigned over all Israel.
27 The time that he reigned over Israel was forty years. He reigned seven years in Hebron and thirty–three years in Jerusalem.
28 Then he died at a good age, full of days, riches, and honor. And Solomon his son reigned in his place.
29 Now the acts of King David, from first to last, are written in the Chronicles of Samuel the seer, and in the Chronicles of Nathan the prophet, and in the Chronicles of Gad the seer,
30 with accounts of all his rule and his might and of the circumstances that came upon him and upon Israel and upon all the kingdoms of the countries.

29:1 Whom alone God has chosen. The interesting term used in the first verse is “one” (‘echad). This term seems to imply the meaning of “alone.” A similar use of this term is found in Deuteronomy 6:4, “God alone,” and in Isaiah 51:2, “I called him alone” (see also 17:21). This indicates a strong emphasis on the election of Solomon as king. No one else was supposed to be king, as is the case in 1 Kings 1–2 where Adonijah tries to take over the kingdom of his father David by force. The term used for temple is birah, which is an Akkadian term for “fortress” or “fortification.” The temple was God’s house (Exod 25:8) and His fortress, from where He would command Israel and guide them. Verse 3 uses the term “holy house” (beit haqodesh).
29:4 Gold of Ophir means pure gold (see Job 28:16; Ps 45:9; Isa 13:12). Later, Solomon himself would trade with Ophir for gold, together with his friend King Hiram (2 Chr 8:18; 9:10). The location of this place is still debatable.
29:5 The Chronicler puts together both the act of giving willingly and the act of consecrating oneself to God. Thus, the act of giving voluntarily is part of the process of consecrating oneself to God. For the one who gives recognizes who is the owner of everything he has (Exod 35:21–36:7; Ezra 1:4, 6).
29:7 The term darics occurs in 29:7. This term was common in the time of king Darius I (522–486 BC). Chronicles was probably written after or around this time (for a similar term, see Ezra 2:69; 8:27; Neh 7:70–72).
29:9 They gave voluntarily with a loyal heart. Notice that David bid Solomon to serve God with a perfect heart (28:9), and he asked God to give to his son such a heart (29:18–19). “Perfect heart” in this context seems to be related to voluntary obedience to God’s command. God can only accept a service of love and obedience; if that is not the real motivation, self–interest might be involved in the service. Thus, selfishness is cherished in disguise, and that must be removed from the heart.
29:10 David offered the prayer before the entire congregation of Israel. He blessed God, in the sense that he recognized that only God is worthy of worship and obedience. The blessing of God in the second person singular is a traditional practice in synagogue services (see Ps 119:12). According to Finkelstein, a layperson should say “Blessed are you” before the name of God, while a priest inside the temple should say only “Blessed” before God’s name.
29:11–13 The doxology of the Lord’s Prayer in Matthew 6:13 seems to be related to this text: The power and the glory … Yours is the kingdom. God is the only one who deserves to be honored with these characteristics because He is all-powerful and glorious, and His eternal kingdom will never end. David also praised His name and gave thanks to him. These are two important elements in an act of praying. We need to praise God, recognizing His superiority, and the act of thanksgiving recognizes Him as the Giver of all things.
29:14–15 For all things come from You, and of Your own we have given You. With these words David indicates that the people were stewards of the material things God had bestowed upon them (1 Cor 4:7; see also 1 Chr 29:16). Nothing belongs to us. Everything is a gift from God. In 29:15 the words, Our days on earth are as a shadow, and without hope, indicate that David had the concept that death seemed to be the end of life and that without God things were hopeless for human beings.
29:17 God is the one who can read and clearly see the intentions of the heart and mind (Pss 7:10 [MT 9]; 11:4–5; 17:3; Prov 17:3; Jer 11:20; 12:3; 17:10; 20:12).
29:18 God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel. The Chronicler has the preference of using Israel instead of Jacob. The latter is used in the rest of the OT with few exceptions. This usage seems to be a reference not only to the patriarch Jacob but to the Israelites. God was the God of Israel’s ancestors as well as the God of all Israelites. The intent of the thoughts emphasizes the inward condition and disposition of the heart toward God (see King Hezekiah in 2 Chr 30:19).
29:19–20 A loyal heart, or “heart of peace,” plays a literary role with the name of Solomon. Both have a reference to “peace” (shalom). The first and most important petition of David was to make Solomon capable of being obedient to God’s law. The second was to make his son able to build the temple. The entire congregation blesses God and—prostrated before the king—recognizes that all of these plans were according to the will of God and that they would support Solomon in this project.
29:21–22 Notice that the amount of sacrifices indicates the consecration of the entire congregation, including the king (see for all Israel, 29:21). They anointed Solomon as God’s prince (nagid, 11:2; 17:7); the word king (melek) is not mentioned. It indicates that the true position of Israel’s king was one of submission to God. The anointing of Zadok at the same time as the king indicates that both would work together in harmony, following the laws of God and recognizing His superior authority.
29:23 In 1 Kings 2:12, Solomon sits on the throne of David, while in Chronicles he sits on the throne of the LORD (29:23). This removes any doubt from the postexilic community regarding politics in the newly formed leadership of the Persian province of Judah. For the Chronicler, God is the one who rules and chooses His leader on earth. Solomon was one and now Cyrus was chosen to be God’s temporary earthly leader (Isa 45:1–4) to accomplish a mission. In the entire book of 1–2 Chronicles there is not a single insinuation of setting a rebellion against the Persian Empire, for God is the ultimate Ruler of His people.
29:24 In Chronicles all the sons of King David submit themselves to Solomon, bringing to the mind of the reader the attempt made by Adonijah, the brother of Solomon (see 1 Kgs 1:28–52), to take over the kingdom.
29:26–30 David the son of Jesse. This phrase brings up the humble origins of David. Therefore, Solomon should always remember that God is the one who leads the way, and any He chooses are allowed to serve Him. David ruled forty years over Israel. In Hebron he ruled seven and a half years, while from Jerusalem he ruled the remainder of the years (2 Sam 5:9). The three prophetic books, by Samuel, Nathan, and Gad, where the acts of David were written, indicate the influence of the prophets over God’s kingdom and the support of the prophetic gift over the preparation of the temple (29:29). First Chronicles ends with a reference to the various sources from which the Chronicler obtained information for his book. These three books were not preserved up to our time. The only reference to their contents is found here in Chronicles.
Israel could only succeed in spiritual as well as material affairs by acting together in purpose and in truth. They were to cooperate in giving and in consecrating themselves for God’s service. Regarding leadership, God was the one who chose His leaders. The kingdom belongs to God, and He is the One who has the right to set a ruler over His possessions.
We should not forget that God is the same today as He was from the beginning. His people should follow Him based on love and should trust that He will guide His people with wisdom through all human historical events. Therefore, our duty is to obey Him and give what is necessary for the upbuilding of His kingdom on earth. Simply no place exists for human genius to improve God’s plan. All should cooperate, and if there is a problem, God will solve it—He is the King of His kingdom in heaven and on earth.
The focus of this section was on the person of King Solomon. He was the one to build the temple. He was the one chosen by God. The promise made to David confirming his forever reign was going to be fulfilled, starting with Solomon (17:11–12). Therefore, the Chronicler had the intention not only of showing the peaceful transition from David to Solomon but also of demonstrating that there were no feelings of hatred or revenge on the part of David or Solomon against other tribes or any particular person. That is not the case in 1 Kings 2:1–12, where David asks Solomon to deal with quite a few people who were against David. Both narratives are correct; each author had a different goal for choosing historical elements to accomplish their theological goal under the inspiration of God.
God was in control of history. He prepared His leaders for a mission. Imperfect though they were, God chose them to serve Him to the best of their ability, following His instructions and guidance regarding the way they should lead God’s people.

 
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Old 09-10-2020, 09:57 AM   #13
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sorry i missed the footnotes:

. James M. Street, The Significance of the Ark Narrative: Literary Formation and Artistry in the Book of Chronicles, StBibLit 129 (New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2009), 129. According to Street, “The fear of the Lord is utilized by the Chronicler to address the largest theological problem within the narrative, the death of Uzzah. Uzzah’s well-intended but misdirected protection of the ark makes it completely clear that Yahweh’s holiness is not to be approached as commonly as one would approach menial tasks. The role of the priests and Levites is extremely crucial because they kept the cultic objects and come into close contact with the objects that have been set apart for the worship of Yahweh. In order not to provoke Yahweh to anger, David took measures to ensure that proper observations of cultic activities were in compliance with Mosaic standards.”
. The NKJV translates as “musical instruments of God,” but a better translation based on the Hebrew text would be: “instruments for the divine song/songs.”
. According to Kleinig, “The cymbals were not used by the precentor to conduct the singing by beating out the rhythm of the song, but rather to announce the beginning of the song or stanza in the song.” Kleinig, The Lord’s Song, 82.
. Ellen G. White writes that “the music and dancing in joyful praise to God at the removal of the ark had not the faintest resemblance to the dissipation of modern dancing.” White, PP 707. See also E. B. Johnston, “Dance; Dancer,” in ISBE, ed., Geoffrey W. Bromiley (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1979–1988), 856–58.
. The following excerpt was taken from: Emil G. Hirsch, Solomon Schechter, and H. G. Enelow, “Dancing,” in JE, 1906 ed. http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/4869-dancing.

The Talmud also contains traditions concerning the joyful manner in which the two national holidays, the 15th of Ab (the Feast of Wood-Offering, or “Xylophoriæ,” as Josephus calls it) and the Day of Atonement, were celebrated … On those days the maidens of Israel were in the habit of going forth to the vineyards, each clad in well-washed white, and joining in the choral dances … The young men came and looked on, while the dancers sang appropriate songs. It would seem that brides were oftentimes chosen at these gatherings (Ta’an. 30b). Similarly, there is a Talmudic tradition that “whoever has not witnessed the joy of the Festival of Water-Drawing has seen no joy in his life.” On those occasions, on the night of the first day of the Feast of Tabernacles, huge assemblies of people gathered in the women’s court of the Temple, bearing lamps of gold and vessels for water, while every house in Jerusalem was brightly illuminated. “Pious men and men of affairs,” adds the tradition, “danced with torches in their hands, singing songs of joy and of praise, and the Levites made music with lyre and harp and cymbals and trumpets and countless other instruments” (Suk. 51a; Maimonides, “Yad,” Lulab, viii. 12, 13). Two galleries were built for the spectators, one for men and one for women. The celebration lasted all night and ended at dawn, announced by blasts of trumpets, with the pouring of water upon the altar.
It will be seen that dancing among the Jews preserved its primitive character: a spontaneous expression of joy rather than an esthetic pleasure. In both ancient and medieval times, therefore, it consisted of “gesticulations, violent leaps and bounds, hopping in a circle, rather than graceful pose, and soft, rhythmic movements.” The popularity of the amusement in the Middle Ages is attested by the spread of the dancing-hall, or “Tanzhaus,” which, for the use of both weddings and ordinary dances, was established in almost every ghetto of France and Germany. At first these halls, frequented especially on Sabbaths and feast-days, witnessed little mixed dancing. But when the latter habit came into vogue, the Rabbis opposed it strenuously on account of the license and the marital quarrels to which it led, citing in support the verse in Proverbs: “Hand to hand shall not go unpunished” (xi. 21, Hebr.). The nearest relations alone, such as husband and wife, father and daughter, brother and sister, were exempted from the inhibition. Needless to say, the rabbinic rule was often infringed by the bolder young men and women. That mixed dancing was not without its moral dangers was witnessed by the license which its prevalence engendered among the enthusiastic followers of Shabbethai ḃebi. Occasionally, professional Jewish dancers occur; for instance, in the seventeenth century, when the sultan engaged Jewish fiddlers and dancers to perform at a banquet; and they are not infrequent in the modern Orient, more especially in Tunis. In these latter forms, of course, dancing has become a purely social diversion without any religious import; but the original significance of dancing as an expression of religious joy and fervor may yet be observed in the synagogues of Orthodox Jews on the Feast of Simḥat Torah (“Rejoicing of the Law”), where the primitive religious dance may be said to have survived.

. Tal Ilan, “Dance and Gender in Ancient Jewish Sources,” in NEA 66, no. 3 (2003): 135–36. There are some iconographic features on cylinder seals found in Megiddo, Lachish, and in the Negev from the second millennium BC showing dancers standing with their hands on another’s shoulders. Another cylinder seal from Lachish from the late Bronze Age has a ritual or battle dance similar to the Arab folk “debka” still in use in our days. According to T. Ilan, dance in ancient iconography represents activities in which the two genders had specifically defined roles.

. Kleinig, The Lord’s Song, 29.
. Kleinig, The Lord’s Song, 143–44. This structure was taken from Kleinig, with some modifications. According to Wilcock, the ark meant the covenant of God (16:4–6), and the covenant of God meant the grace of God (16:7–36). He continues, “The covenant is a great scheme of blessing set up entirely for his people’s benefit, but entirely on his own initiative. In a word, it is a covenant of grace … the grounds of the covenant are to be found not in them at all but in him alone … he loves them simply because he loves them.” Wilcock, The Message of Chronicles, 71–72.
. Kleinig, The Lord’s Song, 146. The phrase, “before the ark,” means that any sacred activity done inside the temple, including the courtyard, was performed because it housed the ark of God. The sanctuary/temple was built to shrine the ark. It was the house of God, His dwelling place (Exod 25:8). Therefore, any activity related to the rituals was done “before the ark of God,” even though the ark was behind the veil.
. Wilcock argues that “if the ark is a symbol of God’s grace, and the altar a symbol of man’s response, the relation between the two is instructive. They are normally inseparable, for man cannot respond until God has given him something to respond to, and conversely to God’s action in grace one expects there to be a human reaction … The ark and the altar are practically always found together.” Wilcock, The Message of Chronicles, 73.
. Klein, 376.
. Notice that the Chronicler never mentions the sins of David and Solomon, as was the case in 1–2 Kgs.
. Yigal Shiloh and Aharon Horowitz, “Ashlar Quarries of the Iron Age in the Hill Country of Israel,” BASOR 217 (1975), 23–24.
. Klein, 456.
. For a discussion on the combination of these names as a poem, see Klein, 476. Klein adds an explanation for this understanding. See also H. Torczyner, “A Psalm by the Sons of Heman,” JBL 68, no. 3 (1949), 247–49; Julius Böhmer, “Sind einiger Personennamen 1 Chr. 25, 4 ‘künstlich geschaffen’?,” BZ 22 (1934), 93–100; E. Kautzsch, “Miscellen,” ZAW 6 (1886), 260; P. Haupt, “Die Psalmenverse in 1 Chr 25:4,” ZAW 34 (1914), 142–45.
. m. ʿArak. 2:3.
. m. ʿArak. 2:5.
. LXX version Griega del Antiguo Testament. See 1 Chr 27:18; the LXX reads Eliab for Elihu.
. L Finkelstein, “The King David according to Chronicles,” in ErIsr 14, ed. Menahem Haran (1978), 110–16. The English abstract is on pp. 126–27.
. William N. Schniedewind, “King and Priest in the Book of Chronicles and the Duality of Qumran Messianism,” JJS 45, no. 1 (1994): 71–78. Regarding the term, “anointing,” Schniedewind presents a historical background based on the Qumran scrolls.

 
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Old 09-10-2020, 11:16 AM   #14
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looking forward to future installments of the now-emerging, much-alluded-to r2m tale of absolution

 
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Old 09-10-2020, 12:14 PM   #15
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potential to donate? lol, right

 
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Old 09-10-2020, 12:48 PM   #16
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Thank God we don't descend down from perfect Adam'& Eve to sinful sinner, Brother's Keeper, divided slave! United, hardworking-trained-brave, from dust we ascend up! Thank God for that! Our Brother's Teacher of the Moral ABC mason Hillel taught carpenter Jesus to unite all mankind free! If you can keep your head when all around you are losing theirs and blaming it on you! If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you, and yet make allowance for their doubting too! If you can wait and not be tired by waiting or being lied about, don't deal in lies! 0r being hated, don't give way to hating, and yet don't look too good nor talk too wise! if you can dream and not make dreams your master! If you can think and not make thoughts your aim! If you can meet with triumph or disaster and treat those two imposters just the same! If you can bear to hear the full-truth you have spoken twisted by crooks to make a trap for fools! Or watch the things that you have given your life to broken, and stoop to build them up again with worn out tools! If you can make one heap of all your winnings and risk it at one turn of pitch or toss! And lose and start again at your beginnings and never breathe a word about your loss! If you can force your heart, your nerve, your sinew, to serve you long after they are gone! And so hold on although there is nothing left within you except that voice that says to them "Hold on! Hold on!" If you can talk to crowds and keep your virtue, or walk with kings and not lose that common touch! If neither loving friend nor enemy can hurl you; it all men count with you, but none too much! If you can work hard to teach each unforgiving minute the Moral ABC, mason Hillel taught carpenter Jesus to unite all mankind free, come hell, hate, ban, you'll enjoy God's spaceship Earth & do great work within it, L which is more my son, you'll be man! A man! Sure, East is East and West is West and never the twain shall meet! But there is neither East nor West, nor border, breed nor birth, once the Moral ABC unites all mankind free on God's spaceship Earth! Then & only then, no matter how rough the trip, how charged the scroll, you are the captain of thy ship, the master of thy soul! These are the days my friend, we know they'll never end! We'll work, sing, dance, love, marching on! Marching on! We live God s law today! We win Free speech OK! With full-truth, our only God, we rally, raise, unite the whole human race, lightning-like, in our Eternal Father's great All-One4od-Faith! As teaches the African astronomer Israel since the year One: "Listen Children Eternal Father Eternal One!' "Exceptions eternally? Absolute none!"

To dream the impossible dream! To reach that unreachable star! 41 AII-One, All-One we are! To fight that unbeatable foe! To go where the brave dare not go! To right the unrightable wrong! To love pure, chaste, from afar! To try when your arms are too weary! 'Til All- One, AII4ne we are! For this is my goal! To reach that unreachable star. No matter how hopeless, no matter how far! To fight for the right without question or pause, to be willing to march into hell for a heavenly cause! For I know that if I follow this glorious quest, my heart will lie peaceful & calm when I'm laid to my rest! And I know that the world will be better for this, that one man, tortured, blinded, covered with scars, still strove with his last ounce of courage, to reach that unreachable star 'til united All-one, All-one we are!

A fire, a mist, a planet, a crystal & a cell; a jellyfish, a dinosaur, caves where cavemen dwell! Then, a sense for work-love-song-art-law-play-beauty, a face turned up from the sod! Sure, it's constructive-evolution, guided by One, ever-recreating God! One almighty, all-embracing, ever-loving, everevolving Eternal Father, guiding all mankind up from dust, driven by hungers, half-true hate, up by hard work, full-truth, great love, song speech-&-Profitsharing State, up into the Kingdom. the dictatorship of God's law uniting All-One-God-Faith; "Listen Children Eternal Father Eternal One!" Exceptions? None! Thank God we don't descend down from perfect Adam & Eve to sinful sinner. Brother's Keeper, divided slave! United-brave, from dust we ascend up! Thank God for that! Our Brother's Teacher of the Moral ABC, Hillel taught Jesus to unite all mankind tree: 1st: perfect thyself! 2nd; work brave! 3rd: unite to help leach all, every slave, the Moral ABC, lightning1ike 6 billion strong g we're All-One, as astronomer Israel teaches ' Listen Children Eternal Father Eternal One!' Exceptions? None!

Einstein, 1939, after Nazis & Commis united, proposed Bombs that destroy all, unless we teach lightning-like the whole Human race the Moral ABC uniting All-One-God-Faith! For we're All-One or none! As teach all astronomers since the Year One, Abraham-lsrael-Moses-Buddha-Hillel-Jesus, Spinoza-Paine, Sagan & Mohammed, inspired every 76 years, for 6000 years, by the Messenger of God's Law, the Messiah, Halley's Comet, the Blazing Star of Abraham-David-Buddha-Bethlehem & Mohammed! Free Speech is man's only weapon against half-truths that enslave! Full-truth, our only God, unites all brave, if 10 men guard Free Speech brave!!

Berlin Rabbi Baeck, Einstein Rabbis Buber - Israel - Levey - Liebman & after 66 million Marxist murders, tortured-blinded, soapmaker Bronner found: "The mark of the mature man is his ability to work brave, teaching all, every slave, African astronomer Israel's 6000 yr. great All-One-God-Faith: Listen Children E1emal Father Eternal One! We're All-One or none!" Berlin Rabbi Baeck; teaching how united only we survive, survive!

1st: If I'm not for me, who am I? Nobody! 2nd: yet, if I'm only for me, what am I? Nothing! 3rd: If not now, when? Once more: Unless constructive-selfish I work hard, like Mark Spitz, perfecting first me, absolute nothing can help perfect me!!
4>: Only hard work can save us, but if we teach only our clan? We're all hated then! So, we must teach friend & enemy, the whole Human race, the full-truth, hard-work, free speech, press-&-profitsharing Moral ABC's All-One-God-faith, lightning-like, 6 billion strong, for we're All-One or none! All-One-God-Faith, as teach the African shepherd-astronomers Abraham & Israel, for 6000-years, since the year 1: 'Listen Children Eternal Father Eternal One!"-We're One! All-One!

11th: Essene & Chinese birth controls must reduce birth or Easter Isle type overpopulation destroys God's Spaceship Earth! God's law prevents all conception below pH3. Therefore, Essene contracepted for 400 years with rosehips, pH2! So, absolute clean, apply vaseline, oil, butter or cream, insert teaspoonful juicy lemon pulp, pH2. O.K.! Next day, douche with qt. soapy water, pH8, restoring pH5 balance God made! Eggwhite is pH9, Dr. Bronner's Soap, pH8, guaranteed the mildest made; below pH8 soaps biodegrade, synthetic-sulfides cannot. At conception, 10 grams contain 100 million humans! or... 10 humans in 1 invisible microgram - smaller than dust! Absolute cleanliness is Godliness! Then, who else but God gave man Love that can spark mere dust to life! The Moral ABC, uniting All One, brave, all life. Who else but God! Who else! (see Eucalyptus-Peppermint & SalSuds qts.)

Love is like a willful bird, do you want it? It flies away! Yet, when you least expect its bliss, it turns around l it's here to stay! For centuries man struggles, half-asleep, half-living! Small, jealous, bickering with mountains of red tape! To be awakened the night God choose giving His great reward for hard work, the Moral ABC-unity-ecstasy-love evolving man above the ape! The Moral ABC - unity-love evolving man above! Coincidentally L yet Oh-so-slow, sweet-kisses-whisper-softly into waiting ears; arousing hha4enly flames that enlighten renew, brilliant fires blazing through dark, lonesome years! Who else but God gave man this sensuous passion!

' Passions that quicken your senses, fulfill; quench the thirst of lonesome years! Yet the sun has shadows, learn to control your will; to enjoy life long happiness, not tears! Wait! Rise to the stars above & thrill! Arouse the very flames of life! Sweetheart, kiss me: Hold still, hold still! Listen to God's reward for strife! Rosebuds, slowly woken, break budding open! delicate, sweet, so on soft fingertips; shivering up your spine, red pulsing blood; in lightning speed through your pure body's lips! Caressing deep, searching, way out of sight; oh beautiful spirit of God's eternal Spring! Heat of passion in a warm moonlit night! Ecstasy to be buried in heaven, within! Relaxed then to long, dreamless sleep; body & soul join close in life's most brilliant bliss! Revealing clarity4eauty-harmony-peace, sailing on far away sun-laden ships! Yet-what-cunninq-feminine-touch, can draw new desire to pulsing lips! When-soft-hands wander-casually-such, deftly down near lingering tips! Who else but God gave man Love that can spark mere dust to life, the Moral ABC uniting All-One, brave, all life.

Like a beacon breaking through dark clouds that pass; your deep embrace, your sensuous kiss, who else but God can make Love last 1 trillion years of sweet eternities! Who else but God! We are not true, while calculated calm controls us; blood flows near spirit in cold divided flame! Only love's stormy passion, striking deep within us; can turn blood to spirit $ spirit to blood, untamed! Spirit to blood, untamed!

Arctic White Owl, has babies only when there is 9 months food supplied to survive! Beavers, by teamwork family life! Bees drop 3% drones from hive! Cleopatra's Teacher of Love, the ABC of Mama Cat, teaches: 1st: Absolute cleanliness is Godliness! 2nd: Constructive-selfish hard work save home-food-young! 3rd: Absolute teamwork fertilizes God's Earth! 4th: Absolute harmony with God's timing, easy Birth! 5th: Mother's love-discipline, joy, praise! 6th: Father's stern-discipline, off titties when raised! 7th: Hard Work; self-discipline, brave! 8th: God's Eternal Discipline, save! 9th: Nine lives, self-reliant, brave! 10th: Dignity, 'beauty, relaxation, fun! 11th: Tenacity gets it done! 12th: Perfect sense of direction, ESP! 13th: Free, brave! No slave! Mama Cat's ABC of Love & the inspiring Swallow's Song uniting ALL-ONE! ABOVE! ABOVE! DILUTE ENJOY 1 SQAP FOR 18 DIFFERENT USES! GUARANTEED PURE POTASSIUM CASTILE SOAP & 10% VEGETARIAN: SUPERMILD CASTILE HAS OUTSTANDING WATER SOFTENING & CLEANSING POWERS. PREFERABLE TO HARSH SOAP & DEFATTENING SYNTHETICS. IT DOES NOT CUT DIRT, BUT DISSOLVES IT. IT IS THE MILDEST, MOST PLEASANT SOAP YOU EVER USED OR MONEY BACK! ENJOY BODY RUB TO STIMULATE BODY MIND-SOUL-SPIRIT AND TEACH THE ESSENE MORAL ABC UNITING ALL FREE IN THE SHEPHERD-ISRAEL'S GREAT ALL-ONE-G0D-FAITH! GET $3 ESSENE SCROLLS!
"The 2nd Coming of God's Law!"-Mohammed's Arabs, 1948, found Israel: Essene Scrolls & Einstein's "Hillel" prove that as no 6-year-old can grow up free without the ABC, so certain can no 12-year-old survive free without the Moral ABC mason, tent & sandalmaker Rabbi Hillel taught carpenter Jesus to unite all mankind free in our Eternal Father's great AII-One-God-Faith! For we're All-One or none: "Listen Children Eternal Father Eternally One!"
>From '29 to '44, soapmaker-master-chemist Bronner built 3 American soap plants, trained 9 chemists, licensed 6 of 53 patents for $60,000! But after '44, after losing father-mother-wife, almost his own life, tortured-blinded, he deeded to African astronomer Israel's 6000 year great All-One-God-Faith all of his patents, plants, products, profits, 4 new industries: 13 Essene Birth Control patents, Planetemples & 'Town Without Toothache' potassium-soda industry giving mankind a new Mineral-salt, Calcium-malt, Corn-sesame-bread, Mineral-bouillon, catspaw sandals, & 'Dr. Bronner's Magic Soaps,' All-One! In '47, after father-mother-wife murdered, ourself tortured-blinded, we wrote this poem: To keep my health! To do my work! To love, to live! To see to it I gain & grow 8 give & give! Never to look behind me for an hour! Never to wait in weakness nor to brag in power! Always working, searching for more truth, more light! Always writing, teaching what I found good & right! Robbed-starved-beaten-blinded, wide astray! Sack with the full-truth I've gained, back to the way: Smile, help teach the whole Human race, the Moral ABC of AII-One-God-Faith, Lightning-like strong & we're All-One! All-One!
ALL-ONE-GOD-FAITH UNITES HUMAN RACE! ALL-ONE!

Confucius Absolutes 600 B.C. 8 Mohammed's Wisdom 600 A.D. unites all mankind free:

The 1st law of God's tremendous Universe is order! Absolute all-embracing, ever- evolving, ever-recreating, ever-loving order! Exceptions eternally? Absolute none!

2nd, every body in God's tremendous Universe must eat or there is no body! To shine on, eat must even the sun, consuming every second 4 million metric ton! To shine on, eat must even the sun! Exceptions eternally? Absolute none!

3rd, every ton of good food requires teamwork in harmony with God's law, timing-team-work- wisdom-power-mercy-love can reap 6 million more fruit above, above! Exceptions eternally? None!

4th, any man raising 600 fruit trees in harmony with God's law, timing-teamwork-wisdom-power- mercy-love can reap 6 million more fruit above, above! Exceptions? Eternal? Absolute none!

5th, only constructive working men have built all civilization & everything good that's in it! Intolerant parasites, in order to eat, must dominate-dic1ate-distort-dilute-destroy- smear-slay-slander-cheat or they won't eat! Exceptions eternally? Absolute none!

8th: The mark of the mature man is his ability to work brave, teaching all, every slave, how to replace coal-oil-gas-mineral-nuclear, unemployed-inflation, welfare-waste-war with Essene Birth-Control for very girl, Swiss 6000 year Universal Military Training UMT for full- employment, raising 1 trillion Israel-system trees, 2 million Dutch dikes, 3 Greek mirror- solars, 4 Hannibal windpower plants, 5 billion Amish-Amway-AT&T profitsharing jobs, 6 Milorganite plants, 76 million Planetemples teaching All-One-God-Faith, Austrian music, Babylon roof-gardens, California rain forests, China-bikes, Cartha-UMT, Catspaw sandals, compost tree, C02 bomber, the Moral ABC, cattle-lemon-Esperanto. Finn-jails, gasohol, German solar-Zeppelins, Health-meat-salt-soap-tape, jojoba-aloevera-chia-ginseng-garlic, Kibbutz, Nature Friends, patents, Swiss economy, Town-Without-Toothache, Patrick Henry teaches PHt's of USA-USSR H20 cwp, with 76 million battery-banks, powering every car-factory-farm-home-Milorganite-monorail! To teach healthy Hunza 150-year great life by God's Law, timing-teamwork-wisdom-power-mercy-love, uniting All-One above! Above! Know 41-4. Only hard work unites all! Scrolls: $10 for 10; $3 for 1, help unite all!

12th: Over-population destroys God's spaceship Earth, unless Essene-Chinese controls limit all birth! Instead, absolute clean, apply vaseline-oil-butter or cream, insert teaspoon juicy lemon pulp, pH2, God's Law prevents conception 100% below pH3. Next day douche with qt. soapy water, pH8, restoring pH5 balance God-made! Who else but God gave man this sensuous passion. Love that can spark mere dust to life! Beauty in our Eternal Father's fashion! Poetry, uniting All-One, brave, all life! Who else but God can make Love last 1 trillion years of sweet eternities! For when conquered after years of toil- sweat-blood, Love can strike like greased lightning sent by God to spark mere dust to intense blazing fire & create new Love-faith-hope-guts-strength, as only God inspire! Unite the Human race in All-One-God-Faith, as all mankind desire! Who else but God. "An Army of Principles," wrote Thos. Paine in 1799 "can penetrate when an army of soldiers" can-not! It will succeed where diplomacy may fail? It will always construct & help unite One-God-Faith, where every other weapon divides the Human race! The onslaught of such an Army of Principles cannot be stopped by the Rhine, the Channel or the ocean! It's progress will match on the horizon of the world & it will conquer every tyranny, every Human heart by teaching every man the Moral ABC of the Free: Free to communicate-cooperate-construct! Free to build, protect & share! Free to grow, develop & expand! Free to unite in love, cherish & enjoy the Kingdom, the dictatorship of God's law, uniting the whole Human race in our Eternal Father's great All-One-God-Faith! For we're All-One or none: Listen Children Eternal Father Eternally One!"

American democratic President Wilson, 1917, replaced Marxism by Lenin. "We are not a nation of classes, races, minority or pressure groups! Anybody trading on our race, color, nationality or religion is not yet American, does not yet deserve to enjoy the liberties of the Stars & Stripes! He does not yet know, that the Army of Principles by America's Founding Father, the world's 1st steelbridqe-builder, Thos. Paine, since 1799, unites the whole Human race in our Eternal Father's great All-One-God-Faith! Once we teach it, 6 billion strong, we're All-One! "As teach Abraham-Israel-Moses- Buddha-Jesus & Mohammed, inspired every 76 yrs. by the messenger of God's law, the Messiah, Halley's Comet! 6000 yrs. since the year One! We're All-One! All-One!

In '68 American Mao professor Marcuse upset Moscow's Czech power till Moscow's Press had the courage to confess: "Marx is god! Marcuse his prophet! Mao his sword! 50,000 American university professors, his disciples! Black Panthers his killers!" What an apology we Rabbis owe Marx-Moscow, all Jews, all mankind, IRS slave, for our 2000 year failure to teach brave the constructive-selfish Moral ABC the real Rabbi Hillel taught Jesus to unite all mankind free! The exact opposite to absolute-unselfish Marxism, that enslaves the Free! Unless we teach the whole Human race the Moral ABC from uniting All-One-God-Faith, we're dead men on furlough from half-true hates!

>From '29 to '79 we wired our "Public Servants" over 13,000 times to help unite the whole Human race in our Eternal Fathers' great All-One-God-Faith! With the 8 great books by Thos. Paine, suppressed since 1799: The Realist Declaration, The Age of Reason & The Army of Principles will instantly unite the whole Human race in our Eternal Father's great All-One- God-Faith: "LISTEN CHILDREN ETERNAL FATHER ETERNALLY ONE!" WE'RE ALL ONE!

The trouble is that the wrong people are always the most energetic, united & intense, dividing the hardworker to die in self-defense! That fact alone brings Hitlers & Stalins to power & that fact will only change when we teach the whole Human race the Moral ABC of All-One-God-Faith, lightning-like, 6 billion strong & we're All-One! All-One! All-One! As Israel teaches since the year One: "Listen Children Eternal Father Eternally One!' Exceptions? None!

 
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Old 09-10-2020, 01:14 PM   #17
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5:25–26. THE CONSEQUENCE OF THE UNFAITHFULNESS OF REUBEN, GAD, AND THE HALF-TRIBE OF MANASSEH
1 CHR 5:25–26 NKJV
25 And they were unfaithful to the God of their fathers, and played the harlot after the gods of the peoples of the land, whom God had destroyed before them.
26 So the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, that is, Tiglath-Pileser king of Assyria. He carried the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half–tribe of Manasseh into captivity. He took them to Halah, Habor, Hara, and the river of Gozan to this day.

1 CHR 5:25–26 ESV
25 But they broke faith with the God of their fathers, and whored after the gods of the peoples of the land, whom God had destroyed before them.
26 So the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, the spirit of Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, and he took them into exile, namely, the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half–tribe of Manasseh, and brought them to Halah, Habor, Hara, and the river Gozan, to this day.

5:25 The cause of the exile of the two and a half tribes settled on the Transjordanian side of Canaan is presented as the result of breaking the first commandment. God destroyed their enemies, but the two and a half tribes became fascinated by their enemies’ idolatrous lifestyle and religion. This was the cause of their ruin and fall.
5:26 God acted no more as their defender. Thus, Tiglath-Pileser III (Pul), king of Assyria, took these Transjordanian tribes into captivity. This event took place around 732 BC, probably during the Assyrian campaign against Pekah (2 Kgs 15:29). The Assyrians took them to the same cities that they would take the captives from Samaria (2 Kgs 17:6; 18:11). The Chronicler added, at the end, that these tribes remained in their exile to this day, meaning that they never returned. Some of the Transjordanian tribes, of the northern section of Israel, seem to have remained in the land at least partially until the Babylonian exiles returned (2 Chr 30:6–9).
Two theological arguments are used by the Chronicler in favor of Judah as the preeminent tribe among the others. First, though Joseph received the double portion of the firstborn blessing in the persons of his two sons (5:1), it is Judah that has the preeminence through David (5:2). Second, faithfulness was the condition for the blessing. Thus, when the two and a half tribes (Reuben, Gad, and half of Manasseh) followed the pagan gods, they were defeated and taken captive by the Assyrians (5:25–26). This is a lesson that should not be forgotten by Judah. There is only one God who can save and deliver.

THE TRIBE OF LEVI (6:1–81 [MT 5:27–6:66])
Notice that the Hebrew text (MT) places the genealogy of the priests in chapter 5 (5:27–41), while the English version has a different verse numbering. Thus, the text of 6:1–81 in the English versions corresponds to 5:27–6:66 in the Hebrew Bible. Therefore, the reader should take this into consideration when comparing the various texts. Here, the standard order of the English versions is followed for practical reasons only.
God chose the Levites as religious leaders; they remained faithful to God, to the Davidic kingship, and to the temple throughout Israel’s history, even though individuals from Levi were quite often unfaithful (see Judg 17:8–9).
Chapter 6 is the center of the literary structure of the genealogy section of chapters 1–9. Thus, the importance of the tribe of Levi is emphasized, together with their role as singers. Music is treated by the Chronicler as an essential and all-important element in the community of the faithful. This can be seen by the placement of the singer’s list, namely, in the center of the list of the high priests.
The Levites were Israel’s religious leaders (Num 1:49–51). Ezra made sure of their presence with him as he himself led a group back to Jerusalem in 458 BC (Ezra 8:15–20). From the beginning, postexilic Judah depended on the Levites’ ministry (Ezra 1:5; 3:8; 6:18–20). A more abiding significance was found in the nature of Israel’s priesthood as types. Their services in the sanctuary were a shadow and reflected a heavenly pattern (Exod 25:9, 40; Heb 8:2, 5); and the atoning acts performed by Aaron’s descendants were but foreshadows of that ultimate sacrifice accomplished by Jesus Christ, our great High Priest, by offering Himself up once and for all (Heb 9:14, 24–25). Therefore, these rites and symbols were not to be lost.
The cities of Levi were scattered throughout all Israel—a probable fulfillment of Jacob’s prophecy regarding his sons Simeon and Levi: “I will divide them in Jacob and scatter them in Israel” (Gen 49:7). Judah eventually absorbed Simeon. The Levites were the binding force of Israel around the sacred institutions established by God—for instance, the temple and its rituals. Therefore, they received special attention in Chronicles (6:1–81), more than any other tribe, including Judah.

6:1–15 [MT 5:27–41]. GENEALOGY OF THE HIGH PRIESTS
1 CHR 6:1–15 NKJV
1 The sons of Levi were Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.
2 The sons of Kohath were Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel.
3 The children of Amram were Aaron, Moses, and Miriam. And the sons of Aaron were Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.
4 Eleazar begot Phinehas, and Phinehas begot Abishua;
5 Abishua begot Bukki, and Bukki begot Uzzi;
6 Uzzi begot Zerahiah, and Zerahiah begot Meraioth;
7 Meraioth begot Amariah, and Amariah begot Ahitub;
8 Ahitub begot Zadok, and Zadok begot Ahimaaz;
9 Ahimaaz begot Azariah, and Azariah begot Johanan;
10 Johanan begot Azariah (it was he who ministered as priest in the temple that Solomon built in Jerusalem);
11 Azariah begot Amariah, and Amariah begot Ahitub;
12 Ahitub begot Zadok, and Zadok begot Shallum;
13 Shallum begot Hilkiah, and Hilkiah begot Azariah;
14 Azariah begot Seraiah, and Seraiah begot Jehozadak.
15 Jehozadak went into captivity when the LORD carried Judah and Jerusalem into captivity by the hand of Nebuchadnezzar.

1 CHR 6:1–15 ESV
1 The sons of Levi: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.
2 The sons of Kohath: Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel.
3 The children of Amram: Aaron, Moses, and Miriam. The sons of Aaron: Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.
4 Eleazar fathered Phinehas, Phinehas fathered Abishua,
5 Abishua fathered Bukki, Bukki fathered Uzzi,
6 Uzzi fathered Zerahiah, Zerahiah fathered Meraioth,
7 Meraioth fathered Amariah, Amariah fathered Ahitub,
8 Ahitub fathered Zadok, Zadok fathered Ahimaaz,
9 Ahimaaz fathered Azariah, Azariah fathered Johanan,
10 and Johanan fathered Azariah (it was he who served as priest in the house that Solomon built in Jerusalem).
11 Azariah fathered Amariah, Amariah fathered Ahitub,
12 Ahitub fathered Zadok, Zadok fathered Shallum,
13 Shallum fathered Hilkiah, Hilkiah fathered Azariah,
14 Azariah fathered Seraiah, Seraiah fathered Jehozadak;
15 and Jehozadak went into exile when the LORD sent Judah and Jerusalem into exile by the hand of Nebuchadnezzar.

6:1 [MT 5:27] The list of the sons of Levi is also found in Genesis 46:11; Exodus 6:16–25; Numbers 3:17; 26:57; 1 Chronicles 6:16 [MT 6:1]. They always appear in order of age. These are the three clans that formed the priestly line throughout Israel’s history. The families of Gershon pitched their camp at the west side of the tabernacle in the desert (Num 3:23), and they were responsible for carrying the textile and skin components of the tabernacle (Num 3:25–26; 4:24–26).
The families of Kohath were to camp on the south side of the tabernacle. Their duties included taking care of the ark, the table, the lampstand, the altars, the utensils of the sanctuary with which they ministered, and all the work relating to them (Num 3:29–32).
The families of Merari were to camp on the north side of the tabernacle. Their duty was to take care of the boards, bars, pillars, sockets, and utensils of the tabernacle, including the pillars of the court all around, with their sockets, their pegs, and their cords (Num 3:35–37). Thus, the duties of Gershon and Merari were related more to the transportation and maintenance of the temple, while Kohath was related more to the furniture directly associated with the rituals.
6:2 [MT 5:28] Kohath is the one from whom the priestly institution is established in Israel until the postexilic time through Aaron (see Exod 6:18; Num 3:19). The line of the priesthood follows Amram’s clan, starting with Aaron and then through Eleazer until Jehozadak, before and during the Babylonian exile, and from Jehozadak to Joshua after the exile. Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel, the other sons of Kohath, did not make part of the sacred office, but they participated in the general duties of the Levites.
6:3 [MT 5:29] Miriam is listed, together with her brothers Aaron and Moses. The mentioning of a woman in a genealogy is an exception to the rule because only men are usually listed. If a woman is listed, it is to indicate that a certain historical importance is bestowed upon that person. Jochebed—the mother of Moses, Aaron, and Miriam—was the wife of Amram and also his aunt from his father’s family side (Exod 6:20; Num 26:59).
The first two sons of Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, died for their iniquity against the temple (Lev 10:2; Num 26:61), and the succeeding line of the priesthood is based on the descendants of Eleazer (6:4; Num 25:7). The sin of Nadab and Abihu is not mentioned in Chronicles; this is probably due to the fact that anyone could obtain this information from Leviticus 10:1–2 (see 24:2). One purpose of Chronicles was to simply to show their connection with their ancestors instead of presenting a list of the sins and errors of these leaders.
The family of Ithamar, however, lost its right to be part of the sacred office due to the sins of the sons of Eli, namely, Hophni and Phinehas [II]. Both died, and God progressively took the sacred office from Eli’s family (1 Sam 2:27–37). David still used the last of Eli’s descendants as a priest, Abiathar, but Solomon sent him to Anathoth and placed Zadok [i], another descendant of Eleazar, as priest.
6:4–7 [MT 5:30–33] The death of Aaron is narrated in Numbers 20:25–29; his successor was Eleazar, his son. God also made a covenant with Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, promising him a perpetual priesthood for his family (Num 25:6–9; 12–13; 31:6). The Chronicler overlooked Putiel, wife of Eleazar (Exod 6:25), most probably for the sake of brevity. The following names, Abishua, Bukki, Uzzi, Zerahiah, Meraioth, and Amariah [i] (6:4–7), are entirely unknown to us; they are not mentioned elsewhere except in 6:50–52 [MT 6:35–37] and Ezra 7:1–5.
6:8 [MT 5:34] Zadok [i] served as a priest during David’s reign (2 Sam 8:17; 15:24). He was the son of Ahitub [i] (2 Sam 8:17; 1 Chr 18:16). Ahitub [i] should not be confused with Ahitub, the father of Ahimelech, the father of Abiathar (1 Sam 14:3; 22:20). The latter was from Ithamar’s clan, and Ahitub [i] was from Eleazar’s clan. The establishment by Solomon of Zadok [i] as priest in the place of Abiathar is regarded as the final fulfillment of the prophecy against the house of Eli (1 Kgs 2:27, 35).
6:9 [MT 5:35] Solomon chose Azariah [i], grandson of Zadok [i], to be the high priest ca. 970 BC. In 1 Kings, Azariah [i] is called son of Zadok (1 Kgs 4:2). At least he might have been his direct descendant as one of the sons of Ahimaaz. This verse is the only reference regarding Johanan.
6:10 [MT 5:36] Azariah [II], who served as a priest probably after Jehoiada, could have been the high priest who resisted King Uzziah when in his foolishness he entered the temple, which Solomon had built, to officiate as a priest ca. 751 BC (2 Chr 26:17, 20). If so, this would allow a period of time to add Jehoiada’s office (2 Chr 24:15), though he was not mentioned in the high priest genealogical list (6:1–15) of Chronicles. Notice that Jehoiada was profoundly loyal to David’s royal line, and for lack of time or due to the political unrest, he allowed the temple to remain in ruins for many years until Jehoash made a campaign to repair it (2 Kgs 12:6–7). This was probably one of the reasons that he was omitted from the list.
6:11–12 [MT 5:37–38] Azariah [III] may have been the priest during Hezekiah’s reign (2 Chr 31:10–13). He was the father of Amariah [III]. This Amariah [III] was the father of Ahitub [II]. Ahitub [II] was the father of Zadok [II]. Zadok [II] was the father of Shallum. Not much information exists about the last three names.
6:13 [MT 5:39] Hilkiah discovered the book of the law of the Lord given through Moses (2 Kgs 22:4–23:24; 2 Chr 34:9–35:8). This event led to the Josianic reformation of 622 BC. Azariah [IV] was Hilkiah’s son. A bulla found in the city of David, Jerusalem, is addressed “to Azariah [IV] the son of Hilkiah.”
6:14 [MT 5:40] Seraiah was taken captive by Nebuzaradan, general of the Babylonian army, in 586 BC (2 Kgs 25:18–21) and executed in Riblah, Syria, by the king of Babylon himself; Seraiah had a son named Jehozadak. He was the father of Joshua the high priest of the postexilic community (Ezra 3:2; 5:2; 10:18; Hag 1:1; Zech 3:1; 6:11).
6:15 [MT 5:41] The list of the sons of Levi ends with Jehozadak being taken captive in the Babylonian exile. This is an emphatic way of demonstrating that even priests were not exempt from the consequences of Israel’s unfaithfulness. The word “unfaithfulness” is not mentioned here but is stated in 9:1 as the reason for their captivity. The name Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, appears here for the first time in Chronicles. Later in the book, his name occurs four more times in 2 Chronicles 36:6–17. This is also the first reference to the fall of Jerusalem after mentioning the captivity of the northern tribes (5:6, 22, 26). God is the one who takes them captive, using the king of Babylon as His instrument (Jer 20:4–5; 25:9; see a parallel having Assyria as His instrument in Isa 10:5 and the Medes as His instrument in Isa 13:5).

6:16–30 [MT 6:1–15]. GENEALOGY OF THE LEVITES
1 CHR 6:16–30 NKJV
16 The sons of Levi were Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.
17 These are the names of the sons of Gershon: Libni and Shimei.
18 The sons of Kohath were Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel.
19 The sons of Merari were Mahli and Mushi. Now these are the families of the Levites according to their fathers:
20 Of Gershon were Libni his son, Jahath his son, Zimmah his son,
21 Joah his son, Iddo his son, Zerah his son, and Jeatherai his son.
22 The sons of Kohath were Amminadab his son, Korah his son, Assir his son,
23 Elkanah his son, Ebiasaph his son, Assir his son,
24 Tahath his son, Uriel his son, Uzziah his son, and Shaul his son.
25 The sons of Elkanah were Amasai and Ahimoth.
26 As for Elkanah, the sons of Elkanah were Zophai his son, Nahath his son,
27 Eliab his son, Jeroham his son, and Elkanah his son.
28 The sons of Samuel were Joel the firstborn, and Abijah the second.
29 The sons of Merari were Mahli, Libni his son, Shimei his son, Uzzah his son,
30 Shimea his son, Haggiah his son, and Asaiah his son.

1 CHR 6:16–30 ESV
16 The sons of Levi: Gershom, Kohath, and Merari.
17 And these are the names of the sons of Gershom: Libni and Shimei.
18 The sons of Kohath: Amram, Izhar, Hebron and Uzziel.
19 The sons of Merari: Mahli and Mushi. These are the clans of the Levites according to their fathers.
20 Of Gershom: Libni his son, Jahath his son, Zimmah his son,
21 Joah his son, Iddo his son, Zerah his son, Jeatherai his son.
22 The sons of Kohath: Amminadab his son, Korah his son, Assir his son,
23 Elkanah his son, Ebiasaph his son, Assir his son,
24 Tahath his son, Uriel his son, Uzziah his son, and Shaul his son.
25 The sons of Elkanah: Amasai and Ahimoth,
26 Elkanah his son, Zophai his son, Nahath his son,
27 Eliab his son, Jeroham his son, Elkanah his son.
28 The sons of Samuel: Joel his firstborn, the second Abijah.
29 The sons of Merari: Mahli, Libni his son, Shimei his son, Uzzah his son,
30 Shimea his son, Haggiah his son, and Asaiah his son.

6:16 [MT 6:1] The Chronicler introduces, from this verse on, the genealogy of the ordinary Levites after the list of the priests (6:1–15).
6:17 [MT 6:2] These Levitical clans are those mentioned in Exodus 6:17–19 and Numbers 3:18–20. Even though Laadan is listed in 23:7 as the first in the list, one should not take him as the firstborn. Libni seems to be the firstborn of Gershon. Therefore, the purpose in 23:7 is to show which family of the descendants of Gershon was chosen by David to exercise a specific function. Libni might have been the ancestor of Laadan (26:21). The name Libni seems to be associated with the towns assigned to the descendants of Aaron (6:42).
6:18 [MT 6:3] See Exodus 6:18; Numbers 3:19; 1 Chronicles 6:2 for the sons of Kohath.
6:19 [MT 6:4] The list of Merari is found also in Exodus 6:19; Numbers 3:20, 33; 1 Chronicles 23:21; 24:26. For the commentary on Merari, see 6:1. Mahli is considered as a Levite clan; observe it in the list of Numbers 26:58, where the term “Mahlites” appears. Almost nothing, however, is known about Mushi, only that he was a direct descendant of Levi through Merari his father (Exod 6:19; Num 3:20; 1 Chr 6:47; 23:21, 23; and so on). The concluding clause, according to their fathers, gives emphasis to the head of the group he represented, while in Numbers, “by their fathers’ houses” (Num 1:2), the emphasis seems to be upon the clan or family represented by a specific leader (3:17–20).
6:20–21 [MT 6:5–6] A genealogy of Gershon’s descendants is introduced: Gershon, Libni, Jahath, Zimmah, Joah, Iddo, Zerah, and Jeatherai. Zimmah and Joah seem to be contemporaries of Hezekiah (2 Chr 29:12). Some of Gershon’s sons are named with their ancestor Asaph (6:39–43). The occurrence of the names Zimmah and Joah in 2 Chronicles 29:12; 6:39–43 might be a reference to the same persons, though the opposite possibility cannot be easily discarded. Gershon and Libni are found elsewhere as well, but the remaining names do not occur outside these verses.
6:22–23 [MT 6:7–8] This genealogical list may not follow a logical chronological line, but a sequence of descendants skipping, when necessary, a generation or two. Thus “son of” means in one instance that the preceding name might be his father but in another instance that he might be a descendant of the main patriarch mentioned in the list. Exodus 6:18, 21 and Numbers 16:1 indicate that Izhak was the son of Kohath and father of Korah (see also 6:2, 18, 37–38). Amminadab could have been a different name for Izhak, or he was a direct descendant of Izhak. Korah was the leader of the rebellious group against Moses and the one swallowed by the opening of the earth (Num 16:32). According to Exodus 6:24, Assir [II], Elkanah [i] (6:23), and Abiasaph were the sons of Korah.
Therefore, they should not be considered as successive generations. The emphasis is probably on the fact that all of them were descendants of Kohath. The second instance of the name Assir (first in 6:22 and second in 6:23) may have been a direct descendant of Ebiasaph (see 6:37). The following names after the second instance of the name Assir [II] seem to be a linear genealogical line of the descendants of Ebiasaph. Remember that the author’s goal is not to present a complete genealogy but rather a guiding list to the reader, concluding that all were related somehow to each other and had Kohath as their ancestor. In this case, the goal was to support the ancestry of Shaul.
6:24 [MT 6:9] Uriel may be the Levite who led the entire Kohathite clan in the days of David (15:5, 11). The conjunction “and” before the name Shaul might be a literary indication that this genealogy had the purpose of supporting Shaul’s ancestral line.
(Fig. 21) 6:25–26, Ancestry of Elkanah I
6:25–27 [MT 6:10–12] This is the Elkanah [i] of 6:23, brother of Ebiasaph and father of Amasai and Ahimoth. Then Elkanah [II] is listed (see 6:26). He was the father of Zophai. Zophai, Nahath, and Eliab seem to be different names for Zuph, Toah, and Eliel (see 6:34–35). The Levite Elkanah [III] is the husband of Hannah and the father of Samuel the judge and prophet (1 Sam 1:1–2). The text of Samuel says that Elkanah [III] was “the son of Jeroham, the son of Elihu, the son of Tohu, the son of Zuph, an Ephraimite” (1 Sam 1:1). It seems, however, that he was not an Ephraimite—he was a Levite residing in Ephraimite territory. Two other texts mention Levites living in Ephraim (Judg 12:5; 17:7). The Chronicles list supports Samuel as a Levite.
6:28 [MT 6:13] Samuel had two sons, Joel and Abijah. Apparently, they were not worthy of the priestly office (1 Sam 8:2–5). They most probably followed the behavior of Hophni and Phinehas. Later on, however, they seem to have gone through a character transformation, thus becoming members of the singers of the tabernacle (6:33). In the MT, the name of the firstborn, Joel, is omitted in this verse (6:28), but it is usually added in the English versions. The Chronicler frequently omits information familiar to his audience, or emphasis is placed on Abijah.
6:29–30 [MT 6:14–15] The sons of Merari were responsible for the transportation of the structural elements of the court and tent of the tabernacle (Num 4:29–33). Notice that the two sons of Mahli have the same names as the two sons of Gershon, namely, Libni and Shimei (see 6:17). Asaiah was the one David ordered to bring the ark to Jerusalem (15:1, 11). The genealogical line of descendants is as follows: Merari, Mahli, Libni, Shimei, Uzzah, Shimea, Haggiah, and Asaiah.

6:31–53 [MT 6:16–38]. GENEALOGY AND DUTIES OF THE CLERGY
1 CHR 6:31–53 NKJV
31 Now these are the men whom David appointed over the service of song in the house of the LORD, after the ark came to rest.
32 They were ministering with music before the dwelling place of the tabernacle of meeting, until Solomon had built the house of the LORD in Jerusalem, and they served in their office according to their order.
33 And these are the ones who ministered with their sons: Of the sons of the Kohathites were Heman the singer, the son of Joel, the son of Samuel,
34 the son of Elkanah, the son of Jeroham, the son of Eliel, the son of Toah,
35 the son of Zuph, the son of Elkanah, the son of Mahath, the son of Amasai,
36 the son of Elkanah, the son of Joel, the son of Azariah, the son of Zephaniah,
37 the son of Tahath, the son of Assir, the son of Ebiasaph, the son of Korah,
38 the son of Izhar, the son of Kohath, the son of Levi, the son of Israel.
39 And his brother Asaph, who stood at his right hand, was Asaph the son of Berachiah, the son of Shimea,
40 the son of Michael, the son of Baaseiah, the son of Malchijah,
41 the son of Ethni, the son of Zerah, the son of Adaiah,
42 the son of Ethan, the son of Zimmah, the son of Shimei,
43 the son of Jahath, the son of Gershon, the son of Levi.
44 Their brethren, the sons of Merari, on the left hand, were Ethan the son of Kishi, the son of Abdi, the son of Malluch,
45 the son of Hashabiah, the son of Amaziah, the son of Hilkiah,
46 the son of Amzi, the son of Bani, the son of Shamer,
47 the son of Mahli, the son of Mushi, the son of Merari, the son of Levi.
48 And their brethren, the Levites, were appointed to every kind of service of the tabernacle of the house of God.
49 But Aaron and his sons offered sacrifices on the altar of burnt offering and on the altar of incense, for all the work of the Most Holy Place, and to make atonement for Israel, according to all that Moses the servant of God had commanded.
50 Now these are the sons of Aaron: Eleazar his son, Phinehas his son, Abishua his son, 51 Bukki his son, Uzzi his son, Zerahiah his son,
52 Meraioth his son, Amariah his son, Ahitub his son,
53 Zadok his son, and Ahimaaz his son.

1 CHR 6:31–53 ESV
31 These are the men whom David put in charge of the service of song in the house of the LORD after the ark rested there.
32 They ministered with song before the tabernacle of the tent of meeting until Solomon built the house of the LORD in Jerusalem, and they performed their service according to their order. 33 These are the men who served and their sons. Of the sons of the Kohathites: Heman the singer the son of Joel, son of Samuel,
34 son of Elkanah, son of Jeroham, son of Eliel, son of Toah,
35 son of Zuph, son of Elkanah, son of Mahath, son of Amasai,
36 son of Elkanah, son of Joel, son of Azariah, son of Zephaniah,
37 son of Tahath, son of Assir, son of Ebiasaph, son of Korah,
38 son of Izhar, son of Kohath, son of Levi, son of Israel;
39 and his brother Asaph, who stood on his right hand, namely, Asaph the son of Berechiah, son of Shimea,
40 son of Michael, son of Baaseiah, son of Malchijah,
41 son of Ethni, son of Zerah, son of Adaiah,
42 son of Ethan, son of Zimmah, son of Shimei,
43 son of Jahath, son of Gershom, son of Levi.
44 On the left hand were their brothers, the sons of Merari: Ethan the son of Kishi, son of Abdi, son of Malluch,
45 son of Hashabiah, son of Amaziah, son of Hilkiah,
46 son of Amzi, son of Bani, son of Shemer,
47 son of Mahli, son of Mushi, son of Merari, son of Levi.
48 And their brothers the Levites were appointed for all the service of the tabernacle of the house of God.
49 But Aaron and his sons made offerings on the altar of burnt offering and on the altar of incense for all the work of the Most Holy Place, and to make atonement for Israel, according to all that Moses the servant of God had commanded.
50 These are the sons of Aaron: Eleazar his son, Phinehas his son, Abishua his son,
51 Bukki his son, Uzzi his son, Zerahiah his son,
52 Meraioth his son, Amariah his son, Ahitub his son,
53 Zadok his son, Ahimaaz his son.

6:31 [MT 6:16] Here, the importance of music ministry is stressed again. Even Ezra mentions the musicians (Ezra 2:41). The emphasis on music is an important feature in Chronicles’ theology, as I have mentioned in the general Introduction (see the excursus on music in the Introduction). The ark was at rest, and there was no need for its transportation. Thus, the Levites had a new function as organized singers and musicians.
Notice that the Chronicler makes an effort to establish a relationship between the priests and singers. They share the same Levitical history and ancestry. Whether they were priests (6:1–15), Levites (6:16–30), Levitical singers (6:31–48), or those “appointed to every kind of service of the tabernacle” (6:48), all of them had Levi as their ancestor. Therefore, a relationship exists between the Levites who served as priests and the Levites who served as singers in the temple.
The singers were to serve in the house of the LORD (6:31). David gave the order for them to give thanks and to praise God at every burnt offering (23:30–31). This assignment for the singers was active when the ark was at rest and there was no need to move it around. Thus, David gave to the Levites a new task—that of conducting the music at the temple services. David was a musician, and this initiative of designating the Levites to be the music leaders is not surprising, coming from the author of many psalms.
6:32 [MT 6:17] The Chronicler had a purpose in mind—a revelation from God indicating the functions and order of the musicians. They had the “service of song” (6:31), ministering with music … and they served in their office according to their order. Notice that specifications governing priests, prophets, judges, and kings are detailed in Deuteronomy 16:18–18:22, but almost none related to singers and musicians are found in the entire Pentateuch. First, music was practiced as a sporadic means of thanking God (Moses, Exod 15:1–19; Miriam, Exod 15:21; and Hannah, 1 Sam 2:1–10). David, and later Solomon, however, prepared stipulations and rules about the singers for the temple. Therefore, singers and musicians were an important part of the priestly institution from the time of David onward, as a fundamental part of this sacred institution.
According to the Mishnah, based on the biblical texts, the location assigned to the singers was on a platform on top of the stair leading toward the altar from the court of the women to the court of the Israelites. They were standing opposite of the priests with the silver trumpets (2 Chr 7:6). The singers were facing the altar, while the priests with the trumpets were facing the congregation.
6:33–38 [MT 6:18–23] David’s musician Heman is the only one with the explicit title of singer. Samuel was his grandfather, giving him and his descendants a direct connection with Levi. This list has the aim to bestow authority upon Heman as the chief musician. Therefore, his subsequent descendants had the same opportunity to work in the ministry of music.
(Fig. 22) 6:33–38, Ancestry of Heman
6:39–40 [MT 6:24–25] Asaph had the most important position as a singer and composer after Heman, and he was recognized as such in the postexilic time (Ezra 2:41; 3:10; Neh 7:44; 11:17, 22; 12:46). He composed Psalms 50, 73–83. Now in this list he appears at the right hand of Heman, the leader of the singers. Berachiah was the father of Asaph, as is mentioned in 15:17.
6:41–43 [MT 6:26–28] The list continues with the names of singers according to Asaph’s order from the line of Gershom: Levi, Gershon, Jahath, Shimei, Zimmah, Ethan, Adaiah, Zerah, Ethni, Malchijah, Baaseiah, Michael, Shimei, Berachiah, and Asaph.
6:44–47 [MT 6:29–32] Ethan was at the left-hand side of Heman from the line of Merari. In the introductory title to Psalm 89:1 (1 Kings 4:31), he is called the Ezrahite. In 15:17 he is called the son of Kushaiah (or Kishi in 6:44). The left position, beside Heman, may imply a place of leadership, but of secondary importance in relationship to the one Asaph had on the right side of Heman: Levi—Merari—Mushi—Mahli—Shemer—Bani—Amzi—Hilkiah—A maziah—Hashabiah—Malluch—Abdi—Kishi—Ethan.
6:48 [MT 6:33] After the list of the priests and the singers, the Chronicler lists the duties of the remaining Levites. They were supposed to minister at the tabernacle, performing all kinds of ordinary tasks. This is the only instance where the expression the tabernacle of the house of God is used in the Bible. The tabernacle was the one in existence since Moses, and the tent erected by David in Jerusalem was a new place prepared for the ark of the covenant. The tabernacle was in Gebea. The tent of David was a temporary place for the ark until new revelation was received. The future temple to be erected by Solomon would be the final place for it.
6:49 [MT 6:34] According to the Pentateuch, the descendants of Aaron had the right and the obligation to offer burnt offerings, burn incense in the tabernacle, and to make atonement for the people (Lev 16:12–13; Num 18:1–5; Lev 4–5; 9:7, 16). The words Most Holy Place indicate that the high priest would minister in the Most Holy Place once a year on behalf of the people (Lev 16). They should officiate in the sanctuary, not according to their tastes and wishes but according to all that Moses the servant of God had commanded. Moses is considered here as a prophet and authoritative source for the Levites’ office. Therefore, the postexilic community should look also to the Bible and to their prophets as sources of guidance and inspiration. The foundation of Israel’s spiritual and political leadership should always be rooted in the revelation of God.
6:50–53 [MT 6:35–38] This confirms that the Zadokite priests had the authority to officiate during the time of David. Also, these verses are the transition to the following list of cities assigned to the Levites. This list of priests is a repetition of the one found in 6:3–8, taking us up to Zadok and legitimizing his authority as priest.

6:54–81 [MT 6:39–66]. THE LEVITICAL AND PRIESTLY TOWNS
The remainder of chapter 6 lists the forty-eight towns that were assigned to the various clans of the tribe of Levi (6:55–81). As Jacob had predicted, the Levites became scattered throughout Israel (Gen 49:7). This list was taken from Joshua 21. Ezra’s reference to the first lot that was assigned to Aaronic priests confirms the record of when Joshua distributed the land ca. 1400 BC among the western tribes and Levi; he accomplished this by means of a lottery (Josh 4:2; 21:10) and assigned them to the tribes (Josh 13:1, 6). This list names the towns assigned to the Levites in the time of Joshua, in which they were still living in the time of David. The list gives back to the Levites the right to return to their cities and their sacred duties as religious leaders after the Babylonian exile. The following list is of the cities, with a brief description and, when possible, their archeological site.

6:54–59 [MT 6:39–44]. LEVITICAL TOWNS IN THE TRIBES OF JUDAH AND SIMEON
1 CHR 6:54–59 NKJV
54 Now these are their dwelling places throughout their settlements in their territory, for they were given by lot to the sons of Aaron, of the family of the Kohathites:
55 They gave them Hebron in the land of Judah, with its surrounding common-lands.
56 But the fields of the city and its villages they gave to Caleb the son of Jephunneh.
57 And to the sons of Aaron they gave one of the cities of refuge, Hebron; also Libnah with its common-lands, Jattir, Eshtemoa with its common-lands,
58 Hilen with its common-lands, Debir with its common-lands,
59 Ashan with its common-lands, and Beth Shemesh with its common-lands.

1 CHR 6:54–59 ESV
54 These are their dwelling places according to their settlements within their borders: to the sons of Aaron of the clans of Kohathites, for theirs was the first lot,
55 to them they gave Hebron in the land of Judah and its surrounding pasturelands,
56 but the fields of the city and its villages they gave to Caleb the son of Jephunneh.
57 To the sons of Aaron they gave the cities of refuge: Hebron, Libnah with its pasturelands, Jattir, Eshtemoa with its pasturelands,
58 Hilen with its pasturelands, Debir with its pasturelands,
59 Ashan with its pasturelands, and Beth–-shemesh with its pasturelands;

6:54–59 [6:39–44] Hebron is identified with Al-Khalil, a site situated some twenty-three miles south of Jerusalem. It had twenty–five springs of water in the area, with two pools that provided the water supply for their needs. Here was the place of the oaks of Mamre, under which Abraham dwelt and built an altar. Much later, the spies Moses had sent to look at and spy out the land walked around the fields of Hebron (Num 13:22). Hebron became a Levitical city, as well as a city assigned to Caleb, son of Jephunneh (Josh 14:13–14; 15:13–14). The pasturelands belonged to the Levites, while the Calebites inhabited the fields and towns (Josh 21:12). At the death of Saul, David dwelt there, and later, he was anointed king of Judah and Israel in the same town (2 Sam 5:3). Absalom attempted a coup d’état in Hebron (2 Sam 15:10–11).
Libnah has been associated with three places, Tell es-Safi, Tell Bornat, and Tell Judaidah. The first reference to Libnah in the biblical text is in the narrative of Joshua’s conquest of Canaan (Josh 21:13). Libnah is in the list of Judah’s territory (Josh 15:42). During the reign of Jehoram, Edom revolted against Judah, and Libnah revolted at the same time (2 Kgs 8:22). The Chronicler presents a justification for Libnah’s revolt against Jehoram—it was “because he had forsaken the LORD, the God of his Fathers” (2 Chr 21:10). By the time of Hezekiah, Libnah had returned to Judah’s control (2 Kgs 19:8; Isa 37:8). It was the home of Hamutal, the mother of Jehoahaz and Zedekiah (2 Kgs 23:31; 24:18; Jer 52:1).
Jattir appears in the list of Judah (Josh 15:48). It also appears in the story of David and the Amalekites (1 Sam 30:27). David gave part of the spoil from this battle to the elders of Jattir (1 Sam 30:27). Biblical Jattir has been identified with Khirbet Attir. The site is located twenty-one km southwest of Hebron.
Eshtemoa is a Levitical city of Judah listed in Joshua 15:50; 21:14. In 1 Samuel 30:28, Eshtemoa receives a portion of the booty, together with Jettir, from the hands of David after defeating the Amalekites. The site was identified with es-Samu, eight km from Khirbet Attir and fourteen km from Hebron.
Hilen (probably Khirbet ‘Alin) is a place difficult to locate. There are various textual variants. For instance, Joshua 21:15 spells it “Holon,” and in 6:58, it is Hilen.
Ashan (Khirbet ‘Asan) was a town assigned to the tribe of Judah (Josh 15:42), but later it belonged to the Simeonites (Josh 19:7; 1 Chr 4:32). It seems to have been located close by Beersheba. Ashan may be a variant of Chorashan—a town to which David sent part of the spoils he obtained after the victory against the Amalekites (1 Sam 30:30).
Debir (Khirbet Rabud) is a site located south of Hebron. The inhabitants of Debir depended on cisterns and two wells, about three km north of the site, similar to the ones mentioned in the story of Achsa, daughter of Caleb, in Joshua 15:19 and Judges 1:15. Debir was originally an important Canaanite city in the area (Josh 11:21, 15:15–17).
Beth Shemesh (Tell er-Rumeilah) means “the house of the sun”—probably an older Canaanite temple (see Josh 19:41). This site is located in the northeastern portion of the area known as Shephelah at the beginning of the road to Jerusalem. A nearby Arab village is named Ain Shems, which means “spring of the sun,” which seems a possible reference to its antiquity.

 
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6:60 [MT 6:45]. THE LEVITICAL TOWNS IN BENJAMIN
1 CHR 6:60 NKJV
60 And from the tribe of Benjamin: Geba with its common-lands, Alemeth with its common-lands, and Anathoth with its common-lands. All their cities among their families were thirteen.

1 CHR 6:60 ESV
60 and from the tribe of Benjamin, Gibeon, Geba with its pasturelands, Alemeth with its pasturelands, and Anathoth with its pasturelands. All their cities throughout their clans were thirteen.

6:60 [6:45] The towns and villages assigned for the Levites in Benjamin are the following: Gibeon (Tel el-Jib)—a town located approximately nine km north of Jerusalem. A biblical reference to Gibeon describes a battle between the Israelites and the Amorites (Josh 10:9–14).
Geba (Jeba’) is another town listed among the Benjaminite towns (Josh 18:24; 21:17). Geba is mentioned in connection with Gibeah in Judges 20:10, 33; 1 Samuel 13:3, 16; 14:5; Isaiah 10:29. This town is mentioned in a battle with the Philistines (1 Sam 13–14; 2 Sam 5:25). After the division of the kingdom, King Asa fortified this town (1 Kgs 15:22; 2 Chr 16:6). A shrine at Geba was desecrated during Josiah’s reform (2 Kgs 23:8). The city is mentioned during the postexilic period (Ezra 2:26; Neh 7:30; 11:31; 12:29) and was regarded as a northern town of Judah in the fourth century BC (Zech 14:10).
Alemeth (Tell ‘Almit) is a city given to the descendants of Aaron (Josh 21:18). Alemeth seems to be a variant spelling of Almon. It was one of the thirteen towns given to the priests and one of the four towns in the territory of Benjamin (Josh 21:17–18; 1 Chr 6:60). Almon is located seven km from Jerusalem. Neither Almon nor Anathoth is in the list of Benjaminite towns in Joshua 18:21–28. Almon is identified with Tell ‘Almit, located between Geba and Anathoth, 1.5 km to the northeast of Anata.
Anathoth (Ras el-Kharrubeh) was a priestly town in the territory of Benjamin, mentioned in the Bible as the hometown of Abiezer and Jehu, David’s special guards (2 Sam 23:27; 1 Chr 11:28; 12:3; 27:12). It lies on the high mound of Ras el-Kharrubeh, immediately south of the village of Anata. Ras el-Kharrubeh and Anata are within three km of the main road from Jerusalem to Shechem and near the intersection to the Lower and Upper Beth Horons. Abiathar, the last priestly descendant of Eli, was exiled to his home in Anathoth because he had sided with Adonijah in the rebellion against Solomon (1 Kgs 2:26).
Anathoth is mentioned by Isaiah (Isa 10:30) as a city of the Assyrian conquest. Jeremiah was born in Anathoth (Jer 1:1). Later, Jeremiah purchased the field of Hanamel in Anathoth as a sign of hope that life would return to normal (Jer 32:7–9). After the Babylonian exile, 128 men of this town returned with Zerubbabel to dwell in Anathoth (Ezra 2:23; Neh 7:27). This town was resettled by a Benjaminite population (Neh 11:32).

6:61–66 [MT 46–51]. LEVITICAL TOWNS OF THE KOHATHITE
1 CHR 6:61–66 NKJV
61 To the rest of the family of the tribe of the Kohathites they gave by lot ten cities from half the tribe of Manasseh.
62 And to the sons of Gershon, throughout their families, they gave thirteen cities from the tribe of Issachar, from the tribe of Asher, from the tribe of Naphtali, and from the tribe of Manasseh in Bashan.
63 To the sons of Merari, throughout their families, they gave twelve cities from the tribe of Reuben, from the tribe of Gad, and from the tribe of Zebulun.
64 So the children of Israel gave these cities with their common–lands to the Levites.
65 And they gave by lot from the tribe of the children of Judah, from the tribe of the children of Simeon, and from the tribe of the children of Benjamin these cities which are called by their names.
66 Now some of the families of the sons of Kohath were given cities as their territory from the tribe of Ephraim.

1 CHR 6:61–66 ESV
61 To the rest of the Kohathites were given by lot out of the clan of the tribe, out of the half-tribe, the half of Manasseh, ten cities.
62 To the Gershomites according to their clans were allotted thirteen cities out of the tribes of Issachar, Asher, Naphtali and Manasseh in Bashan.
63 To the Merarites according to their clans were allotted twelve cities out of the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and Zebulun.
64 So the people of Israel gave the Levites the cities with their pasturelands.
65 They gave by lot out of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin these cities that are mentioned by name.
66 And some of the clans of the sons of Kohath had cities of their territory out of the tribe of Ephraim.

6:61–66 [MT 6:46–51] In these verses the number of towns allotted to the Levites is given in their respective tribal territory. The Kohathites received their lot from among the tribes of Ephraim, Dan, and the half-tribe of Manasseh. This distribution was made by casting lots. This was an ancient practice to show no partiality and thus allowing divine involvement in determining the result. The following list of towns is according to the tribal territory. Notice, however, that the tribe of Dan is not mentioned by name. This seems to be an intentional omission of this tribe, due to their unfaithfulness. The Danites were unfaithful in the time of the Judges (Judg 18:2–31). One may argue that most of the tribes were unfaithful in those days. That is true, but the book of the Judges explicitly mentions the Danites and their idolatry against the sanctuary (Judg 18:30–31). Later, after the division of the kingdom, Jeroboam (I) established one of the golden calves at the north of his kingdom in the territory of the Danites (1 Kgs 12:29–30). This was an open rebellion against God. Information concerning this was probably known to the Chronicler.

6:67–68 [MT 6:52–53]. LEVITICAL TOWNS IN THE TRIBE OF EPHRAIM
1 CHR 6:67–68 NKJV
67 And they gave them one of the cities of refuge, Shechem with its common-lands, in the mountains of Ephraim, also Gezer with its common-lands,
68 Jokmeam with its common-lands, Beth Horon with its common-lands,

1 CHR 6:67–68 ESV
67 They were given the cities of refuge: Shechem with its pasturelands in the hill country of Ephraim, Gezer with its pasturelands,
68 Jokmeam with its pasturelands, Beth–horon with its pasturelands,

6:67–68 [MT 6:52–53] Notice that the names of the tribes of Ephraim and Dan are omitted from this list, though their cities are mentioned. This seems to be a deliberate omission due to their unfaithfulness, as mentioned before. The following are the towns assigned to the Levites from these territories.
Shechem (Tell Balatah) is located in the hill country of north central Israel, just two km east of modern Nablus and ten km southeast of Samaria. It is located between the mountains of Gerizim to the south and Ebal to the north.
Gezer is identified with modern Tell el-Jezer. It is located by the central mountain range going down to the northern Shephelah, near to the western end of the Valley of Ayalon. Gezer is located on the main road leading to Jerusalem from the northern section of Palestine.
Jokmeam is found in Chronicles, while Kibzaim is its correspondent in the list of Joshua 21:22. These two names are associated with the same town—this town was probably known by two names. According to 23:19 and 24:23, a Hebronite Levitical family had the name Jekameam; perhaps this family was associated with the Levitical city Jokmeam.
There were two towns known as Beth Horon—Lower Beth Horon (Beit ‘Ur et-Tachta) and Upper Beth Horon (Beit ‘Ur et-Foqa). Chronicles mentions that these towns were built or rebuilt by Sheerah, the daughter of Beriah, an Ephraimite (7:24). According to Joshua, Beth Horon was conquered in a battle (Josh 10:10–11) against the Amorites. At the time of their allocation, Lower Beth Horon was given to the Ephraimites (Josh 16:3), and Upper Beth Horon was on the border between Ephraim (Josh 16:5) and Benjamin (Josh 18:13–14). During the Philistine wars, the Philistines attacked Beth Horon, while Saul and Jonathan stayed in Geba (1 Sam 13:18). Later, the Egyptians captured and burned Lower Beth Horon (1 Kgs 9:15–17). This town was rebuilt by Solomon. The final reference to Beth Horon is found in 2 Chronicles 25:13.

6:69 [MT 6:54]. LEVITICAL TOWNS IN THE TRIBE OF DAN
1 CHR 6:69 NKJV
69 Aijalon with its common-lands, and Gath Rimmon with its common-lands.

1 CHR 6:69 ESV
69 Aijalon with its pasturelands, Gath-rimmon with its pasturelands,

6:69 [MT 6:54] The towns of Eltekeh (Tell esh-Shallaf) and Gibbethon (Tell Malat) with its pasturelands were omitted from the text of Chronicles, but they are listed in Joshua 21:23. Aijalon (Yalo) is found in Judges 1:35 for the first time, where the Danites had initially failed in their attempt to take Aijalon from the Amorites. It was assigned to the tribe of Dan (Josh 19:42). Aijalon is mentioned, with Gibeon, as a place where the moon and sun halted at the command of Joshua (Josh 10:12). Saul and Jonathan defeated the Philistines at Aijalon after the battle of Michmash (1 Sam 14:31). In 2 Chronicles 11:10 Aijalon, built by Rehoboam as a defensive city, belonged to Judah and/or Benjamin, while in 2 Chronicles 28:18, the city belonged to Judah. The Levitical city Aijalon is listed as the third Danite city (see Josh 21:24). Aijalon was located at the western end of the Valley of Aijalon on the major road system which led to Jerusalem. Thus, the importance of Aijalon in biblical times was its strategic location.
Gath Rimmon (Tell Jerisheh or Tell Gerisa) is located in the Yarkon Valley at the fork of the Yarkon and Ayalon rivers. The site served as a main harbor city during the Middle and Late Bronze Ages. One of the Levitical cities allocated to the tribe of Dan (Josh 21:24), Gath Rimmon is also mentioned only in the inheritance of Dan (Josh 19:45). Some have suggested that Gath Rimmon is the city of Gath (knt) found in Thutmose III’s city list. The towns listed by Thutmose III are Joppa, Gath, Lod, Ono, and Aphek. Gath Rimmon is in this same geographic path. Thus, the Gath mentioned in this list seems to be Gath Rimmon.

6:70–71 [MT 6:55–56]. LEVITICAL TOWNS IN THE TRIBE OF MANASSEH
1 CHR 6:70–71 NKJV
70 And from the half-tribe of Manasseh: Aner with its common-lands and Bileam with its common-lands, for the rest of the family of the sons of Kohath.
71 From the family of the half-tribe of Manasseh the sons of Gershon were given Golan in Bashan with its common-lands and Ashtaroth with its common-lands.

1 CHR 6:70–71 ESV
70 and out of the half-tribe of Manasseh, Aner with its pasturelands, and Bileam with its pasturelands, for the rest of the clans of the Kohathites.
71 To the Gershomites were given out of the clan of the half-tribe of Manasseh: Golan in Bashan with its pasturelands and Ashtaroth with its pasturelands;

6:70–71 [MT 6:55–56] The town of Taanach (Tell Ti’innik) originally belonged to Issachar and Asher; later it was assigned to Manasseh (Josh 17:12; 1 Chr 7:29). Though Joshua smote this city (12:21), “Manasseh did not drive out the inhabitants of … Taanach and its villages” (Judg 1:27). Deborah, in her hymn, describes that the battle against Sisera took place “in Taanach, by the waters of Megiddo” (Judg 5:19). Later, Israel subjected the population of this city to forced labor (Judg 1:28). Solomon listed Taanach in his fifth district administered by Baana, son of Ahilud (1 Kgs 4:12). The town was assigned to the Kohathite Levites of Manasseh (Josh 21:25).
Bileam is a variant reading of Ibleam (Khirbet Bel’ameh). It was originally a town in Issachar’s territory. Manasseh, however, tried to conquer it but could not drive out the Canaanites (see Josh 17:11–12; Judg 1:27). Ibleam was mentioned as a royal city in the Egyptian archives and occurs in the list of Thutmose III as a city he conquered. Jehu wounded Ahaziah, king of Judah, at Gur, outside Ibleam, and he died. This town had a natural water system, making it a desirable location for a fortress. Ibleam, along with Megiddo and Jokneam, was one of the fortifications guarding the entrance to Jezreel valley.
Golan (Sahm el–Jolan) was one of the cities of refuge allotted to Manasseh (Deut 4:43; Josh 20:8). It was situated in the territory of the half-tribe of Manasseh that settled in Bashan (Deut 3:13). Also, it was a Levitical city assigned to the Gershonites (Josh 21:27; 1 Chr 6:71). As a Levitical city, it served as the cultic and administrative center of the Israelite settlement in Transjordan by the Yarmuk River during the united kingdom period.
Ashtaroth (Tell ‘Ashtarah) is located on a mound known today as Tell ‘Ashtarah in Bashan. It was the dwelling place of Og, king of Bashan (Deut 1:4; Josh 9:10; 12:4; 13:12, 31). Ashtaroth was occupied by the half-tribe of Manasseh (Josh 13:31) and became a Levitical city, allotted to the Gershonites (Josh 21:27). Uzzia, one of David’s mighty man, is called the Ashterathite, indicating his native town (11:44).

6:72–73 [MT 6:57–58]. LEVITICAL TOWNS IN THE TRIBE OF ISSACHAR
1 CHR 6:72–73 NKJV
72 And from the tribe of Issachar: Kedesh with its common-lands, Daberath with its common-lands,
73 Ramoth with its common-lands, and Anem with its common-lands.

1 CHR 6:72–73 ESV
72 and out of the tribe of Issachar: Kedesh with its pasturelands, Daberath with its pasturelands, 73 Ramoth with its pasturelands, and Anem with its pasturelands;

6:72–73 [MT 6:57–58] The town of Kedesh, or probably Kishion as in the list of Joshua 21:28, is a Levitical city allotted to the Gershonites and found in the distribution list to Issachar (Josh 19:20; 21:28). There is no parallel to Kishion in the Levitical cities list in 1 Chronicles. Because of the uncertainty of its location, three sites are usually considered as candidates for Kishion: Tell el-Ajjul, Tell el-Muqarqash, and Khirbet Qasyun.
Daberath was a Levitical city in Issachar’s territory (Josh 21:28) at the border of Zebulun (Josh 19:12). In the Issachar distribution list of Joshua 19, Daberath does not appear. Daberath has been identified with Khirbet Dabbura, located on the side of Mount Tabor, less than five km from the modern village of Daburiyeh.
Ramoth (probably Kokab el-Hawa’) is a town from Issachar, granted to the sons of Gershom (6:73). The city, listed in Joshua 21:29, is called Jarmuth (yarmût). Ramoth is probably identical with Remeth of Issachar (Josh 19:21). The location of Ramoth is purely a matter of conjecture.
Anem might be an abbreviation for En Gannim, found in Joshua 21:29. En Gannim is mentioned only once in the Bible (Josh 21:29). It does not have any parallel in 1 Chronicles. It may possibly be associated with Jenin, but Jenin is located in the territory of Manasseh, only two km from Khirbet Bel’ameh, a city that has been identified with the Levitical city Ibleam (6:70–71). Two other cities have been identified with En Gannim—one is En-onam and the other is Khirbet Beit Jann. So far, no conclusion has been established regarding its precise identification.

6:74–75 [MT 6:59–60]. LEVITICAL TOWNS IN THE TRIBE OF ASHER
1 CHR 6:74–75 NKJV
74 And from the tribe of Asher: Mashal with its common-lands, Abdon with its common-lands, 75 Hukok with its common-lands, and Rehob with its common-lands.

1 CHR 6:74–75 ESV
74 out of the tribe of Asher: Mashal with its pasturelands, Abdon with its pasturelands,
75 Hukok with its pasturelands, and Rehob with its pasturelands;

6:74–75 [MT 6:59–60] The town of Mishal/Mashal (Tel Kisan) is one of the towns allotted to the tribe of Asher (Josh 19:25–26). It was also set aside for the Levitical clan of Gershom (Josh 21:30), where the variant Mashal is found. Mishal is found in the Execration Texts from the nineteenth century BC, as well as in the list of the military campaign of Thutmose III, ca. 1490–1436 BC. Mishal is listed there with other sites from the plain of Acco, suggesting that it is the same as the city of Asher.
Abdon (Khirbet ‘Abda) is mentioned three times in the OT, once in the territory assigned to Asher in Joshua 19:28 and twice among the cities assigned to the Levites (Josh 21:30; 1 Chr 6:74). It has been identified with Khirbet ‘Abda, a site located six km from the Mediterranean coast. Khirbet ‘Abda is located on the plain of Acco and on the important Wadi el-Qarn. This town dominated an important trade route from Phoenicia to the Galilee region. There is an abundant water supply at the site.
Helkath/Hukok (Tell el-Qassis) is a town in the tribe of Asher given to the Levites. In Joshua 21:31 the name of the city is chelqat, but in 1 Chronicles 6:75 it appears as chuqoq. There is no other reference to Hukok in the OT. Probably, both are variant names of the same town. Helkath also appears in the Joshua allotment list to Asher (19:25). An extra-biblical reference to Helkath is in the Thutmose III list of towns. At Karnak there is a list of cities conquered by the Egyptians containing the name of Helkath.
Rehob (Tell el Gharbi?) has two possible locations in Galilee. One is in the extreme north of Canaan, near the entrance to Hamath (Num 13:21). This was probably the same as Beth Rehob (2 Sam 10:6, 8). The second was a town in Asher allocated to the Levites (Josh 21:31), but Asher was unable to drive out its inhabitants (Judg 1:31). It is mentioned in connection with the tribe of Asher (Josh 19:28, 30). This suggests the possibility that there may have been two places named Rehob in Asher.

6:76 [MT 6:61]. LEVITICAL TOWNS IN THE TRIBE OF NAPHTALI
1 CHR 6:76 NKJV
76 And from the tribe of Naphtali: Kedesh in Galilee with its common-lands, Hammon with its common-lands, and Kirjathaim with its common-lands.

1 CHR 6:76 ESV
76 and out of the tribe of Naphtali: Kedesh in Galilee with its pasturelands, Hammon with its pasturelands, and Kiriathaim with its pasturelands.

6:76 [MT 6:61] Kedesh is a Levitical city assigned to the sons of Gershon. In Joshua 21:28 this town is written as Kishion; these are probably two variant names of the same town. This site might be related to Kedesh near where Sisera was killed (Judg 4:11). Since the text of 6:76 mentions Kedesh in Galilee, this topographical name may be a reference to a town in that area.
Hammon/Hammath (Hamman Tabariyeh) is a town assigned to Naphtali and given to the Gershonites. It is in the place of Hammath in Joshua’s list (Josh 19:35) and probably related to Hammoth Dor (Josh 21:32).
Kirjathaim/Kartam (Khirbet el Qureiyeh) is a town in the territory of Naphtali, assigned to the Gershonites and corresponding to Kartan in the list of Joshua 21:32. It should not be confused with the town of the same name in Moab held by Sihon and given by Moses to Reuben (Num 32:37; Josh 13:19).

6:77 [MT 6:62] LEVITICAL TOWNS IN THE TRIBE OF ZEBULUN
1 CHR 6:77 NKJV
77 From the tribe of Zebulun the rest of the children of Merari were given Rimmon with its common-lands and Tabor with its common-lands.

1 CHR 6:77 ESV
77 To the rest of the Merarites were allotted out of the tribe of Zebulun: Rimmono with its pasturelands, Tabor with its pasturelands,

6:77 [MT 6:62] Jokneam and Nahalal are omitted from Chronicles’ list; they are, however, present in Joshua 19:11; 21:34–35. Rimmon is a town assigned to Zebulun (Josh 19:13). The village seems to have been given to the Levites (6:77). The MT of Joshua 21:35 reads “Dimnah”—a site with this name was never found. It is likely that the Hebrew letter reš was confused with dalet. This idea is reinforced by 6:77, where a similar list is found of the Levitical cities, mentioning “Rimmono” as a town of Zebulun. The biblical site is usually identified with modern Rummanah, nine km from Nazareth.
Tabor is a Levitical town in the territory of Zebulun, listed in 6:77 but missing in the parallel list of Joshua 21:34–35. If Mount Tabor is related to this town, then both should have been included in the territory of Zebulun, which is not the case. Some scholars have suggested that this Levitical city is actually Chisloth-tabor, a town located on the border of the territory of Zebulun (Josh 19:12). Chesulloth in the territory of Issachar (Josh 19:18) seems to be a variant name of this town.

6:78–79 [MT 6:63–64]. LEVITICAL TOWNS IN THE TRIBE OF REUBEN
1 CHR 6:78–79 NKJV
78 And on the other side of the Jordan, across from Jericho, on the east side of the Jordan, they were given from the tribe of Reuben: Bezer in the wilderness with its common-lands, Jahzah with its common-lands,
79 Kedemoth with its common-lands, and Mephaath with its common-lands.

1 CHR 6:78–79 ESV
78 and beyond the Jordan at Jericho, on the east side of the Jordan, out of the tribe of Reuben: Bezer in the wilderness with its pasturelands, Jahzah with its pasturelands,
79 Kedemoth with its pasturelands, and Mephaath with its pasturelands;

6:78–79 [MT 6:63–64] Bezer is a city of refuge, set apart by Moses for the Reubenites and located on the plain east of the Jordan (Deut 4:43; Josh 20:8). The same city was assigned by lot as a place of residence to the children of Merari of the Levite tribe (Josh 21:36; 1 Chr 6:63, 78). Bezer may be associated with the town of Bozrah (Jer 48:24). A Mesha Stela inscription lists Bezer among the Israelite towns that were taken by Mesha in his military campaign. Line 27 emphasizes the destruction Moab brought upon Bezer: “I rebuilt Bezer, for it was in ruins.” Bezer is often identified with Umm el ’Amad, which is located eight miles northeast of Medeba. Bezer is perhaps the same town as Bosor (1 Macc 5:36) and Moabite Bozrah (Jer 48:24), but it should not be confused with the Edomite city of Bozrah, modern Buseirah.
Jahzah/Jahaz (Khirbet Medeiniyeh?) is the place where Israel fought against Sihon, king of the Amorites, consequently taking possession of all his territory (Num 21:23). It is named with Beth-baal-meon and Kedemoth in Joshua 13:17–18; 21:37, thus pointing to a location in the southeast of the Amorite territory. It was given to the tribe of Reuben and was one of the cities assigned to the Merarite Levites (Josh 13). Mesha says that the king of Israel dwelt in Jahaz when at war with him. Mesha drove him out, and the city passed into the hands of Moab. It is mentioned as a city of Moab in Isaiah 15:4 and Jeremiah 48:21, 34. Though its exact location is so far unknown, Dearman points to Khirbet Medeiniyeh as the best possibility for the site of Jahaz.
Kedemoth (es-Saliyeh) is a city Moses gave to the tribe of Reuben (Josh 13:18) and assigned to the Merarite Levites (Josh 21:37).
Mephaath is a city allotted to the tribe of Reuben, listed with Kedemoth and Kirjathaim (Josh 13:18) and given to the Merarites (Josh 21:37; 1 Chr 6:79). It appears again as a Moabite town in Jeremiah 48:21. There are various sites proposed as the location of this town.

6:80–81 [MT 6:65–66]. LEVITICAL TOWNS IN THE TRIBE OF GAD
1 CHR 6:80–81 NKJV
80 And from the tribe of Gad: Ramoth in Gilead with its common-lands, Mahanaim with its common-lands,
81 Heshbon with its common-lands, and Jazer with its common-lands.

1 CHR 6:80–81 ESV
80 and out of the tribe of Gad: Ramoth in Gilead with its pasturelands, Mahanaim with its pasturelands,
81 Heshbon with its pasturelands, and Jazer with its pasturelands.

6:80–81 [MT 6:65–66] Ramoth in Gilead was a city east of the Jordan in the territory of Gad, which played an important part in Israel’s history. It is first mentioned in connection with the cities of refuge (Deut 4:43; Josh 20:8). It was assigned to the Merarite Levites (Josh 21:38). Ben–Geber was the governor of Ramoth Gilead, one of Solomon’s administrative districts (1 Kgs 4:13). The city was taken by Ben-Hadad I, king of Syria. Ahab invited Jehoshaphat of Judah to accompany him to recover it for Israel. Despite the advice of Micaiah the prophet, they set out on this disastrous enterprise. Ahab fought in disguise but was mortally wounded (1 Kgs 22:1–40; 2 Chr 18). Ahab’s son Joram attempted to conquer this city again, but he was seriously wounded, forcing him to take refuge in Jezreel (2 Kgs 8:28; 2 Chr 22:5).
Mahanaim (Tell edh-Dhahab) is located to the east of the Jordan and is first mentioned in connection with Jacob. Here he paused after departing from Laban, before the passage of the Jabbok (Gen 32:2). The town lay on the border of Gad and Manasseh (Josh 13:26, 30). It was assigned to the tribe of Gad as a Levitical town (Josh 21:38). The strength of the place attracted Abner, who placed there the capital of Ishbosheth’s kingdom. David fled to this same fortress when threatened by the rebellion of Absalom (2 Sam 17:27). It was one of the centers of Solomon’s administrative districts, and here Ahinadab the son of Iddo was governor (1 Kgs 4:14).
Heshbon (Tell Heshbon) was the royal city of Sihon, king of the Amorites, taken and occupied by the Israelites under Moses (Num 21:25). It lay on the southern border of Gad (Josh 13:26) and was one of the cities fortified by the Reubenites (Num 32:37). Heshbon is reckoned among the cities of Gad given to the Merarites (Josh 21:39). Between 1968 and 1976, Andrews University sponsored five seasons of excavation. These five seasons of archaeological excavation at Tell Heshbon did not uncover any remains dated before 1200 BC, thus posing a problem for the location of Sihon’s Amorite capital, referred to in Numbers 21:21–25; Deuteronomy 2:16–37; Judges 11:12–28. According to Lawrence T. Geraty, evidence of Amorite occupation may not have been found so far because the Amorites were a seminomadic society, leaving no trace upon this site.
Jazer (Khirbet Jazzir) was a city of the Amorites east of the Jordan that was taken by Moses and occupied by the tribe of Gad (Num 21:32; 32:35). The country was very fertile with spacious pasturelands (Num 32:1). It was assigned to the Merarite Levites (Josh 21:39). Joab passed through this town when taking the census ordered by David (2 Sam 24:5). The productivity of the land is mentioned in Isaiah 16:8 and Jeremiah 48:32.
This genealogy addresses three subjects. First, it seems to argue that throughout history the priests in Jerusalem were descendants of Aaron and Zadok (6:1–15 [MT 5:27–41]). This is the most complete list of priests available from the Bible. Second, it calls attention to the ministry of music as an important component of the Levitical institution (6:31–39 [MT 6:16–34]). Third, it has to do with the cities of the priests and Levites as their inheritance and as a sign of their religious leadership throughout the land (6:54–81 [MT 6:39–66]).
This list of priests (6:1–15) is not exhaustive in the sense of completeness. It had the purpose of providing a direct link from the postexilic priesthood to Zadok [i] and Aaron. Therefore, those priests irrelevant to this purpose were omitted without comment. There are twenty-one generations from Eleazar to Jehozadak (6:15). These generations cover a period of more than eight hundred years. This list does not ******* any descendant of Ithamar. His descendants who held office were Eli, Phinehas [III], Ahitub, Ahimelech [i] (Ahijah?), Abiathar, and Ahimelech [II] (1 Sam 14:3; 22:20; 2 Sam 8:17). Several other preexilic high priests were not included either, for example, Amariah [II] (2 Chr 19:11); Jehoiada (2 Chr 22:11; 23:1; 24:15); his son Zechariah (2 Chr 24:20); Uriah (2 Kgs 16:10); Azariah [III] (2 Chr 31:10), and Meraioth (9:11), the son of Ahitub [III] (6:12).
The reason for their exclusion seems to be that their life experience did not bring much historical connection to the temple. The purpose of this list of priests and their towns is listed as follows:

1. They were listed to demonstrate that the priestly line was an unbroken genealogical chain from Levi through Aaron until the postexilic period. The main purpose was the legitimacy and continuity of the priestly line.
2. It affirms the legitimacy of the Zadokite line from the time of David to the exile and after, especially Joshua as the son of Jehozadak.
3. According to Chronicles, the priests did not have any political authority, and that state of things should continue.
4. To avoid any misunderstanding, this list gives to Samuel a Levitical authority not found in the books of Samuel.
5. It bestows significant authority upon the musicians and singers. They were in office since David and should continue in the postexilic time. They are in the center of the priestly list, showing their centrality in worship.
6. The list of cities and towns is to indicate the Levitical presence and influence throughout the land. They were the religious leaders. The message the Chronicler seems to convey is that the Levites should continue with such an influence in the postexilic time as they had before. They should avoid strife regarding political ambition for position of authority. Their goal was to serve in the various ministries of teaching and in the temple’s rituals.

SECONDARY TRIBES (7:1–40)
The numbers recorded from a military census for some of the northern tribes, Issachar and Asher, seem to be an indication that even though these tribes were not a part of the postexilic community, they were historically important for Israel as a nation. Their exclusion was the result of their own choice. Benjamin is an example of that—they were part of Israel together with Judah in the postexilic time. Dan and Zebulun, however, are omitted from this account, and Naphtali receives little space. This may be due to their unfaithfulness. Notice that Jeroboam [i] built two sanctuaries—one in Dan and the other in the territory of Ephraim—where they prostituted themselves by following other gods (1 Kgs 12:28–29). Notice that Dan and Ephraim are not in the list of Revelation 7.

7:1–5. GENEALOGY OF ISSACHAR
1 CHR 7:1–5 NKJV
1 The sons of Issachar were Tola, Puah, Jashub, and Shimron—four in all.
2 The sons of Tola were Uzzi, Rephaiah, Jeriel, Jahmai, Jibsam, and Shemuel, heads of their father’s house. The sons of Tola were mighty men of valor in their generations; their number in the days of David was twenty-two thousand six hundred.
3 The son of Uzzi was Izrahiah, and the sons of Izrahiah were Michael, Obadiah, Joel, and Ishiah. All five of them were chief men.
4 And with them, by their generations, according to their fathers’ houses, were thirty-six thousand troops ready for war; for they had many wives and sons.
5 Now their brethren among all the families of Issachar were mighty men of valor, listed by their genealogies, eighty-seven thousand in all.

1 CHR 7:1–5 ESV
1 The sons of Issachar: Tola, Puah, Jashub, and Shimron, four.
2 The sons of Tola: Uzzi, Rephaiah, Jeriel, Jahmai, Ibsam, and Shemuel, heads of their fathers’ houses, namely of Tola, mighty warriors of their generations, their number in the days of David being 22,600.
3 The son of Uzzi: Izrahiah. And the sons of Izrahiah: Michael, Obadiah, Joel, and Isshiah, all five of them were chief men.
4 And along with them, by their generations, according to their fathers’ houses, were units of the army for war, 36,000, for they had many wives and sons.
5 Their kinsmen belonging to all the clans of Issachar were in all 87,000 mighty warriors, enrolled by genealogy.

7:1 Verse 1 is in parallel with Numbers 26:23–24 and with Genesis 46:13. For the lack of evidence, the judge with the same name, Tola, mentioned in Judges 10:1, should not be confused with this son of Issachar.
7:2 The term mighty men of valor (gibborey hayil), which is used in several places in the same chapter (7:2, 5, 9, 11, 40), indicates that this information was probably taken from the military census made by Joab under the command of David (ch. 21; 2 Sam 24). The phrase in the days of David may support this statement.
(Fig. 23) Cap. 7:1–5 Descendants of Issacahar
7:5 Issachar was one of the largest tribes, in number, in Israel. Only Judah, with 470,000/500,000 mighty men, was more numerous than Issachar (21:5; 2 Sam 24:9). Observe that the total—87,000 men (7:5) minus the number of the mighty men of Tola (7:2), which was 22,600—is 64,400 men. This is the exact number stated in Numbers 26:25 for Issachar. Variants of the phrase listed by their genealogies are found also in Ezra 2:62; 8:1; 1 Chronicles 9:22; 2 Chronicles 31:16, indicating that the Chronicler had access to some official listing not available to us.

7:6–12. GENEALOGY OF BENJAMIN
1 CHR 7:6–12 NKJV
6 The sons of Benjamin were Bela, Becher, and Jediael—three in all.
7 The sons of Bela were Ezbon, Uzzi, Uzziel, Jerimoth, and Iri—five in all. They were heads of their fathers’ houses, and they were listed by their genealogies, twenty-two thousand and thirty-four mighty men of valor.
8 The sons of Becher were Zemirah, Joash, Eliezer, Elioenai, Omri, Jerimoth, Abijah, Anathoth, and Alemeth. All these are the sons of Becher.
9 And they were recorded by genealogy according to their generations, heads of their fathers’ houses, twenty thousand two hundred mighty men of valor.
10 The son of Jediael was Bilhan, and the sons of Bilhan were Jeush, Benjamin, Ehud, Chenaanah, Zethan, Tharshish, and Ahishahar.
11 All these sons of Jediael were heads of their fathers’ houses; there were seventeen thousand two hundred mighty men of valor fit to go out for war and battle.
12 Shuppim and Huppim were the sons of Ir, and Hushim was the son of Aher.

1 CHR 7:6–12 ESV
6 The sons of Benjamin: Bela, Becher, and Jediael, three.
7 The sons of Bela: Ezbon, Uzzi, Uzziel, Jerimoth, and Iri, five, heads of fathers’ houses, mighty warriors. And their enrollment by genealogies was 22,034.
8 The sons of Becher: Zemirah, Joash, Eliezer, Elioenai, Omri, Jeremoth, Abijah, Anathoth, and Alemeth. All these were the sons of Becher.
9 And their enrollment by genealogies, according to their generations, as heads of their fathers’ houses, mighty warriors, was 20,200.
10 The son of Jediael: Bilhan. And the sons of Bilhan: Jeush, Benjamin, Ehud, Chenaanah, Zethan, Tarshish, and Ahishahar.
11 All these were the sons of Jediael according to the heads of their fathers’ houses, mighty warriors, 17,200, able to go to war.
12 And Shuppim and Huppim were the sons of Ir, Hushim the son of Aher.

7:6–11 The sons of Benjamin are listed here, even though Joab did not count Benjamin and Levi (21:6). The Chronicler may have taken this information from somewhere else and not from the census of chapter 21. Notice that the entirety of chapter 8 presents a detailed description of Benjamin’s genealogy for it was a royal tribe and part of the postexilic community. Various places in the Bible besides 7:6 list the sons of Benjamin:

Genesis
46:21 Numbers 26:38–39 1 Chronicles 8:1–2 1 Chronicles 7:6
Belah Bela Bela Bela
Becher Ashbel Ashbel Becher
Ashbel Ahiram Aharah Jediael
Gera Shupham Nohah
Naaman Hupham Rapha
Ehi
Rosh
Muppim
Huppim
Ard

These lists are not intended to be complete but are only a representation of the main line of descendants, including sons and grandsons. Some may have lost their position as leaders, and others were substituted for them in the next genealogy. So far, this seems to be the best explanation for the differences.
The descendants of Bela (7:7) are also registered in Numbers 26:40 and in 1 Chronicles 8:3–5. Becher (7:8) is listed in Genesis 46:21, and Numbers 26:35 mentions the Becherites as part of Ephraim—probably a reference to another family. Most of the sons of Jediael (7:10) are found nowhere else.
7:12 Verse 12 seems to be a reference, added after the Chronicler finished the listing, to Genesis 46:21, where the names Muppim (Shuppim?), Huppim, and Ard (Ir/Iri?) are listed as sons of Benjamin. The only plausible reference to Dan (7:12) seems to be the name of Hushim, who is listed in Genesis 46:23 as the only son of Dan. In Numbers 26:42, this name appears as “Shupham,” most probably a metathesis, an inversion of the consonants (sh/h). This statement is challenged by the fact that Aher may be a reference to Aharah (Ahiram in Num 26:38), son of Benjamin, listed in 8:1–2. Thus, Hushim, mentioned in this text, seems to be the son of Aharah/Aher and not of Dan. Therefore, Genesis 46:23 could be a reference to another Hushim. A different possibility is that the name Aher is the word “another,” which has the same spelling (akher) in the Hebrew language. Hence, the translation would be “Hushim was the son of another,” purposely avoiding the name of Dan. So far, no satisfactory answer has been found for this problem besides this one.
(Fig. 24) 7:6–12, Genealogy of Benjamin

7:13. GENEALOGY OF NAPHTALI
1 CHR 7:13 NKJV
13 The sons of Naphtali were Jahziel, Guni, Jezer, and Shallum, the sons of Bilhah.

1 CHR 7:13 ESV
13 The sons of Naphtali: Jahziel, Guni, Jezer and Shallum, the descendants of Bilhah.

7:13 The length of this genealogy, compared with Genesis 46:23–25, shows the lack of interest or material the Chronicler had regarding the northern tribes. The plural of the word “son,” found in the phrase “the sons of Bilha,” the servant of Rachel, may indicate that Dan and Naphtali were considered in 7:12–13.

7:14–19. GENEALOGY OF MANASSEH
1 CHR 7:14–19 NKJV
14 The descendants of Manasseh: his Syrian concubine bore him Machir the father of Gilead, the father of Asriel.
15 Machir took as his wife the sister of Huppim and Shuppim, whose name was Maachah. The name of Gilead’s grandson was Zelophehad, but Zelophehad begot only daughters.
16 (Maachah the wife of Machir bore a son, and she called his name Peresh. The name of his brother was Sheresh, and his sons were Ulam and Rakem.
17 The son of Ulam was Bedan.) These were the descendants of Gilead the son of Machir, the son of Manasseh.
18 His sister Hammoleketh bore Ishhod, Abiezer, and Mahlah.
19 And the sons of Shemida were Ahian, Shechem, Likhi, and Aniam.

1 CHR 7:14–19 ESV
14 The sons of Manasseh: Asriel, whom his Aramean concubine bore; she bore Machir the father of Gilead.
15 And Machir took a wife for Huppim and for Shuppim. The name of his sister was Maacah. And the name of the second was Zelophehad, and Zelophehad had daughters.
16 And Maacah the wife of Machir bore a son, and she called his name Peresh; and the name of his brother was Sheresh; and his sons were Ulam and Rakem.
17 The son of Ulam: Bedan. These were the sons of Gilead the son of Machir, son of Manasseh. 18 And his sister Hammolecheth bore Ishhod, Abiezer, and Mahlah.
19 The sons of Shemida were Ahian, Shechem, Likhi, and Aniam.

7:14–19 Machir was the firstborn of Manasseh, who had seven sons altogether. Joshua 17:1–3 presents a similar genealogy to Chronicles, and Numbers 26:29–34 differs slightly but still supports the Chronicles’ reading.
(Fig. 25) Genealogy of Manasseh 7:14–19

7:20–27. GENEALOGY OF EPHRAIM
1 CHR 7:20–27 NKJV
20 The sons of Ephraim were Shuthelah, Bered his son, Tahath his son, Eladah his son, Tahath his son,
21 Zabad his son, Shuthelah his son, and Ezer and Elead. The men of Gath who were born in that land killed them because they came down to take away their cattle.
22 Then Ephraim their father mourned many days, and his brethren came to comfort him. 23 And when he went in to his wife, she conceived and bore a son; and he called his name Beriah, because tragedy had come upon his house.
24 Now his daughter was Sheerah, who built Lower and Upper Beth Horon and Uzzen Sheerah; 25 and Rephah was his son, as well as Resheph, and Telah his son, Tahan his son,
26 Laadan his son, Ammihud his son, Elishama his son,
27 Nun his son, and Joshua his son.

1 CHR 7:20–27 ESV
20 The sons of Ephraim: Shuthelah, and Bered his son, Tahath his son, Eleadah his son, Tahath his son,
21 Zabad his son, Shuthelah his son, and Ezer and Elead, whom the men of Gath who were born in the land killed, because they came down to raid their livestock.
22 And Ephraim their father mourned many days, and his brothers came to comfort him.
23 And Ephraim went in to his wife, and she conceived and bore a son. And he called his name Beriah, because disaster had befallen his house.
24 His daughter was Sheerah, who built both Lower and Upper Beth–horon, and Uzzen–sheerah. 25 Rephah was his son, Resheph his son, Telah his son, Tahan his son,
26 Ladan his son, Ammihud his son, Elishama his son,
27 Nun his son, Joshua his son.

7:22 The words, Ephraim their father mourned, refers to the entire tribe and not to the patriarch himself. Notice that Ephraim lived in Egypt centuries before the conquest of Canaan. There, he bore his sons. Thus, it is something similar to Jeremiah 31:15, where Rachel symbolically weeps for her children when the northern tribes were taken captive by the Assyrians. Another possibility for it is seen in the next verse (7:23).
7:23 He went in to his wife—an indication of sexual intercourse. If so, though the patriarch Ephraim lived in Egypt, his sons were having some kind of business affair in Canaan, which was an Egyptian-controlled territory at that time. Therefore, Ezer and Elead (see 7:21) were sons of Ephraim and not of Shuthelah [II] of 7:21. Shuthelah (I) is found in 7:20.
7:27 The first reference in the Bible to Joshua is in Exodus 17:9, and his father Nun is first referenced in Exodus 33:11. This reference to Joshua would bring to the mind of the reader the faithfulness Joshua had for accomplishing his task, under God’s guidance, in the process of taking possession of the promised land. This seems to be a direct allusion to the conquest, an inspiration to the postexilic community to trust in God in the new Exodus and in the new “conquest” of the promised land. They had problems in the past, such as the death of Ezer and Elead (7:21) by the men of Gath, but God never abandoned them as a nation.
(Fig. 27) 7:20–27, Genealogy of Ephraim

7:28–29. TOWNS WHERE JOSEPH’S DESCENDANTS DWELT
1 CHR 7:28–29 NKJV
28 Now their possessions and dwelling places were Bethel and its towns: to the east Naaran, to the west Gezer and its towns, and Shechem and its towns, as far as Ayyah and its towns;
29 and by the borders of the children of Manasseh were Beth Shean and its towns, Taanach and its towns, Megiddo and its towns, Dor and its towns. In these dwelt the children of Joseph, the son of Israel.

1 CHR 7:28–29 ESV
28 Their possessions and settlements were Bethel and its towns, and to the east Naaran, and to the west Gezer and its towns, Shechem and its towns, and Ayyah and its towns;
29 also in possession of the Manassites, Beth–shean and its towns, Taanach and its towns, Megiddo and its towns, Dor and its towns. In these lived the sons of Joseph the son of Israel.


7:28–29 These verses documented the cities and towns where the descendants of Joseph dwelt (see Josh 17:11), namely, Bethel, Naaran, Gezer, Shechem, Ayyah, Beth Shean, Taanach, Ibleam, Megiddo, and Dor (see ch. 6 for more information on the location of these towns). This list ends with the children of Joseph, which is also a possible reference to Manasseh. So, this territory demarcates the possession of both tribes, Ephraim and Manasseh.

7:30–40. GENEALOGY OF ASHER
1 CHR 7:30–40 NKJV
30 The sons of Asher were Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi, Beriah, and their sister Serah.
31 The sons of Beriah were Heber and Malchiel, who was the father of Birzaith.
32 And Heber begot Japhlet, Shomer, Hotham, and their sister Shua.
33 The sons of Japhlet were Pasach, Bimhal, and Ashvath. These were the children of Japhlet. 34 The sons of Shemer were Ahi, Rohgah, Jehubbah, and Aram.
35 And the sons of his brother Helem were Zophah, Imna, Shelesh, and Amal.
36 The sons of Zophah were Suah, Harnepher, Shual, Beri, Imrah,
37 Bezer, Hod, Shamma, Shilshah, Jithran, and Beera.
38 The sons of Jether were Jephunneh, Pispah, and Ara.
39 The sons of Ulla were Arah, Haniel, and Rizia.
40 All these were the children of Asher, heads of their fathers’ houses, choice men, mighty men of valor, chief leaders. And they were recorded by genealogies among the army fit for battle; their number was twenty-six thousand.

1 CHR 7:30–40 ESV
30 The sons of Asher: Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi, Beriah, and their sister Serah.
31 The sons of Beriah: Heber, and Malchiel, who fathered Birzaith.
32 Heber fathered Japhlet, Shomer, Hotham, and their sister Shua.
33 The sons of Japhlet: Pasach, Bimhal, and Ashvath. These are the sons of Japhlet.
34 The sons of Shemer his brother: Rohgah, Jehubbah, and Aram.
35 The sons of Helem his brother: Zophah, Imna, Shelesh, and Amal.
36 The sons of Zophah: Suah, Harnepher, Shual, Beri, Imrah.
37 Bezer, Hod, Shamma, Shilshah, Ithran, and Beera.
38 The sons of Jether: Jephunneh, Pispa, and Ara.
39 The sons of Ulla: Arah, Hanniel, and Rizia.
40 All of these were men of Asher, heads of fathers’ houses, approved, mighty warriors, chiefs of the princes. Their number enrolled by genealogies, for service in war, was 26,000 men.

7:30–39 Most of the names listed here are found in the parallel list of Genesis 46:17 and in Numbers 26:44–46.
7:40 The number of men for Asher was 26,000. In the parallel passages of Numbers 1:41; 2:28, the figure is 41,500; in Numbers 26:47 it is 53,400; and in 1 Chronicles 12:36–37 it is 40,000. The difference could be explained by accepting that chapter 7 lists a partial number of the total men belonging to Asher, probably one or two clans.
The author set aside an entire chapter to introduce to the reader the Transjordanian tribes of Issachar, Benjamin, Naphtali, Manasseh, Ephraim, Asher, and possibly Dan. Thus, in the perspective of the Chronicles, the entire north, with its northern tribes, were also included in his definition of Israel. Also, this subsection provides important information regarding territorial boundaries and tribe organization that can be verified based on parallel passages and archeological findings.
(Fig 27) 7:30–40 Genealogy of Asher

THE ROYAL TRIBE OF BENJAMIN (8:1–40)
Benjamin and Judah were the main tribes in Israel’s history and also in the Chronicler’s time. Both were royal tribes; they, together with the tribe of Levi, were loyal to David and to what the sanctuary/temple represented. Both are also the main tribes in the postexilic time (see Ezra 1:5). Therefore, the Chronicler placed Benjamin in parallel with Judah in the chiastic structure.

8:1–7. DESCENDANTS OF BELA, SON OF BENJAMIN
1 CHR 8:1–7 NKJV
1 Now Benjamin begot Bela his firstborn, Ashbel the second, Aharah the third,
2 Nohah the fourth, and Rapha the fifth.
3 The sons of Bela were Addar, Gera, Abihud,
4 Abishua, Naaman, Ahoah,
5 Gera, Shephuphan, and Huram.
6 These are the sons of Ehud, who were the heads of the fathers’ houses of the inhabitants of Geba, and who forced them to move to Manahath:
7 Naaman, Ahijah, and Gera who forced them to move. He begot Uzza and Ahihud.

1 CHR 8:1–7 ESV
1 Benjamin fathered Bela his firstborn, Ashbel the second, Aharah the third,
2 Nohah the fourth, and Rapha the fifth.
3 And Bela had sons: Addar, Gera, Abihud,
4 Abishua, Naaman, Ahoah,
5 Gera, Shephuphan, and Huram.
6 These are the sons of Ehud (they were heads of fathers’ houses of the inhabitants of Geba, and they were carried into exile to Manahath):
7 Naaman, Ahijah, and Gera, that is, Heglam, who fathered Uzza and Ahihud.

8:1–2 See commentary on chapter 7.
8:3–5 There are some differences between these verses and the lists of Genesis 46:21 and Numbers 26:40. These differences can be explained by taking into consideration that not all genealogies are a continuing sequence of descendants but can be a list of family members placing all as sons even though some are actually grandsons. For example, Addar/Ard is the son of Benjamin in Genesis 46:21, but in 1 Chronicles 8:3, he is his grandson. The same happens with Naaman. In 8:3, the name Abihud seems to be a conflation of two words, “Ehud” (‘ehud) and “father of” (‘abi); thus the text would read, “Gera, the father of Ehud.” The name Addar (8:3) could have suffered a metathesis, an inversion of the consonants D with R—both letters are similar in the Hebrew alphabet. Thus, Addar could be the same as the Ard of Genesis 46:21.
8:6–7 Ehud in 8:6 is another support to read Ehud for Abihud in 8:3. He could have been the judge who delivered Israel from Moabite oppression (Judg 3:15–30). Ehud’s sons, in 8:7, forced the Canaanite inhabitants of Geba to move to another town called Manahath.
(Fig. 28) 8:1–7 Genealogy of Benjamin

 
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8:8–14. DESCENDANTS OF SHAHRAIM WITH HIS WIVES HODESH AND HUSHIM
1 CHR 8:8–14 NKJV
8 Also Shaharaim had children in the country of Moab, after he had sent away Hushim and Baara his wives.
9 By Hodesh his wife he begot Jobab, Zibia, Mesha, Malcam,
10 Jeuz, Sachiah, and Mirmah. These were his sons, heads of their fathers’ houses.
11 And by Hushim he begot Abitub and Elpaal.
12 The sons of Elpaal were Eber, Misham, and Shemed, who built Ono and Lod with its towns; 13 and Beriah and Shema, who were heads of their fathers’ houses of the inhabitants of Aijalon, who drove out the inhabitants of Gath.
14 Ahio, Shashak, Jeremoth,

1 CHR 8:8–14 ESV
8 And Shaharaim fathered sons in the country of Moab after he had sent away Hushim and Baara his wives.
9 He fathered sons by Hodesh his wife: Jobab, Zibia, Mesha, Malcam,
10 Jeuz, Sachia, and Mirmah. These were his sons, heads of fathers’ houses.
11 He also fathered sons by Hushim: Abitub and Elpaal.
12 The sons of Elpaal: Eber, Misham, and Shemed, who built Ono and Lod with its towns, 13 and Beriah and Shema (they were heads of fathers’ houses of the inhabitants of Aijalon, who caused the inhabitants of Gath to flee);
14 and Ahio, Shashak, and Jeremoth.

8:8 In the Bible there are several occasions when Israelites lived in Moab for different reasons. For example, the great-grandparents of David, Elimelech, and Naomi (Ruth 1), also the parents of David, were sent to Moab for safety (1 Sam 22:3–4), as were several people in the time of Jeremiah (Jer 40:11–12). Thus, the presence of Shaharaim, a Benjamite, in Moab was not strange at that time. It offers a defense against any possible postexilic criticism, on the part of the Benjamites, against David’s relative for being in Moab. Probably, Shaharaim went to live in Moab during the time when the judge Ehud placed Moab under Israel’s control (Judg 3:15–30).
8:9–12 In 8:9 Shaharaim has several sons in Moab by his new wife Hodesh (see 8:8). One of them was Mesha—a Moabite name. The word Hodesh, which seems to be a proper name, can be translated as “new.” The Hebrew word can have either meaning. Since 8:9 says that Shaharaim got divorced from Hushim his wife, therefore now his “new” wife bore to him sons. Then we have a list of his sons by his “new” wife.
The cities of Ono and Lod are closer to Joppa. They were inhabited by Benjamites in the postexilic time (Neh 11:35). A number of inhabitants of Nod are in the list of returnees (Ezra 2:33; Neh 7:37).
8:13 The town of Aijalon was originally assigned to Dan (Josh 19:42), and it was a Levitical city (Josh 21:24; 1 Chr 6:54 [MT 6:69]). But later, Ephraim took possession of it (Judg 1:35). Rehoboam built a fortress there (2 Chr 11:10). In the reign of Ahaz, because of his unfaithfulness, Aijalon was conquered by the Philistines (2 Chr 28:18). Gath (8:13) was the city where the sons of Ephraim were killed (see 7:21).

8:15–28. BENJAMITES WHO LIVED IN JERUSALEM
1 CHR 8:15–28 NKJV
15 Zebadiah, Arad, Eder,
16 Michael, Ispah, and Joha were the sons of Beriah.
17 Zebadiah, Meshullam, Hizki, Heber,
18 Ishmerai, Jizliah, and Jobab were the sons of Elpaal.
19 Jakim, Zichri, Zabdi,
20 Elienai, Zillethai, Eliel,
21 Adaiah, Beraiah, and Shimrath were the sons of Shimei.
22 Ishpan, Eber, Eliel,
23 Abdon, Zichri, Hanan,
24 Hananiah, Elam, Antothijah,
25 Iphdeiah, and Penuel were the sons of Shashak.
26 Shamsherai, Shehariah, Athaliah,
27 Jaareshiah, Elijah, and Zichri were the sons of Jeroham.
28 These were heads of the fathers’ houses by their generations, chief men. These dwelt in Jerusalem.

1 CHR 8:15–28 ESV
15 Zebadiah, Arad, Eder,
16 Michael, Ishpah, and Joha were sons of Beriah.
17 Zebadiah, Meshullam, Hizki, Heber,
18 Ishmerai, Izliah, and Jobab were the sons of Elpaal.
19 Jakim, Zichri, Zabdi,
20 Elienai, Zillethai, Eliel,
21 Adaiah, Beraiah, and Shimrath were the sons of Shimei.
22 Ishpan, Eber, Eliel,
23 Abdon, Zichri, Hanan,
24 Hananiah, Elam, Anthothijah,
25 Iphdeiah, and Penuel were the sons of Shashak.
26 Shamsherai, Shehariah, Athaliah,
27 Jaareshiah, Elijah, and Zichri were the sons of Jeroham.
28 These were the heads of fathers’ houses, according to their generations, chief men. These lived in Jerusalem.

8:15–27 Beriah had six sons (8:15–16); Elpaal had seven sons (8:17–18); Shimei had nine sons (8:19–21); Shashak had twelve sons (8:22–25); and Jeroham had six sons (8:26–28).
(Fig 29) 8:8–27, Genealogy of Shaharaim
8:28 This verse indicates that these forty Benjamite leaders lived in Jerusalem. Notice that Jerusalem was located on the border of Judah’s and Benjamin’s territories. Thus, 8:15–27 contains a progressive movement of these families toward Jerusalem. In chapter 9 several Benjamite families are listed as living in Jerusalem in the postexilic time (9:7–8). This seems to be an attempt to maintain both tribes, Judah and Benjamin, harmoniously living together in the same territory after the Babylonian exile. If in the past they were able to support each other, then they should be able to be together after the exile without any problem as part of God’s community.

8:29–32. GENEALOGY OF JEIEL AND MAACAH
1 CHR 8:29–32 NKJV
29 Now the father of Gibeon, whose wife’s name was Maacah, dwelt at Gibeon.
30 And his firstborn son was Abdon, then Zur, Kish, Baal, Nadab,
31 Gedor, Ahio, Zecher,
32 and Mikloth, who begot Shimeah. They also dwelt alongside their relatives in Jerusalem, with their brethren.

1 CHR 8:29–32 ESV
29 Jeiel the father of Gibeon lived in Gibeon, and the name of his wife was Maacah.
30 His firstborn son: Abdon, then Zur, Kish, Baal, Nadab,
31 Gedor, Ahio, Zecher,
32 and Mikloth (he fathered Shimeah). Now these also lived opposite their kinsmen in Jerusalem, with their kinsmen.

8:29 To understand this verse, the name Jeiel should be added, as it is in 9:35. “Jeiel begot Gibeon,” yet it is not exactly clear how Jeiel is connected to Benjamin. Gibeon was also the name of a town. Men from this town, Gibeon, participated with Nehemiah in the reconstruction of Jerusalem, ninety-five people came, and they are recorded in Nehemiah 7:25 (see also Neh 3:7). The parallel text in Ezra has “Gibbar” for Gibeon (Ezra 2:20). This town was assigned to the tribe of Benjamin (Josh 18:25) and was the place of a battle between Joab and Abner (2 Sam 2:12–17). Here, in Gibeon, David and Solomon used to sacrifice until the temple was built (21:29).
Jeiel was the father of Gibeon (see also 9:35). Jeiel had a wife named Maacah; with her he had Abdon, Zur, Kish, Baal, Ner, Nadab, Gedor, Ahio, Zecher, and Mikloth (this was the father of Shimeah/Shimeam (see also 9:38). These names represent clans and families related to Jeiel. Each of them formed a social group that dwelt in and around the town of Gibeon.
Now the father of Gibeon … dwelt at Gibeon: This statement indicates the origin of the town. Gibeon was the site of a battle between Joab and Abner (2 Sam 2:12–17). This town was assigned to the territory of Benjamin (Josh 18:15). Men from this city assisted Nehemiah to rebuild Jerusalem (Neh 3:7).
8:30–32 These verses are similar to the genealogy of Saul (see 1 Sam 9:1; 14:50–51). The name Ner may have been lost accidentally by haplography; both Ner and Nadab start with the letter N, thus causing the omission of the name Ner. Ner should appear right after Baal and before Nadab (see 9:36). A connection to Saul seems to be evident in this text; see 9:36. Verse 32 reads that some Benjamites were living in Jerusalem; they probably moved there later. Gibeon is associated with Jerusalem, as it is in 1 Kings 3:4, 15 and 2 Chronicles 1:3–6, 13.
Notice that Solomon sacrificed in Gibeon; David placed Asaph and Obed–Edom in Jerusalem before the ark of the Lord; Zadok, on the other hand, remained in the tabernacle at Gibeon (16:37–42); the altar of bronze was in Gibeon (21:29). Thus, one can perceive the importance of this town in Israelite history regarding the sanctuary and its rituals.

8:33–40. GENEALOGY OF SAUL
Chronicles presents a genealogy of Saul as evidence that David did not kill or destroy the family of Saul. Thus, Benjamin can peacefully coexist with Judah in postexilic time. See his genealogy in 1 Samuel 9:1–2; 14:50–51; 1 Chronicles 8:33–40.

1 CHR 8:33–40 NKJV
33 Ner begot Kish, Kish begot Saul, and Saul begot Jonathan, Malchishua, Abinadab, and Esh-Baal.
34 The son of Jonathan was Merib-Baal, and Merib-Baal begot Micah.
35 The sons of Micah were Pithon, Melech, Tarea, and Ahaz.
36 And Ahaz begot Jehoaddah; Jehoaddah begot Alemeth, Azmaveth, and Zimri; and Zimri begot Moza.
37 Moza begot Binea, Raphah his son, Eleasah his son, and Azel his son.
38 Azel had six sons whose names were these: Azrikam, Bocheru, Ishmael, Sheariah, Obadiah, and Hanan. All these were the sons of Azel.
39 And the sons of Eshek his brother were Ulam his firstborn, Jeush the second, and Eliphelet the third.
40 The sons of Ulam were mighty men of valor—archers. They had many sons and grandsons, one hundred and fifty in all. These were all sons of Benjamin.

1 CHR 8:33–40 ESV
33 Ner was the father of Kish, Kish of Saul, Saul of Jonathan, Malchi-shua, Abinadab and Eshbaal;
34 and the son of Jonathan was Merib-baal; and Merib-baal was the father of Micah.
35 The sons of Micah: Pithon, Melech, Tarea, and Ahaz.
36 Ahaz fathered Jehoaddah, and Jehoaddah fathered Alemeth, Azmaveth, and Zimri. Zimri fathered Moza.
37 Moza fathered Binea; Raphah was his son, Eleasah his son, Azel his son.
38 Azel had six sons, and these are their names: Azrikam, Bocheru, Ishmael, Sheariah, Obadiah, and Hanan. All these were the sons of Azel.
39 The sons of Eshek his brother: Ulam his firstborn, Jeush the second, and Eliphelet the third. 40 The sons of Ulam were men who were mighty warriors, bowmen, having many sons and grandsons, 150. All these were Benjaminites.

8:33 There are three passages with the genealogy of Saul. The first is found in 1 Samuel 9:1, where Kish was Saul’s father and Abiel his grandfather, while Ner is omitted as the father of Kish. The second passage is 1 Samuel 14:50, where it reads that Abner was the uncle of Saul, therefore the brother of Kish. Notice that in 9:36 Ner and Kish seem to be brothers because they are the two sons of Jeiel and not of Abiel (see also 9:36). The Chronicler made Ner the father of Kish rather than his brother. The reason for that is unknown.
The Philistines killed Jonathan, Abinadab, and Malchishua (1 Sam 31:2; 1 Chr 10:2). Esh-Baal, spelled Jishui in 1 Samuel 14:49, outlived his brothers and continued Saul’s genealogy.
8:34 Merib-Baal is called Mephibosheth in 2 Samuel 4:4; 21:7. Saul had a son named Mephibosheth, with his concubine Rizpah. David invited Mephibosheth to live with him as the only surviving member of Jonathan’s family (2 Sam 9). Merib-Baal seems to be a later name given to Mephibosheth.
8:35–36 This Ahaz is not the King Ahaz of Isaiah (Isa 1:1; 7:1–12). The other names are difficult to identify. An Azmaveth is mentioned in Ezra 2:24 and Nehemiah 7:28, but it is from a later period; therefore, they are not the same person.
8:37–40 The length of Saul’s genealogy might be an indication that his descendants were important for Israel’s history. Notice that 10:6 reads that the entire house of Saul was destroyed on Mount Gilboa, but according to this genealogy, one son escaped that fate. The names from 8:39–40 are not listed in chapter 9; the Chronicler probably omitted them for the sake of placing emphasis on Saul. Ulam seems to be a reference to a mighty warrior like the valiant men of David, indicating that there were also brave men among the descendants of Saul.
The main idea in this chapter is that David is not the murderer of Saul’s descendants and that Judah, Levi, and Benjamin could peacefully coexist in the same land. These three tribes were living in the postexilic community as well; therefore, they should work together to rebuild their nation.
God’s people should work together, not looking for position regarding who is going to be the leader, nor looking to the problems of the past, but all together working and looking forward to the future fulfillment of the promises of God. We are a family, even if problems and difficulties exist among us, now or in past.
(Fig. 30) 8:33–40, Genealogy of Saul

GENEALOGY OF THE RETURNESS (9:1–44)
1 CHR 9:1–44 NKJV
1 So all Israel was recorded by genealogies, and indeed, they were inscribed in the book of the kings of Israel. But Judah was carried away captive to Babylon because of their unfaithfulness. 2 And the first inhabitants who dwelt in their possessions in their cities were Israelites, priests, Levites, and the Nethinim.
3 Now in Jerusalem the children of Judah dwelt, and some of the children of Benjamin, and of the children of Ephraim and Manasseh:
4 Uthai the son of Ammihud, the son of Omri, the son of Imri, the son of Bani, of the descendants of Perez, the son of Judah.
5 Of the Shilonites: Asaiah the firstborn and his sons.
6 Of the sons of Zerah: Jeuel, and their brethren—six hundred and ninety.
7 Of the sons of Benjamin: Sallu the son of Meshullam, the son of Hodaviah, the son of Hassenuah;
8 Ibneiah the son of Jeroham; Elah the son of Uzzi, the son of Michri; Meshullam the son of Shephatiah, the son of Reuel, the son of Ibnijah;
9 and their brethren, according to their generations—nine hundred and fifty-six. All these men were heads of a father’s house in their fathers’ houses.
10 Of the priests: Jedaiah, Jehoiarib, and Jachin;
11 Azariah the son of Hilkiah, the son of Meshullam, the son of Zadok, the son of Meraioth, the son of Ahitub, the officer over the house of God;
12 Adaiah the son of Jeroham, the son of Pashur, the son of Malchijah; Maasai the son of Adiel, the son of Jahzerah, the son of Meshullam, the son of Meshillemith, the son of Immer;
13 and their brethren, heads of their fathers’ houses—one thousand seven hundred and sixty. They were very able men for the work of the service of the house of God.
14 Of the Levites: Shemaiah the son of Hasshub, the son of Azrikam, the son of Hashabiah, of the sons of Merari;
15 Bakbakkar, Heresh, Galal, and Mattaniah the son of Micah, the son of Zichri, the son of Asaph;
16 Obadiah the son of Shemaiah, the son of Galal, the son of Jeduthun; and Berechiah the son of Asa, the son of Elkanah, who lived in the villages of the Netophathites.
17 And the gatekeepers were Shallum, Akkub, Talmon, Ahiman, and their brethren. Shallum was the chief.
18 Until then they had been gatekeepers for the camps of the children of Levi at the King’s Gate on the east.
19 Shallum the son of Kore, the son of Ebiasaph, the son of Korah, and his brethren, from his father’s house, the Korahites, were in charge of the work of the service, gatekeepers of the tabernacle. Their fathers had been keepers of the entrance to the camp of the LORD.
20 And Phinehas the son of Eleazar had been the officer over them in time past; the LORD was with him.
21 Zechariah the son of Meshelemiah was keeper of the door of the tabernacle of meeting.
22 All those chosen as gatekeepers were two hundred and twelve. They were recorded by their genealogy, in their villages. David and Samuel the seer had appointed them to their trusted office.
23 So they and their children were in charge of the gates of the house of the LORD, the house of the tabernacle, by assignment.
24 The gatekeepers were assigned to the four directions: the east, west, north, and south.
25 And their brethren in their villages had to come with them from time to time for seven days. 26 For in this trusted office were four chief gatekeepers; they were Levites. And they had charge over the chambers and treasuries of the house of God.
27 And they lodged all around the house of God because they had the responsibility, and they were in charge of opening it every morning.
28 Now some of them were in charge of the serving vessels, for they brought them in and took them out by count.
29 Some of them were appointed over the furnishings and over all the implements of the sanctuary, and over the fine flour and the wine and the oil and the incense and the spices.
30 And some of the sons of the priests made the ointment of the spices.
31 Mattithiah of the Levites, the firstborn of Shallum the Korahite, had the trusted office over the things that were baked in the pans.
32 And some of their brethren of the sons of the Kohathites were in charge of preparing the showbread for every Sabbath.
33 These are the singers, heads of the fathers’ houses of the Levites, who lodged in the chambers, and were free from other duties; for they were employed in that work day and night.
34 These heads of the fathers’ houses of the Levites were heads throughout their generations. They dwelt at Jerusalem.
35 Jeiel the father of Gibeon, whose wife’s name was Maacah, dwelt at Gibeon.
36 His firstborn son was Abdon, then Zur, Kish, Baal, Ner, Nadab,
37 Gedor, Ahio, Zechariah, and Mikloth.
38 And Mikloth begot Shimeam. They also dwelt alongside their relatives in Jerusalem, with their brethren.
39 Ner begot Kish, Kish begot Saul, and Saul begot Jonathan, Malchishua, Abinadab, and Esh-Baal.
40 The son of Jonathan was Merib-Baal, and Merib-Baal begot Micah.
41 The sons of Micah were Pithon, Melech, Tahrea, and Ahaz.
42 And Ahaz begot Jarah; Jarah begot Alemeth, Azmaveth, and Zimri; and Zimri begot Moza; 43 Moza begot Binea, Rephaiah his son, Eleasah his son, and Azel his son.
44 And Azel had six sons whose names were these: Azrikam, Bocheru, Ishmael, Sheariah, Obadiah, and Hanan; these were the sons of Azel.

1 CHR 9:1–44 ESV
1 So all Israel was recorded in genealogies, and these are written in the Book of the Kings of Israel. And Judah was taken into exile in Babylon because of their breach of faith.
2 Now the first to dwell again in their possessions in their cities were Israel, the priests, the Levites, and the temple servants.
3 And some of the people of Judah, Benjamin, Ephraim, and Manasseh lived in Jerusalem: 4 Uthai the son of Ammihud, son of Omri, son of Imri, son of Bani, from the sons of Perez the son of Judah.
5 And of the Shilonites: Asaiah the firstborn, and his sons.
6 Of the sons of Zerah: Jeuel and their kinsmen, 690.
7 Of the Benjaminites: Sallu the son of Meshullam, son of Hodaviah, son of Hassenuah, 8 Ibneiah the son of Jeroham, Elah the son of Uzzi, son of Michri, and Meshullam the son of Shephatiah, son of Reuel, son of Ibnijah;
9 and their kinsmen according to their generations, 956. All these were heads of fathers’ houses according to their fathers’ houses.
10 Of the priests: Jedaiah, Jehoiarib, Jachin,
11 and Azariah the son of Hilkiah, son of Meshullam, son of Zadok, son of Meraioth, son of Ahitub, the chief officer of the house of God;
12 and Adaiah the son of Jeroham, son of Pashhur, son of Malchijah, and Maasai the son of Adiel, son of Jahzerah, son of Meshullam, son of Meshillemith, son of Immer;
13 besides their kinsmen, heads of their fathers’ houses, 1,760, mighty men for the work of the service of the house of God.
14 Of the Levites: Shemaiah the son of Hasshub, son of Azrikam, son of Hashabiah, of the sons of Merari;
15 and Bakbakkar, Heresh, Galal and Mattaniah the son of Mica, son of Zichri, son of Asaph; 16 and Obadiah the son of Shemaiah, son of Galal, son of Jeduthun, and Berechiah the son of Asa, son of Elkanah, who lived in the villages of the Netophathites.
17 The gatekeepers were Shallum, Akkub, Talmon, Ahiman, and their kinsmen (Shallum was the chief);
18 until then they were in the king’s gate on the east side as the gatekeepers of the camps of the Levites.
19 Shallum the son of Kore, son of Ebiasaph, son of Korah, and his kinsmen of his fathers’ house, the Korahites, were in charge of the work of the service, keepers of the thresholds of the tent, as their fathers had been in charge of the camp of the LORD, keepers of the entrance.
20 And Phinehas the son of Eleazar was the chief officer over them in time past; the LORD was with him.
21 Zechariah the son of Meshelemiah was gatekeeper at the entrance of the tent of meeting. 22 All these, who were chosen as gatekeepers at the thresholds, were 212. They were enrolled by genealogies in their villages. David and Samuel the seer established them in their office of trust. 23 So they and their sons were in charge of the gates of the house of the LORD, that is, the house of the tent, as guards.
24 The gatekeepers were on the four sides, east, west, north, and south.
25 And their kinsmen who were in their villages were obligated to come in every seven days, in turn, to be with these,
26 for the four chief gatekeepers, who were Levites, were entrusted to be over the chambers and the treasures of the house of God.
27 And they lodged around the house of God, for on them lay the duty of watching, and they had charge of opening it every morning.
28 Some of them had charge of the utensils of service, for they were required to count them when they were brought in and taken out.
29 Others of them were appointed over the furniture and over all the holy utensils, also over the fine flour, the wine, the oil, the incense, and the spices.
30 Others, of the sons of the priests, prepared the mixing of the spices,
31 and Mattithiah, one of the Levites, the firstborn of Shallum the Korahite, was entrusted with making the flat cakes.
32 Also some of their kinsmen of the Kohathites had charge of the showbread, to prepare it every Sabbath.
33 Now these, the singers, the heads of fathers’ houses of the Levites, were in the chambers of the temple free from other service, for they were on duty day and night.
34 These were heads of fathers’ houses of the Levites, according to their generations, leaders. These lived in Jerusalem.
35 In Gibeon lived the father of Gibeon, Jeiel, and the name of his wife was Maacah,
36 and his firstborn son Abdon, then Zur, Kish, Baal, Ner, Nadab,
37 Gedor, Ahio, Zechariah, and Mikloth;
38 and Mikloth was the father of Shimeam; and these also lived opposite their kinsmen in Jerusalem, with their kinsmen.
39 Ner fathered Kish, Kish fathered Saul, Saul fathered Jonathan, Malchi–shua, Abinadab, and Eshbaal.
40 And the son of Jonathan was Merib-baal, and Merib-baal fathered Micah.
41 The sons of Micah: Pithon, Melech, Tahrea, and Ahaz.
42 And Ahaz fathered Jarah, and Jarah fathered Alemeth, Azmaveth, and Zimri. And Zimri fathered Moza.
43 Moza fathered Binea, and Rephaiah was his son, Eleasah his son, Azel his son.
44 Azel had six sons and these are their names: Azrikam, Bocheru, Ishmael, Sheariah, Obadiah, and Hanan; these were the sons of Azel.

9:1 This verse ends the entire genealogical record of the preceding chapters, indicating that there was a document with this information. The document used as the source for Chronicles is named the book of the kings of Israel, which is found in 2 Chronicles 20:34 at the end of Jehoshaphat’s reign. Notice that this king gave great emphasis to the services of the temple, particularly to the musicians (2 Chr 20:18–19, 21–22). The phrase all Israel seems to be a reference to the sons of Jacob (9:1–2), indicating that the postexilic community was the continuation of “all Israel.” The term unfaithfulness (ma’al) is used by the Chronicler as the cause of their exile (10:13; 2 Chr 21:11, 13; a verbal form of the term is used in 1 Chr 2:7 in reference to the sins of Achar/Achan and in 5:25 to the sins of the half-tribe of Manasseh).
9:2–3 In the second verse, the category of the first settlers after the exile is listed, namely, laypeople from Ephraim and Manasseh (9:3), priests, Levites, and the temple servants. Verses 3–34, on the other hand, list by name the dwellers of Jerusalem in the postexilic time. The term Nethinim, which is translated as “temple servants,” occurs fourteen times in Ezra and Nehemiah. Perhaps this is a reference to the special assistants of the temple or of Ezra. This term comes from the Hebrew verb “to give” or “to assign”; thus, the meaning could well be “those assigned for a special task.”
9:4–9 These verses list by name the postexilic laypeople who dwelt in Jerusalem. It is a parallel to Nehemiah 11:4–9, with a few differences probably due to the purpose of each list.
9:10–13 The priests listed in these verses are mostly found in a similar list documented in Nehemiah 11:10–13, with some modifications. See my discussion regarding the priests in 6:1–81.
9:14–16 The Levitical inhabitants of Jerusalem are listed here, some with their genealogies going back to the time of David, for example, Asaph, thus giving legitimacy to their ministry in the postexilic time. The emphasis of this list is not on its completeness but on its continuity since King David (6:39–43; 25:1–2; Ezra 2:41). Elkanah lived in a village close to Bethlehem; he would probably come to Jerusalem in his turn to minister in the sanctuary.
9:17–23 The gatekeepers were in control of the services of the tabernacle and were guardians of the entrance to the tent (9:19). In the wilderness there was only one gate to the tabernacle (Exod 27:16), but David or Solomon seems to have made several others (2 Sam 6:17; 1 Chr 16:1). Phinehas, son of Eleazar (9:20), was their leader in the wilderness; thus, the Chronicler gives legitimacy to the postexilic descendants of the gatekeepers. The total number of the gatekeepers (9:22a) was 212 (172 in Neh 11:19). This number would be divided into groups serving in their appointed time. David and Samuel the seer chose them based on their faithfulness (see 9:22b).
9:23–25 The gatekeepers were to be guards of the gates—each for a seven–day shift (9:25). Thus, the 212 were divided by the numbers of weeks in one year. They had four leaders on duty continually (9:26) supervising the chambers and the treasury of the house of the Lord (23:28–29; 2 Chr 31:5, 11–12; Neh 13:4–9).
9:27–32 They were supposed to lodge around the house of God for as long as their shift lasted. Some were responsible for opening the gates every morning (9:27). Others were responsible for the utensils used in the daily services (9:28). Others were appointed to take care of the furniture, the holy utensils and choice flour, the wine, oil, and the incense (9:29). Some would prepare the mixing spices for the incense (9:30), and others would prepare the flat cakes (9:31) and the rows of bread for the Sabbath (9:32). One can see that they were involved with the various important duties of the daily services. Therefore, the postexilic community should continue with this group of hard workers God instituted through His servants David and Samuel (see 9:22b).
9:32–33 This is a reference to the Kohathites mentioned in the previous verse; thus, the Chronicler wants to indicate that they were also musicians living in the chambers of the temple. Though the majority of them were free from other services, they did not have a rest shift as did the gatekeepers (Ps 134:1; Isa 30:29), for they were expected to be ready to participate in any activity of the temple, day and night. Based on this verse, one can notice the importance God gave to the musicians. They had a ministry supported by the temple—offerings and tithe. They were not allowed to have a side job. They lived for the temple and by the resources of the temple, as did the rest of the Levites. This was a full-time ministry.
9:34 Verses 3–34 are enveloped by an inclusio beginning with the words, “Now in Jerusalem the children of Judah dwelt” (9:3) and ending with They dwelt at Jerusalem (9:34). All the names listed between these two verses lived in Jerusalem (see 9:27, 33, 38), with the exception of those listed in 9:16.
9:35–44 The genealogy of the Benjamites is repeated with the intention to prepare the reader for the narrative of chapter 10. This seems to be a transition from a genealogical genre to a narrative one. The Chronicler may want to convey that though Saul was unfaithful, not all Benjamites were, and that David was not the murderer of Saul’s family. The next chapter describes in detail what happened to Saul and to three of his sons.
God has chosen for each historical time His representatives on earth. In the past He chose Jerusalem and its temple, and now His church. Thus, we have a special task to accomplish, a mission to fulfill, and a duty to honor. Therefore, two lessons can be drawn from this chapter. First, the body of Christ, His church, is the continuation of Israel of old, and in this church each member has a task to perform, as the Levites had in the temple. None of these tasks are more important than another. Second, there is no place for revenge in the kingdom of God. As David forgave Saul’s descendants, we should forgive those who did evil to us in the past.
This genealogical section covers the entire historical setting of Israel, including all the tribes and their origins. It seems to be an effort to be inclusive regarding God’s people and exclusive concerning His message. Notice that the goal of this section was not exhaustive. The Chronicler wanted to prepare the reader for what comes next in the entire book (1–2 Chr). Therefore, one should carefully read this genealogical introduction to grasp the theology of the entire work of Chronicles.

2. DAVID’S KINGDOM
1 CHRONICLES 10:1–22:1

SAUL’S LAST STAND AND DAVID’S CONQUEST OF JERUSALEM (10:1–11:9)
The genealogy section is followed by a detailed account of Saul’s death (chapter 10). This prepares the reader for the subsequent coronation of David and later, his son Solomon. Saul’s death is mentioned but not as political propaganda against his family or in favor of David’s. On the contrary, it is a warning to any king, including David’s heirs, that God will not tolerate unfaithfulness forever; one day, the consequence will surely fall upon the guilty one (10:13). Saul’s death is an example of retribution upon the unfaithful one.
The subsequent chapters deal with David’s successes and how God established him as the legitimate king over Israel. Since Yahweh gave the kingdom to David, this demonstrates that He can take it and give it to anyone He pleases (10:14; 28:4; 29:1). The promise of a perpetual kingdom for David was conditional on obedience to God’s covenant. God chose Solomon on condition of obedience (28:7). Therefore, “God shows no partiality” (Acts 10:34).
The Chronicler is not advocating the return of the Davidic monarchy in the postexilic time; on the contrary, he is stating that the temple should be honored and respected as the only religious center and that the king, or any political leader, should be an example of faithfulness toward God. According to Chronicles, the monarchy was taken away due to the unfaithfulness of God’s people (9:1; 2 Chr 36:14–21) and, according to the prophets, due to the lack of piety and love for their neighbors’ needs (Isa 58:7; Jer 2:34).

10:1–14. SAUL’S LAST STAND
Saul’s death marks the transition to David’s dynasty. Unfaithfulness brought its consequence upon the guilty one. This indicates that social status is not a guarantee of absolution before God’s judgment. All are judged by the same measure—kings as well as commoners.

1 CHR 10:1–14 NKJV
1 Now the Philistines fought against Israel; and the men of Israel fled from before the Philistines, and fell slain on Mount Gilboa.
2 Then the Philistines followed hard after Saul and his sons. And the Philistines killed Jonathan, Abinadab, and Malchishua, Saul’s sons.
3 The battle became fierce against Saul. The archers hit him, and he was wounded by the archers. 4 Then Saul said to his armorbearer, “Draw your sword, and thrust me through with it, lest these uncircumcised men come and abuse me.” But his armorbearer would not, for he was greatly afraid. Therefore Saul took a sword and fell on it.
5 And when his armorbearer saw that Saul was dead, he also fell on his sword and died.
6 So Saul and his three sons died, and all his house died together.
7 And when all the men of Israel who were in the valley saw that they had fled and that Saul and his sons were dead, they forsook their cities and fled; then the Philistines came and dwelt in them.
8 So it happened the next day, when the Philistines came to strip the slain, that they found Saul and his sons fallen on Mount Gilboa.
9 And they stripped him and took his head and his armor, and sent word throughout the land of the Philistines to proclaim the news in the temple of their idols and among the people.
10 Then they put his armor in the temple of their gods, and fastened his head in the temple of Dagon.
11 And when all Jabesh Gilead heard all that the Philistines had done to Saul,
12 all the valiant men arose and took the body of Saul and the bodies of his sons; and they brought them to Jabesh, and buried their bones under the tamarisk tree at Jabesh, and fasted seven days.
13 So Saul died for his unfaithfulness which he had committed against the LORD, because he did not keep the word of the LORD, and also because he consulted a medium for guidance.
14 But he did not inquire of the LORD; therefore, He killed him, and turned the kingdom over to David the son of Jesse.

1 CHR 10:1–14 ESV
1 Now the Philistines fought against Israel, and the men of Israel fled before the Philistines and fell slain on Mount Gilboa.
2 And the Philistines overtook Saul and his sons, and the Philistines struck down Jonathan and Abinadab and Malchi-shua, the sons of Saul.
3 The battle pressed hard against Saul, and the archers found him, and he was wounded by the archers.
4 Then Saul said to his armor–bearer, “Draw your sword and thrust me through with it, lest these uncircumcised come and mistreat me.” But his armor–bearer would not, for he feared greatly. Therefore Saul took his own sword and fell upon it.
5 And when his armor-bearer saw that Saul was dead, he also fell upon his sword and died. 6 Thus Saul died; he and his three sons and all his house died together.
7 And when all the men of Israel who were in the valley saw that the army had fled and that Saul and his sons were dead, they abandoned their cities and fled, and the Philistines came and lived in them.
8 The next day, when the Philistines came to strip the slain, they found Saul and his sons fallen on Mount Gilboa.
9 And they stripped him and took his head and his armor, and sent messengers throughout the land of the Philistines to carry the good news to their idols and to the people.
10 And they put his armor in the temple of their gods and fastened his head in the temple of Dagon.
11 But when all Jabesh-gilead heard all that the Philistines had done to Saul,
12 all the valiant men arose and took away the body of Saul and the bodies of his sons, and brought them to Jabesh. And they buried their bones under the oak in Jabesh and fasted seven days.
13 So Saul died for his breach of faith. He broke faith with the LORD in that he did not keep the command of the LORD, and also consulted a medium, seeking guidance.
14 He did not seek guidance from the LORD. Therefore, the LORD put him to death and turned the kingdom over to David the son of Jesse.

10:1 This section on Saul’s last stand was based on 1 Samuel 31, with a few differences adapted to a specific purpose. The Philistines were the traditional enemies of Israel. They were a group of people among the Sea Peoples. Their presence in Palestine was felt after the fall of Troy (1200 BC), though groups of Philistines might have already been in that area before the Iron Age (see Gen 26:1, 8, 14–15, 18).
Many Israelites fell in this battle, and the remaining men escaped from the Philistine army. The Israelite army was in disarray, and panic took over the soldiers. The description is clear—Israel lost control of the situation. It seems that the same desperate feelings and hopelessness that controlled Saul took over the army. Israel felt its leader’s despair. Notice that Mount Gilboa was a strategic location on which to place a garrison in order to control the valley below. Therefore, it was a must for the Philistines to take it.
10:2 Saul’s three sons were killed, but nothing is said of his fourth son, Esh-Baal (see 8:33; 9:39). Esh-Baal did not go to this final battle. Instead, he remained in charge of the government in the absence of his father. Since Saul died, Esh-Baal became the new king (2 Sam 2:8–4:12). Saul was the first king of Israel; he was the son of Kish from the tribe of Benjamin. His city was Gibeah, at the border with Ephraim (Judg 19:12; 1 Sam 11:4). He was buried in Zela (2 Sam 21:14).
10:3 The archers hit him. Quite a few kings in Israel’s history were wounded by archers. The kings from the north are Ahab (1 Kgs 22:34; 2 Chr 18:33) and Joram (2 Kgs 8:28–29; 2 Chr 22:5–6), and from the south Ahaziah (2 Kgs 9:27; 2 Chr 22:7–9) and Josiah (2 Chr 35:23). A king in full armor with an armor-bearer by his side plus some bodyguards would seem to be difficult to reach by swords or spears. Therefore, archers would try their best to target the king and his defenders from far off.
10:4–7 Thrust me through with it. Saul was a tall, strong man. He had been the king of Israel for several decades. Now, in this moment that required courage and determination, he shrank with dismay from the idea that he should fall victim to his treacherous enemies, the Philistines. His example was contagious. His young armor-bearer did not raise his hand against the anointed of the Lord, but it was too much for this inexperienced young man, and in panic he followed the steps of his leader and committed suicide as well. Saul ruined the entire nation by following his self-interests. Notice that Saul tried to avoid being mocked by the Philistines, but they did it after his death anyway (10:8–10).
The Chronicler states that the entire household of Saul died. What he meant is that in this battle, his dynasty ended. All of the competent successors to Saul perished on that battlefield. Esh-Baal was not a good candidate for kingship; therefore, he was ignored by the Chronicler (see 2 Sam 21:1–14).
Here one can see the influence a leader has over his flock, for good or for bad. Saul ruined his kingdom, physically, morally, and spiritually. David, in contrast, shepherded Israel according to the will of God though he was not morally perfect (11:2).
10:8–12 The Philistines displayed the head of Saul in their temple to Dagon. The attempt to avoid and escape mockery, on the part of Saul, was frustrated. The Philistines mocked him after his death. It was a custom to place a significant portion of the spoil in the presence of their gods as a sign of thankfulness for the victory (see when the ark was taken captive in 1 Sam 4:11). It can be seen when David killed Goliath; his sword and head were taken as part of the booty to the temple of God (1 Sam 17:50–54; 21:9). Also, those who killed Esh-Baal took his head to David, thinking to receive some recompense for it (2 Sam 4:7–8). Interestingly enough, Samson destroyed over three thousand Philistines in the temple of Dagon (Judg 16:23–30), while Saul’s head, representing the entire nation of Israel, was humiliated in a similar temple.
When all Jabesh Gilead heard. The happiness of the Jabesh Gileadites became a lamentation. Notice that Saul delivered them from their enemies (1 Sam 11). Thus, they rescued the body of Saul and his sons. The Chronicler omits the act of burning the bodies, as did 1 Samuel 11, and only mentions that they buried their bones. Bones implies that the flesh, somehow, had gone from the bodies, probably by fire.
10:13–14 Saul died for his unfaithfulness. Two reasons for Saul’s death are mentioned in these verses. The first reason in Chronicles is not keeping the word of God. This can be explained by his disobedience in offering a sacrifice instead of waiting for Samuel (1 Sam 13:13), by sparing the animals and the king of the Amalekites (1 Sam 15), and by the killing of the priests of Nob (1 Sam 22:18–19)—none of which are mentioned in Chronicles (10:13).
The second reason in Chronicles was for consulting a medium. This was an act forbidden by God and punished by capital punishment (Lev 20:6). Chronicles already had mentioned that the two and a half tribes were taken captive due to their unfaithfulness (5:25); Judah, as well, would be taken into exile for their unfaithfulness (9:1; 2 Chr 36:14). Notice that the first instance of unfaithfulness in Chronicles is in regard to Achar/Achan in 2:7, and he was stoned for that. Due to the unfaithfulness of Saul, God transferred the kingdom to David. Remember that David never tried to take the kingdom from Saul by force. He did not use politics or any sort of device to take power. He left God to act in His own timing. Consequently, the Chronicler wanted to be clearly understood that God was solely responsible for David’s ascension to the throne.

Chiastic Structure of 1 Chronicles 11–12
A David’s coronation at Hebron (11:1–9)
B Support for David at Hebron (11:10–47)
C Support for David at Ziklag (12:1–8)
D Support for David at the stronghold (12:9–16)
D1 Support for David at the stronghold (12:17–19)
C1 Support for David at Ziklag (12:20–23)
B1 Support for David at Hebron (12:24–38)
A1 David’s coronation at Hebron (12:39–41)

11:1–3. DAVID’S ASCENSION AS KING OF ISRAEL
1 CHR 11:1–3 NKJV
1 Then all Israel came together to David at Hebron, saying, “Indeed we are your bone and your flesh.
2 Also, in time past, even when Saul was king, you were the one who led Israel out and brought them in; and the LORD your God said to you, ‘You shall shepherd My people Israel, and be ruler over My people Israel.’ ”
3 Therefore all the elders of Israel came to the king at Hebron, and David made a covenant with them at Hebron before the LORD. And they anointed David king over Israel, according to the word of the LORD by Samuel.

1 CHR 11:1–3 ESV
1 Then all Israel gathered together to David at Hebron and said, “Behold, we are your bone and flesh.
2 In times past, even when Saul was king, it was you who led out and brought in Israel. And the LORD your God said to you, ‘You shall be shepherd of my people Israel, and you shall be prince over my people Israel.’ ”
3 So all the elders of Israel came to the king at Hebron, and David made a covenant with them at Hebron before the LORD. And they anointed David king over Israel, according to the word of the LORD by Samuel.

11:1–2 The expression all Israel means all the tribes together. The Chronicler skips the events about the war between Esh-Baal and David’s house, which is narrated in 2 Samuel 2–4. The Chronicler goes straight to David’s coronation as king over the entire nation (see 2 Sam 5). The expression we are your bone and your flesh implies that the tribes had accepted to be part of David’s kingdom, even though they were not close relatives. These tribal leaders spoke regarding God’s election: You shall shepherd My people Israel, and be ruler over My people Israel (11:2).
11:3 And they anointed David. Was Israel supposed to have kings? Yes, but its king was to be under the guidance of God, as a shepherd was employed to oversee a flock. Israel was not to be like other nations, whose leaders looked after their own interests. Rather, they were supposed to be servants helping God’s people (Deut 17:14–19). The elders anointed David according to the words of God spoken by Samuel. The leaders were following the instructions left to them by the prophets (Spirit of prophecy), in this case, the words of the prophet Samuel. Thus, they were consulting God; Saul, on the contrary, after being rejected by God, consulted a medium for guidance (10:13–14).

11:4–9. JERUSALEM CAPTURED BY DAVID’S ARMY
1 CHR 11:4–9 NKJV
4 And David and all Israel went to Jerusalem, which is Jebus, where the Jebusites were, the inhabitants of the land.
5 But the inhabitants of Jebus said to David, “You shall not come in here!” Nevertheless David took the stronghold of Zion (that is, the City of David).
6 Now David said, “Whoever attacks the Jebusites first shall be chief and captain.” And Joab the son of Zeruiah went up first, and became chief.
7 Then David dwelt in the stronghold; therefore they called it the City of David.
8 And he built the city around it, from the Millo to the surrounding area. Joab repaired the rest of the city.
9 So David went on and became great, and the LORD of hosts was with him.

1 CHR 11:4–9 ESV
4 And David and all Israel went to Jerusalem, that is, Jebus, where the Jebusites were, the inhabitants of the land.
5 The inhabitants of Jebus said to David, “You will not come in here.” Nevertheless, David took the stronghold of Zion, that is, the city of David.
6 David said, “Whoever strikes the Jebusites first shall be chief and commander.” And Joab the son of Zeruiah went up first, so he became chief.
7 And David lived in the stronghold; therefore it was called the city of David.
8 And he built the city all around from the Millo in complete circuit, and Joab repaired the rest of the city.
9 And David became greater and greater, for the LORD of hosts was with him.

11:4–5 David and all Israel went to Jerusalem. Jerusalem was not yet taken by the Israelites. Notice that the tribe of Judah attacked Jerusalem years earlier (see Judges 1:8), and they destroyed it but did not dwell in it. Thus, the Jebusites came back and probably rebuilt Jerusalem as their fortress (Judg 1:21). At face value, 1 Samuel 17:54 seems to be an anachronism. The text of 1 Samuel reads that David took the head of Goliath to Jerusalem; notice, however, that David took it to his tent. The tent may imply a military campaign around Jerusalem and not a permanent dwelling place. Therefore, 11:4–8 is the first reference in which the Israelites are dwelling in Jerusalem, and Zion becomes a synonym for Jerusalem (2 Chr 5:2).
11:6–8 Joab was already the commander of David’s army; thus, this act of bravery increased Joab’s respect among his soldiers. Joab was a relative of David—his nephew (2 Sam 2–3). This conquest was the first act of David as king. Jerusalem became the center of worship and government in Chronicles.
11:9 The LORD of hosts was with David and Joab. This is an affirmation that their victory was a result of faithfulness to God. The same God that was with David when he fought Goliath (1 Sam 17:45) was with him now. To become great is a result of being under God’s instruction. This verse prepares the reader for the following list of brave men in David’s army.
This section clearly presents the difference between Saul and David. Saul was unfaithful but David was faithful to God. When the leader God chose is under His guidance, “all Israel” is blessed and receives the benefit of the king’s obedience. The contrary is also true. The disobedience of a leader causes the entire nation to suffer.

MILITARY EXPLOITS OF DAVID AND HIS SOLDIERS (11:10–12:40)
A long list of supporters is introduced here so the reader might see that David was supported by leaders from all the tribes, including Benjamin, the tribe of Saul. Behind every mighty warrior, the hand of God is present, delivering them, as when David was delivered before Goliath. This section is a continuation of the support David received, thus legitimatizing his election as king of all Israel. According to Isaac Kalimi, “Support from mighty warriors at the stronghold is stressed at the center of the structure.”

Chiastic Structure 11:1–12:40
A David’s coronation at Hebron and the capture of Jerusalem (11:1–9; 2 Sam 5:1–10)
B Support for David at Hebron (11:10–47; 2 Sam 23:8–39)
C Support for David at Ziklag (12:1–8)
D Support for David at the stronghold (12:9–16)
D1 Support for David at the stronghold (12:17–19)
C1 Support for David at Ziklag (12:20–23)
B1 Support for David at Hebron (12:24–38)
A1 David’s coronation at Hebron (12:39–40)

11:10–47. THE MIGHTY MEN OF DAVID
1 CHR 11:10–47 NKJV
10 Now these were the heads of the mighty men whom David had, who strengthened themselves with him in his kingdom, with all Israel, to make him king, according to the word of the LORD concerning Israel.
11 And this is the number of the mighty men whom David had: Jashobeam the son of a Hachmonite, chief of the captains; he had lifted up his spear against three hundred, killed by him at one time.
12 After him was Eleazar the son of Dodo, the Ahohite, who was one of the three mighty men. 13 He was with David at Pasdammim. Now there the Philistines were gathered for battle, and there was a piece of ground full of barley. So the people fled from the Philistines.
14 But they stationed themselves in the middle of that field, defended it, and killed the Philistines. So the LORD brought about a great victory.
15 Now three of the thirty chief men went down to the rock to David, into the cave of Adullam; and the army of the Philistines encamped in the Valley of Rephaim.
16 David was then in the stronghold, and the garrison of the Philistines was then in Bethlehem. 17 And David said with longing, “Oh, that someone would give me a drink of water from the well of Bethlehem, which is by the gate!”
18 So the three broke through the camp of the Philistines, drew water from the well of Bethlehem that was by the gate, and took it and brought it to David. Nevertheless David would not drink it, but poured it out to the LORD.
19 And he said, “Far be it from me, O my God, that I should do this! Shall I drink the blood of these men who have put their lives in jeopardy? For at the risk of their lives they brought it.” Therefore he would not drink it. These things were done by the three mighty men.
20 Abishai the brother of Joab was chief of another three. He had lifted up his spear against three hundred men, killed them, and won a name among these three.
21 Of the three he was more honored than the other two men. Therefore he became their captain. However he did not attain to the first three.
22 Benaiah was the son of Jehoiada, the son of a valiant man from Kabzeel, who had done many deeds. He had killed two lion-like heroes of Moab. He also had gone down and killed a lion in the midst of a pit on a snowy day.
23 And he killed an Egyptian, a man of great height, five cubits tall. In the Egyptian’s hand there was a spear like a weaver’s beam; and he went down to him with a staff, wrested the spear out of the Egyptian’s hand, and killed him with his own spear.
24 These things Benaiah the son of Jehoiada did, and won a name among three mighty men. 25 Indeed he was more honored than the thirty, but he did not attain to the first three. And David appointed him over his guard.
26 Also the mighty warriors were Asahel the brother of Joab, Elhanan the son of Dodo of Bethlehem,
27 Shammoth the Harorite, Helez the Pelonite,
28 Ira the son of Ikkesh the Tekoite, Abiezer the Anathothite,
29 Sibbechai the Hushathite, Ilai the Ahohite,
30 Maharai the Netophathite, Heled the son of Baanah the Netophathite,
31 Ithai the son of Ribai of Gibeah, of the sons of Benjamin, Benaiah the Pirathonite,
32 Hurai of the brooks of Gaash, Abiel the Arbathite,
33 Azmaveth the Baharumite, Eliahba the Shaalbonite,
34 the sons of Hashem the Gizonite, Jonathan the son of Shageh the Hararite,
35 Ahiam the son of Sacar the Hararite, Eliphal the son of Ur,
36 Hepher the Mecherathite, Ahijah the Pelonite,
37 Hezro the Carmelite, Naarai the son of Ezbai,
38 Joel the brother of Nathan, Mibhar the son of Hagri,
39 Zelek the Ammonite, Naharai the Berothite (the armorbearer of Joab the son of Zeruiah), 40 Ira the Ithrite, Gareb the Ithrite,
41 Uriah the Hittite, Zabad the son of Ahlai,
42 Adina the son of Shiza the Reubenite (a chief of the Reubenites) and thirty with him, 43 Hanan the son of Maachah, Joshaphat the Mithnite,
44 Uzzia the Ashterathite, Shama and Jeiel the sons of Hotham the Aroerite,
45 Jediael the son of Shimri, and Joha his brother, the Tizite,
46 Eliel the Mahavite, Jeribai and Joshaviah the sons of Elnaam, Ithmah the Moabite,
47 Eliel, Obed, and Jaasiel the Mezobaite.

1 CHR 11:10–47 ESV
10 Now these are the chiefs of David’s mighty men, who gave him strong support in his kingdom, together with all Israel, to make him king, according to the word of the LORD concerning Israel.
11 This is an account of David’s mighty men: Jashobeam, a Hachmonite, was chief of the three. He wielded his spear against 300 whom he killed at one time.
12 And next to him among the three mighty men was Eleazar the son of Dodo, the Ahohite. 13 He was with David at Pas-dammim when the Philistines were gathered there for battle. There was a plot of ground full of barley, and the men fled from the Philistines.
14 But he took his stand in the midst of the plot and defended it and killed the Philistines. And the LORD saved them by a great victory.
15 Three of the thirty chief men went down to the rock to David at the cave of Adullam, when the army of Philistines was encamped in the Valley of Rephaim.
16 David was then in the stronghold, and the garrison of the Philistines was then at Bethlehem. 17 And David said longingly, “Oh that someone would give me water to drink from the well of Bethlehem that is by the gate!”
18 Then the three mighty men broke through the camp of the Philistines and drew water out of the well of Bethlehem that was by the gate and took it and brought it to David. But David would not drink it. He poured it out to the LORD
19 and said, “Far be it from me before my God that I should do this. Shall I drink the lifeblood of these men? For at the risk of their lives they brought it.” Therefore he would not drink it. These things did the three mighty men.
20 Now Abishai, the brother of Joab, was chief of the thirty. And he wielded his spear against 300 men and killed them and won a name beside the three.
21 He was the most renowned of the thirty and became their commander, but he did not attain to the three.
22 And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada was a valiant man of Kabzeel, a doer of great deeds. He struck down two heroes of Moab. He also went down and struck down a lion in a pit on a day when snow had fallen.
23 And he struck down an Egyptian, a man of great stature, five cubits tall. The Egyptian had in his hand a spear like a weaver’s beam, but Benaiah went down to him with a staff and snatched the spear out of the Egyptian’s hand and killed him with his own spear.
24 These things did Benaiah the son of Jehoiada and won a name beside the three mighty men. 25 He was renowned among the thirty, but he did not attain to the three. And David set him over his bodyguard.
26 The mighty men were Asahel the brother of Joab, Elhanan the son of Dodo of Bethlehem, 27 Shammoth of Harod, Helez the Pelonite,
28 Ira the son of Ikkesh of Tekoa, Abiezer of Anathoth,
29 Sibbecai the Hushathite, Ilai the Ahohite,
30 Maharai of Netophah, Heled the son of Baanah of Netophah,
31 Ithai the son of Ribai of Gibeah of the people of Benjamin, Benaiah of Pirathon,
32 Hurai of the brooks of Gaash, Abiel the Arbathite,
33 Azmaveth of Baharum, Eliahba the Shaalbonite,
34 Hashem the Gizonite, Jonathan the son of Shagee the Hararite,
35 Ahiam the son of Sachar the Hararite, Eliphal the son of Ur,
36 Hepher the Mecherathite, Ahijah the Pelonite,
37 Hezro of Carmel, Naarai the son of Ezbai,
38 Joel the brother of Nathan, Mibhar the son of Hagri,
39 Zelek the Ammonite, Naharai of Beeroth, the armor-bearer of Joab the son of Zeruiah,
40 Ira the Ithrite, Gareb the Ithrite,
41 Uriah the Hittite, Zabad the son of Ahlai,
42 Adina the son of Shiza the Reubenite, a leader of the Reubenites, and thirty with him, 43 Hanan the son of Maacah, and Joshaphat the Mithnite,
44 Uzzia the Ashterathite, Shama and Jeiel the sons of Hotham the Aroerite,
45 Jediael the son of Shimri, and Joha his brother, the Tizite,
46 Eliel the Mahavite, and Jeribai, and Joshaviah, the sons of Elnaam, and Ithmah the Moabite, 47 Eliel, and Obed, and Jaasiel the Mezobaite.

11:10 This introductory verse indicates that the entire list of warriors supported David’s kingship, together with all Israel. This support has its validity in the fact that God had approved it through Samuel the prophet many years before, when he anointed David.
11:11–14 Jashobeam, which means “Baal exists,” may be a reference to God as “Lord” and not to the pagan god Baal. Despite Eleazar’s great victory, it was God who gained the battle for him (11:14). His victory came from God—see the end of the verse.
11:15–19 Here, the author presents the incident in which three men came to join David in the cave of Adullam (1 Sam 22:1). David refused to drink the water these three men had taken from the well of Bethlehem (11:18). According to Leviticus, blood should not be ingested; it should be poured on the ground (Lev 3:17; 4:18) for life was in it. Thus, the action of these three men was so daring and risky that the water was considered to be the life of these men.
11:20–21 Abishai was the most important of the group of three. Both Joab and his brother Abishai are described positively in Chronicles. The goal was not to judge these two men but to show their support for David. Thus, Chronicles omits the assassination of Abner at the hands of Joab (2 Sam 3:30).
11:22–25 Benaiah remained loyal to David during Absalom’s rebellion (2 Sam 8:18; 20:23). In 1 Kings 1–2 Benaiah replaced Joab as commander of the army. Benaiah was in charge of the army division for the third month (27:5–6). David placed him as his special bodyguard (2 Sam 23:20).
11:26–47 A list of thirty-seven men is introduced here from different geographical areas of Israel, especially Judah. This was based on the list found in 2 Samuel 23:24–39. These men are from the time David was in the cave to the time he was crowned as king over all Israel. Most of these men were in charge over David’s army, each for a respective month of the year (see ch. 27). Verse 41 mentions Uriah, the former husband of Bathsheba, as one of the loyal men of David, but Chronicles omits his assassination by David’s order. Also, David’s adultery with Bathsheba is omitted. Notice that the Chronicler wants to present enough information to accomplish his purpose, which was to indicate, without any distraction to the reader, that King David was supported by the entire nation. The discussion about David’s adulterous behavior was already dealt with in the past (see 2 Sam 11); therefore, it is irrelevant for the Chronicler’s theology.

12:1–40. DAVID’S ARMY
1 CHR 12:1–40 NKJV
1 Now these were the men who came to David at Ziklag while he was still a fugitive from Saul the son of Kish; and they were among the mighty men, helpers in the war,
2 armed with bows, using both the right hand and the left in hurling stones and shooting arrows with the bow. They were of Benjamin, Saul’s brethren.
3 The chief was Ahiezer, then Joash, the sons of Shemaah the Gibeathite; Jeziel and Pelet the sons of Azmaveth; Berachah, and Jehu the Anathothite;
4 Ishmaiah the Gibeonite, a mighty man among the thirty, and over the thirty; Jeremiah, Jahaziel, Johanan, and Jozabad the Gederathite;
5 Eluzai, Jerimoth, Bealiah, Shemariah, and Shephatiah the Haruphite;
6 Elkanah, Jisshiah, Azarel, Joezer, and Jashobeam, the Korahites;
7 and Joelah and Zebadiah the sons of Jeroham of Gedor.
8 Some Gadites joined David at the stronghold in the wilderness, mighty men of valor, men trained for battle, who could handle shield and spear, whose faces were like the faces of lions, and were as swift as gazelles on the mountains:
9 Ezer the first, Obadiah the second, Eliab the third,
10 Mishmannah the fourth, Jeremiah the fifth,
11 Attai the sixth, Eliel the seventh,
12 Johanan the eighth, Elzabad the ninth,
13 Jeremiah the tenth, and Machbanai the eleventh.
14 These were from the sons of Gad, captains of the army; the least was over a hundred, and the greatest was over a thousand.
15 These are the ones who crossed the Jordan in the first month, when it had overflowed all its banks; and they put to flight all those in the valleys, to the east and to the west.
16 Then some of the sons of Benjamin and Judah came to David at the stronghold.
17 And David went out to meet them, and answered and said to them, “If you have come peaceably to me to help me, my heart will be united with you; but if to betray me to my enemies, since there is no wrong in my hands, may the God of our fathers look and bring judgment.” 18 Then the Spirit came upon Amasai, chief of the captains, and he said:
“We are yours, O David;
We are on your side, O son of Jesse!
Peace, peace to you,
And peace to your helpers!
For your God helps you.”
So David received them, and made them captains of the troop.
19 And some from Manasseh defected to David when he was going with the Philistines to battle against Saul; but they did not help them, for the lords of the Philistines sent him away by agreement, saying, “He may defect to his master Saul and endanger our heads.”
20 When he went to Ziklag, those of Manasseh who defected to him were Adnah, Jozabad, Jediael, Michael, Jozabad, Elihu, and Zillethai, captains of the thousands who were from Manasseh.
21 And they helped David against the bands of raiders, for they were all mighty men of valor, and they were captains in the army.
22 For at that time they came to David day by day to help him, until it was a great army, like the army of God.
23 Now these were the numbers of the divisions that were equipped for war, and came to David at Hebron to turn over the kingdom of Saul to him, according to the word of the LORD:
24 of the sons of Judah bearing shield and spear, six thousand eight hundred armed for war; 25 of the sons of Simeon, mighty men of valor fit for war, seven thousand one hundred;
26 of the sons of Levi four thousand six hundred;
27 Jehoiada, the leader of the Aaronites, and with him three thousand seven hundred;
28 Zadok, a young man, a valiant warrior, and from his father’s house twenty–two captains; 29 of the sons of Benjamin, relatives of Saul, three thousand (until then the greatest part of them had remained loyal to the house of Saul);
30 of the sons of Ephraim twenty thousand eight hundred, mighty men of valor, famous men throughout their father’s house;
31 of the half–tribe of Manasseh eighteen thousand, who were designated by name to come and make David king;
32 of the sons of Issachar who had understanding of the times, to know what Israel ought to do, their chiefs were two hundred; and all their brethren were at their command;
33 of Zebulun there were fifty thousand who went out to battle, expert in war with all weapons of war, stouthearted men who could keep ranks;
34 of Naphtali one thousand captains, and with them thirty-seven thousand with shield and spear; 35 of the Danites who could keep battle formation, twenty-eight thousand six hundred;
36 of Asher, those who could go out to war, able to keep battle formation, forty thousand;
37 of the Reubenites and the Gadites and the half–tribe of Manasseh, from the other side of the Jordan, one hundred and twenty thousand armed for battle with every kind of weapon of war.
38 All these men of war, who could keep ranks, came to Hebron with a loyal heart, to make David king over all Israel; and all the rest of Israel were of one mind to make David king. 39 And they were there with David three days, eating and drinking, for their brethren had prepared for them.
40 Moreover those who were near to them, from as far away as Issachar and Zebulun and Naphtali, were bringing food on donkeys and camels, on mules and oxen—provisions of flour and cakes of figs and cakes of raisins, wine and oil and oxen and sheep abundantly, for there was joy in Israel.

1 CHR 12:1–40 ESV
1 Now these are the men who came to David at Ziklag, while he could not move about freely because of Saul the son of Kish. And they were among the mighty men who helped him in war. 2 They were bowmen and could shoot arrows and sling stones with either the right or the left hand; they were Benjaminites, Saul’s kinsmen.
3 The chief was Ahiezer, then Joash, both sons of Shemaah of Gibeah; also Jeziel and Pelet, the sons of Azmaveth; Beracah, Jehu of Anathoth,
4 Ishmaiah of Gibeon, a mighty man among the thirty and a leader over the thirty; Jeremiah, Jahaziel, Johanan, Jozabad of Gederah,
5 Eluzai, Jerimoth, Bealiah, Shemariah, Shephatiah the Haruphite;
6 Elkanah, Isshiah, Azarel, Joezer, and Jashobeam, the Korahites;
7 And Joelah and Zebadiah, the sons of Jeroham of Gedor.
8 From the Gadites there went over to David at the stronghold in the wilderness mighty and experienced warriors, expert with shield and spear, whose faces were like the faces of lions and who were swift as gazelles upon the mountains:
9 Ezer the chief, Obadiah second, Eliab third,
10 Mishmannah fourth, Jeremiah fifth,
11 Attai sixth, Eliel seventh,
12 Johanan eighth, Elzabad ninth,
13 Jeremiah tenth, Machbannai eleventh.
14 These Gadites were officers of the army; the least was a match for a hundred men and the greatest for a thousand.
15 These are the men who crossed the Jordan in the first month, when it was overflowing all its banks, and put to flight all those in the valleys, to the east and to the west.
16 And some of the men of Benjamin and Judah came to the stronghold to David.
17 David went out to meet them and said to them, “If you have come to me in friendship to help me, my heart will be joined to you; but if to betray me to my adversaries, although there is no wrong in my hands, then may the God of our fathers see and rebuke you.”
18 Then the Spirit clothed Amasai, chief of the thirty, and he said,
“We are yours, O David,
and with you, O son of Jesse!
Peace, peace to you,
and peace to your helpers!
For your God helps you.”
Then David received them and made them officers of his troops.
19 Some of the men of Manasseh deserted to David when he came with the Philistines for the battle against Saul. (Yet he did not help them, for the rulers of the Philistines took counsel and sent him away, saying, “At peril to our heads he will desert to his master Saul.”)
20 As he went to Ziklag, these men of Manasseh deserted to him: Adnah, Jozabad, Jediael, Michael, Jozabad, Elihu, and Zillethai, chiefs of thousands in Manasseh.
21 They helped David against the band of raiders, for they were all mighty men of valor and were commanders in the army.
22 For from day to day men came to David to help him, until there was a great army, like an army of God.
23 These are the numbers of the divisions of the armed troops who came to David in Hebron to turn the kingdom of Saul over to him, according to the word of the LORD.
24 The men of Judah bearing shield and spear were 6,800 armed troops.
25 Of the Simeonites, mighty men of valor for war, 7,100.
26 Of the Levites 4,600.
27 The prince Jehoiada, of the house of Aaron, and with him 3,700.
28 Zadok, a young man mighty in valor, and twenty-two commanders from his own fathers’ house.
29 Of the Benjaminites, the kinsmen of Saul, 3,000, of whom the majority had to that point kept their allegiance to the house of Saul.
30 Of the Ephraimites 20,800, mighty men of valor, famous men in their fathers’ houses.
31 Of the half-tribe of Manasseh 18,000, who were expressly named to come and make David king.
32 Of Issachar, men who had understanding of the times, to know what Israel ought to do, 200 chiefs, and all their kinsmen under their command.
33 Of Zebulun 50,000 seasoned troops, equipped for battle with all the weapons of war, to help David with singleness of purpose.
34 Of Naphtali 1,000 commanders with whom were 37,000 men armed with shield and spear. 35 Of the Danites 28,600 men equipped for battle.
36 Of Asher 40,000 seasoned troops ready for battle.
37 Of the Reubenites and Gadites and the half-tribe of Manasseh from beyond the Jordan, 120,000 men armed with all the weapons of war.
38 All these, men of war, arrayed in battle order, came to Hebron with a whole heart to make David king over all Israel. Likewise, all the rest of Israel were of a single mind to make David king.
39 And they were there with David for three days, eating and drinking, for their brothers had made preparation for them.
40 And also their relatives, from as far as Issachar and Zebulun and Naphtali, came bringing food on donkeys and on camels and on mules and on oxen, abundant provisions of flour, cakes of figs, clusters of raisins, and wine and oil, oxen and sheep, for there was joy in Israel.

 
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Old 09-10-2020, 01:16 PM   #20
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12:1–8 A list of soldiers who followed David to Ziklag during the reign of Saul is recorded here. This is a continuation of those who helped David—even those from the clan of Saul.
12:9–16 These are representatives from the tribe of Gad, joining David in the stronghold.
12:17–19 Here is the list of representatives from the tribe of Benjamin and Judah joining David in the stronghold. Note the action of the Holy Spirit upon Amasai, a man of war. Verse 18 says that the Spirit came upon Amasai, implying that this person was speaking with divine authority. Thus, in the OT time, the Spirit endowed a man with supernatural skills for a specific task—even, as in this case, skills for the battlefield. Verses 17–19 indicate that the followers of David were inspired and guided by God. They did not follow him for any political advantage.
12:20–22 A list of the representatives from the tribe of Manasseh joining David in Ziklag is introduced here. David, though in the service of the king of the Philistines, did not help them in the battle against Saul at Gilboa. If he had done that, it would have been the end of his political career in Israel. Many of Saul’s troops had already defected to David, leaving Saul’s army weakened in facing such formidable enemies as the Philistines.
12:23–38 Men from various tribes mustered themselves at Hebron to make David king over them. A delegation from Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin (12:25–30) came to support David (12:31–38). A delegation from Ephraim, the half-tribe of Manasseh, Issachar, Zebulun, Naphtali, Dan, and Asher gathered together to crown David as king over themselves.
12:39–40 The celebration started, and the entire nation participated through their representatives on that occasion. The text ends with “for there was joy in Israel.” The tragic end of Saul is contrasted with the joy the people were expressing over the election of David. God chose him through His prophet Samuel. At last, the transition from Saul to David was successfully accomplished.
This listing clarifies the untroubled process of David’s ascension to power. He had the blessing of God. The Chronicler indicates that the entire nation was favorable to David’s anointing as king. This was not a political campaign against Saul’s descendants. On the contrary, it was a proof that Israel was united despite the bad experience they had experienced with their former leader.
The people of God had problems and differences to solve in the past. This is still true today. Although we may make mistakes, we should still remain united in the truth. God will fix any problem in due course, even if it takes forty years as in the case of Saul’s reign.

DAVID WISHES TO BRING GOD’S ARK TO JERUSALEM BUT IS PREVENTED (13:1–14)
This section presents the first act of David as the king of Israel. Just after the Hebron celebration, he, together with representatives of the entire nation, took the ark of the covenant to the city of David. This trip was divided into two episodes—the journey from Abinadab’s house (13:1–14) to Obed-Edom’s house and the second part from there to Jerusalem three months later (see ch. 15).

1 CHR 13:1–14 NKJV
1 Then David consulted with the captains of thousands and hundreds, and with every leader. 2 And David said to all the assembly of Israel, “If it seems good to you, and if it is of the LORD our God, let us send out to our brethren everywhere who are left in all the land of Israel, and with them to the priests and Levites who are in their cities and their common–lands, that they may gather together to us;
3 and let us bring the ark of our God back to us, for we have not inquired at it since the days of Saul.”
4 Then all the assembly said that they would do so, for the thing was right in the eyes of all the people.
5 So David gathered all Israel together, from Shihor in Egypt to as far as the entrance of Hamath, to bring the ark of God from Kirjath Jearim.
6 And David and all Israel went up to Baalah, to Kirjath Jearim, which belonged to Judah, to bring up from there the ark of God the LORD, who dwells between the cherubim, where His name is proclaimed.
7 So they carried the ark of God on a new cart from the house of Abinadab, and Uzza and Ahio drove the cart.
8 Then David and all Israel played music before God with all their might, with singing, on harps, on stringed instruments, on tambourines, on cymbals, and with trumpets.
9 And when they came to Chidon’s threshing floor, Uzza put out his hand to hold the ark, for the oxen stumbled.
10 Then the anger of the LORD was aroused against Uzza, and He struck him because he put his hand to the ark; and he died there before God.
11 And David became angry because of the LORD’s outbreak against Uzza; therefore that place is called Perez Uzza to this day.
12 David was afraid of God that day, saying, “How can I bring the ark of God to me?”
13 So David would not move the ark with him into the City of David, but took it aside into the house of Obed-Edom the Gittite.
14 The ark of God remained with the family of Obed–Edom in his house three months. And the LORD blessed the house of Obed-Edom and all that he had.

1 CHR 13:1–14 ESV
1 David consulted with the commanders of thousands and of hundreds, with every leader.
2 And David said to all the assembly of Israel, “If it seems good to you and from the LORD our God, let us send abroad to our brothers who remain in all the lands of Israel, as well as to the priests and Levites in the cities that have pasturelands, that they may be gathered to us.
3 Then let us bring again the ark of our God to us, for we did not seek it in the days of Saul.” 4 All the assembly agreed to do so, for the thing was right in the eyes of all the people.
5 So David assembled all Israel from the Nile of Egypt to Lebo–hamath, to bring the ark of God from Kiriath-jearim.
6 And David and all Israel went up to Baalah, that is, to Kiriath-jearim that belongs to Judah, to bring up from there the ark of God, which is called by the name of the LORD who sits enthroned above the cherubim.
7 And they carried the ark of God on a new cart, from the house of Abinadab, and Uzzah and Ahio were driving the cart.
8 And David and all Israel were celebrating before God with all their might, with song and lyres and harps and tambourines and cymbals and trumpets.
9 And when they came to the threshing floor of Chidon, Uzzah put out his hand to take hold of the ark, for the oxen stumbled.
10 And the anger of the LORD was kindled against Uzzah, and he struck him down because he put out his hand to the ark, and he died there before God.
11 And David was angry because the LORD had broken out against Uzzah. And that place is called Perez–uzza to this day.
12 And David was afraid of God that day, and he said, “How can I bring the ark of God home to me?”
13 So David did not take the ark home into the city of David, but took it aside to the house of Obed–edom the Gittite.
14 And the ark of God remained with the household of Obed-edom in his house three months. And the LORD blessed the household of Obed-edom and all that he had.

13:1–4 David consulted his leaders before making the decision to bring the ark, but he forgot to consult his Bible—the Torah, the first five books of the OT—that he already had. On this occasion, he invited the Levites from all over Israel. The reason for this is given in 13:3: for we have not inquired at it [“we neglected it,” NLT] since the days of Saul. This means that they had not consulted God for a long time, for the ark had been forgotten in Kirjath Jearim.
13:5–7 David, together with a group of representatives of Israel, went to Kirjath Jearim in Judah (Josh 15:9; 18:14) for the purpose of bringing the ark to Jerusalem. Notice that the ark represented the presence of God (Exod 25:8; 1 Sam 4:4). Thus, it was a sacred object. David, however, had neglected to determine the proper way to carry the sacred ark of God. The Philistines carried it upon a brand-new cart pulled by oxen that had never before been used as draft animals (1 Sam 6:7). This way of moving the ark, however, was not the one chosen by God. The procession departed from Abinadab’s house with two of his sons, Uzzah and Ahio, guiding the cart (2 Sam 6:3–4), following the Philistine fashion (see 1 Sam 6:7).
13:8–14 The Hebrew root sakhaq “to be merry” or “to be happy” (see Prov 8:30–31), indicates that the people were happy, even joyful, at the event. They were sincere in their intention. The procession, however, was not according to the revelation of God regarding the sanctity of the ark (see Deut 31:25; 1 Chr 15:2; Jer 15:17; “make merry,” Jer 30:19). Good intentions should not exclude obedience to the revealed truth.
This text does not mention that any inquiry had been made to God in regard to this event. It seems that any person was allowed to participate without any restriction or ritual organization, as prescribed in the Pentateuch. In a few words, there was no real preparation for this celebration—everything was pretty much improvised. Thus, things went wrong. Uzzah died as he reached out with a hand to steady the ark, and the party ended with David being angry with God. He had not consulted God as he should have done. Now he blamed God for his own mistake. David carried the ark to Obed-Edom’s house. Ironically, God blessed Obed-Edom and his house. Notice that he was a foreigner, thus indicating that God’s blessings are to those who by faith obey His commands and abide in His covenant, regardless of their nationality.

DAVID ESTABLISHED AT JERUSALEM (14:1–17)
This section is a pause in the process of bringing the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem. It builds the certainty that David is the legitimate king of Israel.

1 CHR 14:1–17 NKJV
1 Now Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and cedar trees, with masons and carpenters, to build him a house.
2 So David knew that the LORD had established him as king over Israel, for his kingdom was highly exalted for the sake of His people Israel.
3 Then David took more wives in Jerusalem, and David begot more sons and daughters.
4 And these are the names of his children whom he had in Jerusalem: Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, Solomon,
5 Ibhar, Elishua, Elpelet,
6 Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia,
7 Elishama, Beeliada, and Eliphelet.
8 Now when the Philistines heard that David had been anointed king over all Israel, all the Philistines went up to search for David. And David heard of it and went out against them.
9 Then the Philistines went and made a raid on the Valley of Rephaim.
10 And David inquired of God, saying, “Shall I go up against the Philistines? Will You deliver them into my hand?” The LORD said to him, “Go up, for I will deliver them into your hand.”
11 So they went up to Baal Perazim, and David defeated them there. Then David said, “God has broken through my enemies by my hand like a breakthrough of water.” Therefore they called the name of that place Baal Perazim.
12 And when they left their gods there, David gave a commandment, and they were burned with fire.
13 Then the Philistines once again made a raid on the valley.
14 Therefore David inquired again of God, and God said to him, “You shall not go up after them; circle around them, and come upon them in front of the mulberry trees.
15 And it shall be, when you hear a sound of marching in the tops of the mulberry trees, then you shall go out to battle, for God has gone out before you to strike the camp of the Philistines.” 16 So David did as God commanded him, and they drove back the army of the Philistines from Gibeon as far as Gezer.
17 Then the fame of David went out into all lands, and the LORD brought the fear of him upon all nations.

1 CHR 14:1–17 ESV
1 And Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and cedar trees, also masons and carpenters to build a house for him.
2 And David knew that the LORD had established him as king over Israel, and that his kingdom was highly exalted for the sake of his people Israel.
3 And David took more wives in Jerusalem, and David fathered more sons and daughters. 4 These are the names of the children born to him in Jerusalem: Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, Solomon,
5 Ibhar, Elishua, Elpelet,
6 Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia,
7 Elishama, Beeliada and Eliphelet.
8 When the Philistines heard that David had been anointed king over all Israel, all the Philistines went up to search for David. But David heard of it and went out against them.
9 Now the Philistines had come and made a raid in the Valley of Rephaim.
10 And David inquired of God, “Shall I go up against the Philistines? Will you give them into my hand?” And the LORD said to him, “Go up, and I will give them into your hand.”
11 And he went up to Baal-perazim, and David struck them down there. And David said, “God has broken through my enemies by my hand, like a bursting flood.” Therefore the name of that place is called Baal-perazim.
12 And they left their gods there, and David gave command, and they were burned.
13 And the Philistines yet again made a raid in the valley.
14 And when David again inquired of God, God said to him, “You shall not go up after them; go around and come against them opposite the balsam trees.
15 And when you hear the sound of marching in the tops of the balsam trees, then go out to battle, for God has gone out before you to strike down the army of the Philistines.”
16 And David did as God commanded him, and they struck down the Philistine army from Gibeon to Gezer.
17 And the fame of David went out into all lands, and the LORD brought the fear of him upon all nations.

14:1–2 Chapter 14 is closely related to chapter13, and its tone is in direct contrast with chapter 10, where Saul dies for his iniquity. Chapter 14 demonstrates that God blessed David, though in the first attempt to transport the ark, he had failed to determine God’s will. David was the chosen one, and that failure was not a reason for God to abandon him. God is always close to those with a teachable heart. Thus, international recognition was given to David. This was one of God’s blessings.
14:3–7 The second blessing David enjoyed was the many sons born to him in Jerusalem, while in contrast Saul lost his sons on Gilboa (10:6). Observe that all these children could not have been born to David in the three months between the two events recorded of the ark (chapters 13 and 15). Children were just a reference that God’s blessing of David extended through a long period of time.
14:8–13 All Israel had a dangerous implication for the Philistines. They had just killed Saul and his sons. A new king over all of Israel would mean rebellion against their dominion. Thus, war was declared. Notice that the events are not necessarily chronological. The war against the Philistines could have taken place first and then the first attempt to take the ark followed. Chapter 14 seeks to convey the general blessings David received from God as a consequence of his loyalty to Him (14:10). Saul, on the other hand, did not consult God sincerely before his battle against the Philistines, and the consequences were disastrous (10:13). God destroyed the enemies with the cooperation of David (14:11). Therefore, divine and human cooperation is important in the history of salvation. God uses His instruments for accomplishing His will. Saul was too independent from God; he always wanted to follow his own impulses without inquiring of God.
14:13–17 David inquired again of God. In the second battle against the Philistines, David inquired again of God, and the Lord answered him. David had learned to consult with God for any strategic move of his army. This indicated that he was the leader God wanted as the overseer of His people. David did not depend upon his own brilliant ideas and creativity; he depended solely on God’s guidance. Of course, there is room for creativity in God’s plan, but this should always be rooted in His revealed will. The reputation of David was known everywhere, and friends and foes alike feared him. David was afraid of God (13:12), but the Chronicler mentions that God also caused all to fear His chosen one (14:17).

 
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Old 09-10-2020, 01:17 PM   #21
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Footnotes:

. To avoid confusion with people of the same name, the author of this volume uses [i], [II], and [III] to indicate whether the name is the first, second, or third in the genealogical line. This numeration was not used in the Hebrew text nor in any ancient or modern version.

. Tsvi Schneider, “Azariahu Son of Hilkiahu (High Priest?) on the City of David Bulla,” IEJ 38, no. 3 (1988): 138–41.
. Commenting on the platform in front of the altar, the m. ‘Arak. 2.6. I.1 reads: “A. [Referring to the twelve Levites, M. 2:6a, They do not have less than twelve Levites standing on the platform, we ask:] To what do these [twelve] correspond? B. Said R. Papa, To the nine lyres, two harps, and one cymbal, C. as it is said, He and his brothers and sons were twelve (1 Chr. 25:9).”
. Kleinig, The Lord’s Song, 72–73.
. Curtis and Madsen, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Chronicles, 137.
. John L. Peterson, “Libnah,” ABD 4:323.
. Peterson, “Jattir,” ABD 3:650.
. Peterson, “Eshtemoa,” ADB 2:617.
. Peterson, “Holon,” ABD 3:258.
. Jeffries M. Hamilton, “Ashan,” ABD 1:476.
. Moshe Kochavi, “Rabud, Khirbet,” OEANE 4:401.
. William G. Dever, “Beth-Shemesh,” OEANE 1:312.
. Patrick M. Arnold, “Geba,” ABD 2:921–22.
. Henry O. Thomson, “Almon,” ABD 1:161.
. Peterson, “Anathoth,” ABD 1:227. See also Yoel Elitzur, Ancient Toponyms in the Land of Israel: Preservation and History, 2nd ed. Series of Studies in the Ancient Period: The David Jemima Jeselsohn Library. (Israel: The Academy of the Hebrew Language, 2012), 188–89. Elitzur presents the etymologic origin of the term Anathoth.
. Joe D. Seger, “Shechem,” OEANE 5:20–23.
. Dever, “Gezer,” OEANE 2:396–400.
. Wesley I. Toews, “Jokmeam,” ABD 3:933.
. Peterson, “Beth-Horon,” ABD 1:688.
. Peterson, “Aijalon,” ABD 1:131.
. Ze’eg Herzog, “Gerisa, Tell,” OEANE 2:394.
. Peterson, “Gath-Rimmon,” ABD 2:910.
. A. E. G., “Taanach,” ABD 6:288.
. ANET, 242.
. Melvin Hunt, “Ibleam,” ABD 3:353
. Zvi Maoz, “Golam,” ABD 2:1063
. John Day, “Ashtaroth,” ABD 1:491.
. Peterson, “Kishiom,” ABD 4:88. Kadesh is mentioned in the Amenhotep II Stelae (1427–1400 BC). See James K. Hoffmeier, “The Memphis and Karnak Stelae of Amenhotep II (2.3a),” in The Context of Scripture, Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World II, ed. William W. Hallo (Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2000), 21a.
. Peterson, “Ashtaroth,” ABD 1:1232.
. Arnold, “Ramoth,” ABD 5:620. Ramoth seems to be mentioned as Yarmutu in the second Beth-Shan stela. See K. A. Kitchen, “Second Beth-Shan Stela [year lost] (2.4D),” COS 2, ed. William W. Hallo (Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2000), 28a.
. Peterson, “En-gannim,” ABD 2:501.
. ANET, 243.
. David W. Baker, “Mishal,” ABD 4:871.
. Peterson, “Abdon,” ABD 1:9. This name has been found on an arrowhead from the eleventh century BC. See Frank Moore Cross, “A Note on a Recently Published Arrowhead,” IEJ 45 (1995), 188–89.
. Peterson, “Helkath,” ABD 3:125.
. Peterson and Rami Arav, “Rehob,” ABD 5:660.
. Arav, “Kades,” ABD 4:11.
. Hunt, “Hammon,” ABD 3:38.
. Peterson, Topographical Survey, 93. This town is mentioned in the Moabite Inscription of King Mesha—he says that he built this town. This reference is to the one given to Reuben. See K. A. D. Smelik, “The Inscription of King Mesha (2.23),” COS 2, ed. William W. Hallo (Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2000), 137b.
. Arnold, “Rimmon,” ABD 5:773.
. Rafael Frankel, “Tabor,” ABD 6:304.
. Frankel, 1:910.
. Smelik, “The Inscription of King Mesha,” in COS 2, 138.
. Gerald L. Mattingly, “Bezer,” ABD 1:718.
. ANET, 320.
. J. Andrew Dearman, “Jahaz,” ABD 3:612.
. Peterson, “Kedemoth,” ABD 4:10–11.
. For the various sites proposed for this town see, Peterson and Micheki Piccirillo, “Maphaah,” ABD 4:696.
. Arnold, “Ramoth-Gilead,” ABD 5:620.
. Aharoni, The Land of the Bible, 439.
. Lawrence T. Geraty, “Heshbon,” ABD 3:183.
. Peterson, Topographical Survey, 612–14. Peterson, “Jazer,” ABD 3:650–51.
. Klein, 247.
. See the text of the Moabite Stone in ANET 320–21.
. Ralph edition of the LXX, a Greek version of the Hebrew Bible, has the names of Ner and Nadab in its text, nēr and nadab. Haplography is a mistake of the eyes in which the copyist gets confused, and his eyes go from the first N in Ner to the second N that begins Nadab, thus omitting the first word, in this case the word “Ner.”
. Nethinim is the name given to the temple servants in all the postexilic books of Scripture. The word means “those set apart” to do the menial work of the sanctuary for the Levites. The name occurs seventeen times (see Ezra 2:70; 7:7, 24; 8:20; and so on). The tradition is that the Gibeonites (Josh 9:27) were afterward called Nethinim. David gave them, together with prisioners of war, to the Levites (Ezra 8:20). Only 612 Nethinim returned from Babylon (Ezra 2:58; 8:20). They were under the control of their own chief (Neh 7:46). No reference is made to them in the NT. They probably merged into the general body of the Jewish people.
. Kalimi, The Reshaping of Ancient Israelite History in Chronicles, 228. Kalimi proposes the following chiastic structure. It is reproduced here with some modifications, adapted for this commentary.
. Ellen G. White writes that “the fate of Uzzah was a divine judgment upon the violation of a most explicit command. Through Moses the Lord had given special instruction concerning the transportation of the ark. None but the priests, the descendants of Aaron, were to touch it … Thus in the bringing of the ark from Kirjath-Jearing, there had been a direct and inexcusable disregard of the Lord’s directions.” White, PP 705.
. Klein, 334.

 
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1. GENEALOGY
1 CHRONICLES 1:1–9:44

This section is written in a genealogical style, thus setting it apart from the entire work by its different genre. This serves as the general introduction to the entire literary work of 1–2 Chronicles. The content of this section prepares the reader for the subjects presented throughout the book. Even though there are twelve tribes, plus Levi, the author organized the literary structure in this section (chs. 1–9) with Levi as his central concern (6:1–81).
The Chronicler prepared a list of specific people to accomplish his purpose (in chs. 1–9). Notice carefully that even though a person representing a social group or a nation is chosen, others are just left aside without any explanation for that genealogical omission. Based on the broad context, it seems that each family group was chosen based on its willingness to accept God’s covenant and not because of its self-accomplished righteousness (or so it assumed) or its ethnic relationship. A few were listed from those who rejected God’s covenant; they were listed because of their relationship to the faithful ones.

Chiastic Structure of Chapters 1–9
A Israel’s Past Genealogy (its genealogy since Adam; 1:1–2:2).
B Royal Tribe: Tribe of Judah (King David’s family; 2:3–4:23).
C Secondary Tribes (Simeon, Reuben, Gad, Half-Manasseh; 4:24–5:26).
D Tribe of Levi (6:1–81; [MT 5:27–6:66]).
C1 Secondary Tribes (Issachar, Benjamin, Naphtali, Half-Manasseh, Ephraim, Asher; 7:1–40).
B1 Royal Tribe: Tribe of Benjamin (King Saul’s family; 8:1–40).
A1 Genealogy of the Returnees: The List of the Returnees (9:1–34).
Addendum: Genealogy of King Saul (9:35–44; identical to 8:29–38). It was probably copied from chapter 8 for the purpose of preparing the reader for the beginning of Israel’s history as presented in chapter 10.

PAST ISRAEL GENEALOGY (1:1–2:2)
This subsection introduces to the reader the origins of the nations of the world and of those surrounding Israel (compare with Gen 10). Thus, it places a historical backdrop to the events narrated in Chronicles. All nations come from God; there is no superior race. On the contrary, there is only one human race with one ancestor relating all men and women to each other.
Notice that the Chronicler arranged this subsection in an alternating manner. It was arranged between vertical (1:1–4, 24–27) and horizontal (1:5–23, 28–2:2) genealogical styles. The vertical relates a person or ethnic group to an individual in the past, while the horizontal genealogy reflects their social status as brothers, sisters, cousins, and so on. Although most of Chronicles’ genealogical material was based on Genesis, the author omitted any unnecessary information found in Genesis that was irrelevant for the purpose for which he was inspired and sometimes added some information he had from a different source to clarify the message.

1 CHR 1:1–2:2 NKJV
1 Adam, Seth, Enosh,
2 Cainan, Mahalalel, Jared,
3 Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech,
4 Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.
5 The sons of Japheth were Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras.
6 The sons of Gomer were Ashkenaz, Diphath, and Togarmah.
7 The sons of Javan were Elishah, Tarshishah, Kittim, and Rodanim.
8 The sons of Ham were Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan.
9 The sons of Cush were Seba, Havilah, Sabta, Raama, and Sabtecha. The sons of Raama were Sheba and Dedan.
10 Cush begot Nimrod; he began to be a mighty one on the earth.
11 Mizraim begot Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim,
12 Pathrusim, Casluhim (from whom came the Philistines and the Caphtorim).
13 Canaan begot Sidon, his firstborn, and Heth;
14 the Jebusite, the Amorite, and the Girgashite;
15 the Hivite, the Arkite, and the Sinite;
16 the Arvadite, the Zemarite, and the Hamathite.
17 The sons of Shem were Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud, Aram, Uz, Hul, Gether, and Meshech. 18 Arphaxad begot Shelah, and Shelah begot Eber.
19 To Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg, for in his days the earth was divided; and his brother’s name was Joktan.
20 Joktan begot Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah,
21 Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah,
22 Ebal, Abimael, Sheba,
23 Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab. All these were the sons of Joktan.
24 Shem, Arphaxad, Shelah,
25 Eber, Peleg, Reu,
26 Serug, Nahor, Terah,
27 and Abram, who is Abraham.
28 The sons of Abraham were Isaac and Ishmael.
29 These are their genealogies: The firstborn of Ishmael was Nebajoth; then Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam,
30 Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadad, Tema,
31 Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah. These were the sons of Ishmael.
32 Now the sons born to Keturah, Abraham’s concubine, were Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah. The sons of Jokshan were Sheba and Dedan.
33 The sons of Midian were Ephah, Epher, Hanoch, Abida, and Eldaah. All these were the children of Keturah.
34 And Abraham begot Isaac. The sons of Isaac were Esau and Israel.
35 The sons of Esau were Eliphaz, Reuel, Jeush, Jaalam, and Korah.
36 And the sons of Eliphaz were Teman, Omar, Zephi, Gatam, and Kenaz; and by Timna, Amalek.
37 The sons of Reuel were Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah.
38 The sons of Seir were Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan.
39 And the sons of Lotan were Hori and Homam; Lotan’s sister was Timna.
40 The sons of Shobal were Alian, Manahath, Ebal, Shephi, and Onam. The sons of Zibeon were Ajah and Anah.
41 The son of Anah was Dishon. The sons of Dishon were Hamran, Eshban, Ithran, and Cheran. 42 The sons of Ezer were Bilhan, Zaavan, and Jaakan. The sons of Dishan were Uz and Aran.
43 Now these were the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before a king reigned over the children of Israel: Bela the son of Beor, and the name of his city was Dinhabah.
44 And when Bela died, Jobab the son of Zerah of Bozrah reigned in his place.
45 When Jobab died, Husham of the land of the Temanites reigned in his place.
46 And when Husham died, Hadad the son of Bedad, who attacked Midian in the field of Moab, reigned in his place. The name of his city was Avith.
47 When Hadad died, Samlah of Masrekah reigned in his place.
48 And when Samlah died, Saul of Rehoboth-by-the-River reigned in his place.
49 When Saul died, Baal-Hanan the son of Achbor reigned in his place.
50 And when Baal-Hanan died, Hadad reigned in his place; and the name of his city was Pai. His wife’s name was Mehetabel the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Mezahab.
51 Hadad died also. And the chiefs of Edom were Chief Timnah, Chief Aliah, Chief Jetheth, 52 Chief Aholibamah, Chief Elah, Chief Pinon,
53 Chief Kenaz, Chief Teman, Chief Mibzar,
54 Chief Magdiel, and Chief Iram. These were the chiefs of Edom.
2:1 These were the sons of Israel: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun,
2 Dan, Joseph, Benjamin, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher.

1 CHR 1:1–2:2 ESV
1 Adam, Seth, Enosh;
2 Kenan, Mahalalel, Jared;
3 Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech;
4 Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.
5 The sons of Japheth: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras.
6 The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah.
7 The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Rodanim.
8 The sons of Ham: Cush, Egypt, Put, and Canaan.
9 The sons of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabta, Raamah, and Sabteca. The sons of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan.
10 Cush fathered Nimrod. He was the first on earth to be a mighty man.
11 Egypt fathered Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim,
12 Pathrusim, Casluhim (from whom the Philistines came), and Caphtorim.
13 Canaan fathered Sidon his firstborn and Heth,
14 and the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites,
15 the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites,
16 the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites.
17 The sons of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud, and Aram. And the sons of Aram: Uz, Hul, Gether, and Meshech.
18 Arpachshad fathered Shelah, and Shelah fathered Eber.
19 To Eber were born two sons: the name of the one was Peleg (for in his days the earth was divided), and his brother’s name was Joktan.
20 Joktan fathered Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah,
21 Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah,
22 Obal, Abimael, Sheba,
23 Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab; all these were the sons of Joktan.
24 Shem, Arpachshad, Shelah;
25 Eber, Peleg, Reu;
26 Serug, Nahor, Terah;
27 Abram, that is, Abraham.
28 The sons of Abraham: Isaac and Ishmael.
29 These are their genealogies: the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebaioth, and Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, 30 Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadad, Tema,
31 Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah. These are the sons of Ishmael.
32 The sons of Keturah, Abraham’s concubine: she bore Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah. The sons of Jokshan: Sheba and Dedan.
33 The sons of Midian: Ephah, Epher, Hanoch, Abida, and Eldaah. All these were the descendants of Keturah.
34 Abraham fathered Isaac. The sons of Isaac: Esau and Israel.
35 The sons of Esau: Eliphaz, Reuel, Jeush, Jalam, and Korah.
36 The sons of Eliphaz: Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, Kenaz, and of Timna, Amalek.
37 The sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah.
38 The sons of Seir: Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan.
39 The sons of Lotan: Hori and Hemam; and Lotan’s sister was Timna.
40 The sons of Shobal: Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho, and Onam. The sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah.
41 The son of Anah: Dishon. The sons of Dishon: Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Cheran.
42 The sons of Ezer: Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan. The sons of Dishan: Uz and Aran.
43 These are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the people of Israel: Bela the son of Beor, the name of his city being Dinhabah.
44 Bela died, and Jobab the son of Zerah of Bozrah reigned in his place.
45 Jobab died, and Husham of the land of the Temanites reigned in his place.
46 Husham died, and Hadad the son of Bedad, who defeated Midian in the country of Moab, reigned in his place, the name of his city being Avith.
47 Hadad died, and Samlah of Masrekah reigned in his place.
48 Samlah died, and Shaul of Rehoboth on the Euphrates reigned in his place.
49 Shaul died, and Baal-hanan, the son of Achbor, reigned in his place.
50 Baal-hanan died, and Hadad reigned in his place, the name of his city being Pai; and his wife’s name was Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Mezahab.
51 And Hadad died. The chiefs of Edom were: chiefs Timna, Alvah, Jetheth,
52 Oholibamah, Elah, Pinon,
53 Kenaz, Teman, Mibzar,
54 Magdiel, and Iram; these are the chiefs of Edom.
2:1 These are the sons of Israel: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun,
2 Dan, Joseph, Benjamin, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher.

1:1 (See also Gen 5:3–32.) Humans did not come from an evolutionary competition among primitive and undeveloped hominids until finally the “Homo sapiens” won the day. In other words, humans are not the result of the survival of the fittest. Humans are the direct descendants of the first man ever created on the planet Earth by the only Creator God (Gen 1:26–27). The first four verses encapsulate all generations of the faithful ones from creation to the universal flood. The Chronicler started with Adam instead of Abraham due to the fact that the Chronicler understood that all humans are elected, chosen to be part of God’ community of faith. God is not exclusivist in His calling. The entire human family has the right to be part of God’s covenant. It solely depended upon the willingness of mankind to accept the desire of God to enter into a covenantal relationship with His creatures. Cain and Abel are not mentioned since they do not represent any flood survivor group or the remnant in any period of human history.
(Fig. 1) 1:1 From Adam to Shem
1:2–3 Cainan, Mahalalel, Jared [see Gen 5:12–18], Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech [see Gen 5:32; 10:1].
1:4 Creation and redemption come from God. Adam was the first man from creation, and Noah was the survivor, the remnant from the catastrophic judgment that fell upon the earth. This judgment had the purpose of saving humanity from uttermost destruction. It was a strategic part of the plan of salvation. The author of Chronicles could have started from another point in history, but his goal was to demonstrate that, when necessary, God interferes in human history in favor of His faithful remnant people. It is not because they deserve His deliverance but for having accepted the transforming power of God’s grace through His Spirit. “My Spirit shall not strive with man forever” (Gen 6:3). This was an example of the high place the postexilic community could and should reach by the same Spirit. “ ‘Not by might nor by power, but by My Spirit,’ says the LORD of hosts” (Zech 4:6).
The Chronicler takes for granted that his readers would know from Genesis the historical setting of these first four verses. Therefore, he leaves this information up to the reader to find and connect to the names mentioned in the text. Only what was needed was kept in a carefully arranged literary structure. Verse 4 ends the vertical genealogy with the introduction of three brothers, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. From these sons of Noah, the entire world was populated. Two important elements can be understood. The first is that the descendants of Shem, Ham, and Japheth formed the nations surrounding Israel, and the second is that Israel was chosen from the faithful remnant of the flood. Thus, all nations owe their existence to God, who preserved His remnant in the flood. On the other hand, Israel, as the continuation of God’s people, owes to the world the knowledge of God’s love revealed through His covenant to Noah and later to Abraham (Gen 9:9; 15:1–21).
1:5 The Chronicler makes a link between the nations surrounding Israel with the three sons of Noah. This may indicate that even though family groups were many, only those who, through the power of God, were willing to be faithful became part of the remnant line. Furthermore, the connection with Adam implies a straight relationship with God as Creator of all humans. All were of equal value before God and were endowed with free will. God elected those who were willing to be part of His covenant of grace. The contrary would be impossible; God could not elect those in rebellion against Him for the simple reason that they themselves were in ideological war against God’s covenant. What should be clear in the mind of a Chronicles’ reader, before getting into the narrative sections, is that God’s choosing does not invalidate individual freedom of choice and will. Humans are free to choose their destiny regarding this life and eternal salvation.
Therefore, one finds here the genealogy from the sons of Noah until the direct ancestor of Israel, namely, Abram (Abraham). Before the flood all were related to Adam, and after this catastrophic event, all are related to Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Here are the genealogical lines of the entire new world topographically transformed by the universal flood. In these three people, all human families find their common ancestors. We will not identify all the nations represented in this genealogy—that would be more appropriate for the commentary on Genesis. Attention is given, however, to those social groups and patriarchs believed to be more relevant to this discussion.
The following is a list of possible nations and peoples related to or associated with the names listed in Chronicles, based on various sources. Gomer: In Ezekiel 38:6, Gomer is mentioned as an aggressive people. Magog: Josephus believed Magog to be the Scythians. In Ezekiel 38:1–6; 39:6, they are related to a people from the far north, Togarmah. Madai: The Medes are well-known in the ANE. They were conquered by the Persians and became allied to them in the war against Babylon. Javan: This name corresponds to the inhabitants of an area of Greece, Ionia. They had two well-known cities in their territory, namely, Smyrna and Ephesus. Tubal: They were located in the southern part of Cappadocia, close to the Halys River. They are mentioned in Ezekiel 27:13; 32:26; 38:2–3 (cf. Isa 66:19). Probably, the Tibali and Mushku of the Assyrian inscriptions are references to Tubal. Meshech: Tiglath-Pileser I met a people he called Mushkaya in Asia Minor. In the Bible, Meshech is found in Psalms 120:5; Ezekiel 27:13; 32:26; 38:2–3; 39:1; Isaiah 66:19. Tiras: Josephus relates them to the Thracians. Merneptah met a people called Turshah, among the Sea Peoples, in 1232 BC. Another possibility is that they might be associated with the Etruscans.
(Fig. 2) Descendants of Japheth 1:5
1:6 Ashkenaz: The Assyrians mention a people named Ishkuza from around the Black and Caspian Seas, while Herodotus prefers to associate them with the Scythians. This name, for some reason, became a term to designate the Jewish population from Eastern Europe, the Ashkenazi. Diphath: There is not much information about this name except the one mentioned by Josephus. For him this name may be related to a group located close to the Black Sea in Asia Minor, the Paphlagonias. Togarmah: In Ezekiel 27:14, Togarmah is mentioned after Tubal, Javan, and Mesech as supplying horses and mules to the Tyrians, and in Ezekiel 38:6 they supplied soldiers to the army of Gog (Lydia). Togarmah was located in the southeastern section of Armenia.
1:7 Elishah: The meaning of this name seems to be “copper” or “purple.” It might be a reference to Cyprus, where this material was widely used in the second millennium before Christ (Gen 10:4). Ezekiel mentions that purple came from the islands of Elishah (Ezek 27:7). Tarshishah: Two locations can be associated with this name. One is in Spain, probably a Phoenician colony named Tartessus, perhaps the place where Jonah intended to escape (Jonah 1:3). The second possibility is Carthage, in northern Africa (Ezek 27:12). Kittim: Perhaps located in the southern section of Cyprus. In 1 Maccabees 1:1, Kittim is almost a synonym for Macedonia, where Alexander the Great was born: “Alexander of Macedon, son of Philip, had come from the land of Kittim” (Jerusalem Bible). Rodanim: The MT in 1:7 reads “Dodanim,” while Genesis 10:40 reads “Rodanim”; it is probably a confusion between the consonants R and D. Both letters have a similar shape in Hebrew (ר/ד). The Rodanim are generally identified as inhabitants of the island of Rhodes, well-known to the ancient Phoenicians.
1:8 The descendants of Ham spread over North Africa, Asia, and parts of the ANE. Cush: In the LXX this name is understood to indicate the Ethiopians. In the NKJV, in general, it refers to a group of people from Africa, probably living in Nubia, Sudan (2 Chr 12:3; 14:8–12; 16:8; 21:16). According to Aharoni, based on Sinuhe’s story, Cush inhabited southern Transjordan and the Negev. This verse, however, mentions Cush as the father of Nimrod (see 1:10), founder of Babylon. Thus, Cush’s descendants could have inhabited Mesopotamia and later moved to Africa. This is just a conjecture; so far there is no convincing evidence regarding the region where Cush’s descendants lived.
Mizraim [Egypt]: To this nation, Jacob went down during the famine that lasted for seven years (Gen 46:3). Put: Warriors from Put are referred to in connection with the forces of Egypt: “The Ethiopians [Cush] and the Libyans [Put] who handle the shield, and the Lydians who handle and bend the bow” (Jer 46:9; cf. Ezek 30:5). In Ezekiel 27:10, Put appears with Persia and Lydia (Lud) as being in the army of Tyre. Canaan: These are the inhabitants of the west coast of Palestine, including Syria, Lebanon, and the west side of the Jordan River. They were the inhabitants of the promised land (Gen 13:7).
(Fig. 3) Cap. 1:8, Descendants of Ham
1:9 Cush had seven descendants. Seba: In Psalms 72:10 and in Isaiah 43:3, Seba is mentioned with Egypt and Ethiopia; therefore, it must be located in the southern section of the Middle East. Isaiah 45:14 reads “Sabaeans” (seba’im), who are described as “men of stature” and coming over to Cyrus in chains. Havilah: This name is mentioned with Shur as one of the borders of the territory of the Ishmaelites (Gen 25:18); compare the same limits of the land of the Amalekites (1 Sam 15:7). It is described in Genesis 2:11–12 as bordering the river Pishon and as being rich in gold, bdellium, and other precious stones. No exact identification has yet been made for Havilah. Sabta: It has an uncertain meaning and location. Raama: In Ezekiel’s lament over Tyre (Ezek 27:22), Raama is mentioned, along with Sheba, as merchants who provided the inhabitants of Tyre with spices, precious stones, and gold (see Gen 10:7). So far it is an unidentified group.
Sabtecha: This has an uncertain meaning and location, probably located in Arabia or Ethiopia (Gen 10:7). Sheba: A group probably located in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula in the Kingdom of Qataban. Perhaps they were part of the Sabaean tribes. See Seba in this verse. Sheba and Dedan are the two sons of Raamah, son of Cush (Gen 10:7). Notice, however, that Sheba and Dedan are also the names of the two sons of Jokshan the son of Abraham and Keturah (Gen 25:3). On the other hand, Sheba is a son of Joktan, son of Eber, who was a descendant of Shem (Gen 10:28). This may indicate that various social groups originated from different people with the same name, making it more difficult to identify them in their respective geographical area. The Sabaeans are referred to as traders in gold and spices (1 Kgs 10:1–2; Ps 72:15; Isa 60:6; Jer 6:20; Ezek 27:22). They were slave traders (Joel 3:8) and desert people (Job 1:15; 6:19).
Dedan: A possible tribe name from the Arabian Peninsula (Gen 10:7); in Genesis 25:3, however, they are mentioned as descendants of Keturah. They were, like the related Sheba, represented by various merchant groups (Gen 10:7, 28). In Isaiah 21:13, a reference is made to “caravans of Dedanites” in the wilderness of Arabia, and Ezekiel mentions them as providing Tyre with precious merchandise (Ezek 27:20).
1:10 Nimrod is a reference back to Genesis 10:8–12. The Genesis narrative presents several details about Nimrod that are not found in the text of Chronicles. It seems that the Chronicler wanted to show the first ruler of Babylon without much emphasis on it. Since Chronicles is a postexilic book, it introduces the first and the last most important Babylonian kings, Nimrod and Nebuchadnezzar (6:15), respectively.
1:11 Mizraim was the father of seven descendants. Their identification is difficult. Ludim: In Genesis 10:13, Ludim appears as the firstborn of Egypt (mitzrayim), while in Genesis 10:22, Lud is the fourth son of Shem. We have, therefore, to deal with two different social groups bearing similar names. One group was Hamite and the other Semite. Anamin: An unidentified descendant of Egypt (Gen 10:13). Lehabim: This name appears in the Table of Nations in Genesis 10:13 as descendants of Egypt. They should probably be identified with the Lubim, but it is just a conjecture based on the similarity of both names. Naphtuhim: This term is of uncertain meaning.
1:12 Pathrusim: According to Baker, this term represents a topographical area in Upper Egypt named p’-t’-rs(y). Based on the biblical text, Baker’s assertion seems to be reasonable; for example, the term Pathros appears in Jeremiah 44:1, 15; Ezekiel 29:14; 30:14 as a possible reference to Pathrusim. Casluhim: So far this is an unidentified social group. Philistine: The term Philistines occurs for the first time in Genesis 10:14. The statement, “from whom came the Philistines,” indicates that Casluhim and Caphtorim were related people, and both are associated with the origin of the Philistines (Gen 10:14; Deut 2:23). Jeremiah calls it an “island” or “coastland” (Jer 47:4 ESV), supporting a connection between Crete and Philistia. These considerations identify Caphtor with the island of Crete.
1:13 Canaan had eleven descendants. This list is mostly written with gentilic endings, indicating a social group for each specific name. Sidon: This was located on the Phoenician coastline on the north section from Tyre (Gen 10:15, 19; 1 Chr 22:4). Heth: In Genesis 23:10, Heth is the ancestor of the Hittites, pre-Israelite inhabitants of Canaan (Gen 10:15). They were an Indo-European group established originally in Asia Minor, and some of them moved into Canaan. In Genesis 23:1–4, the sons of Heth dwelled in Hebron, and even Uriah, a soldier of David, was a Hittite. Probably he was converted to the Hebrews’ religion (11:41).
1:14 Jebusite: These were inhabitants of Canaan living in Jerusalem until David conquered it (11:4–5; 21:15, 18, 28; 2 Chr 3:1; 8:7). After the conquest of Jerusalem, some Jebusites remained in the land. It seems that many people from Caanan accepted the God of Israel. Amorite: They were inhabitants of Palestine, the population of the hills on the western shore of the Dead Sea (Gen 14:7); Hebron (Gen 14:13); Shechem (Gen 48:22); Gilead and Bashan (Deut 3:10); and under Hermon (Deut 3:8; 4:48). They are named, instead of the Canaanites, as the inhabitants of Palestine, whom the Israelites were required to conquer (Gen 15:16; Deut 20:17; Judg 6:10; 1 Sam 7:14; 1 Kgs 21:26; 2 Kgs 21:11). Girgashite: They were inhabitants of Palestine. They were conquered by the Israelites during the conquest of the promised land (Josh 3:10; 24:11). According to paleographic sources, this name occurs as grgsh or bn grgsh in Ugaritic script.
1:15 Hivite: Inhabitants of the land of Canaan along with the Canaanites and other tribes (Gen 10:17; Exod 3:17). The Hivites are described in Joshua 11:3 as being under Hermon in the land of Mizpah, and in 2 Samuel 24:7 they are mentioned immediately after the stronghold of Tyre. Arkite: They were descendants of Canaan (Gen 10:17), inhabitants of the coastal Phoenician town of Irqata located near present Tripoli. Their presence is attested to in Egyptian sources as ‘qty and ‘qtm, in Hittite as ir-qà-ta, and in Akkadian as ir-qat. Sinite: According to the Table of Nations (Gen 10:17), the Sinites were descendants of Canaan, son of Ham, Noah’s son. They were probably inhabitants of the Mediterranean coast (at Sidon?), Asia Minor (the Hittites?), or inland in Israel (the Jebusites?) and Syria (the Amorites and/or Hamathites?). The Sinites must have originated from one of these geographical areas.
1:16 Arvadite: They were probably the inhabitants of an island off the Phoenician coast. They developed a trading relationship with other nations, as did most of the Phoenician cities. They are mentioned in the early lists of Genesis 10:18 and in Ezekiel 27:8, 11. This name refers to seamen and soldiers in the service of Tyre. Aradus was the Greek name for the city of Arvad. First Maccabees 15:23 lists this city as the place from where Lucius sent a letter to support the Jewish cause. Zemarite: They were Canaanites (Gen 10:18), located at a place called Cumur, mentioned in the Amarna Letters along with Arvad. The city name in Akkadian is Ṣimir, on the seacoast between Tripoli and Ruwad. Hamathite: They are mentioned in Genesis 10:18 among the sons of Canaan. The boundary of Israel reached the territory of Hamath but not the city itself (Num 34:8; Josh 13:5; Ezek 47:13–21). David entered into friendly relations with them (2 Sam 8:9), and Solomon erected store cities in the land of Hamath (2 Chr 8:4).
1:17 This text introduces the descendants of Shem (Gen 10:22–29). They represent the main lineage from which God’s people came in OT times. They were the link between covenantal communities—the one living before the flood with the one living after the flood. Shem had five sons representing nations that had spread to the west and east of Mesopotamia. Elam: He was the firstborn of Shem (Gen 10:22). He was the father of the Elamites to the east of Mesopotamia between the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea. Asshur: He was one of the sons of Shem and the father of the Assyrians with their capital Asshur by the Tigris River (Gen 10:22). Arphaxad: A personal name and an unidentified social group. From him, the line of God’s people continued. Lud: In Genesis 10:13, Ludim is the firstborn of Mizraim (Egypt), while in Genesis 10:22, Lud is one of the sons of Shem. Therefore, two different nationalities have a similar name. In Isaiah 66:19, Lud is mentioned with Tarshish and Pul (or Phut), Tubal, and Javan. In Jeremiah 46:9, the Ludim, together with Kush and Phut, are allies of Egypt; and in Ezekiel 27:10, Lud and Phut are allies of Persia. Josephus relates Lud to the Lydians. Aram: He is the father of the Arameans, with Damascus as their capital. These social groups are frequently mentioned in Chronicles. The firstborn of Aram was Uz. He was the grandson of Shem. His name represents a country in the northwest of the Arabian Peninsula, historically connected to Aram and Edom (Gen 10:23; 22:21; 36:28; 1 Chr 1:42). This was probably the land where the account of Job took place (Job 1:1).
(Fig. 4) 1:17, Genealogy of Shem
1:18 Arphaxad was the father of Shelah, who was the father of Eber. Eber was the great-grandson of Shem and father of Peleg and Joktan (Gen 10:21, 25; 11:14–17). The name Eber means “the other side” or “across.” The term “Hebrew” might have been derived from this name (Eber), but so far there is no conclusive evidence supporting it. Since his name means “the other side,” it might by implication be a reference to a group of people coming from the other side of a river, in this case, the Euphrates River—probably from the town of Haran (Gen 11:31), whence Abraham migrated to Canaan.
1:19 The name Peleg is enigmatic based on what is said about him, for in his days the earth was divided. The word palgu in Akkadian means “canal.” Perhaps this meaning implies the division of the land in the Fertile Crescent by irrigation channels/canals from the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. This system of irrigation was very common in this geographic area since the third millennium BC. A second interpretation, probably the most plausible one, is based on the Hebrew meaning of the word peleg. It means “to divide” or “to split.” It might be an allusion to the tower of Babel, where the land was divided according to their languages, and the nations were dispersed according to their respective social groups (Gen 11). These two possibilities continue to be hypothetical. Peleg’s descendants continue in 1:25. Notice that Peleg should not be taken as the separation of the continents from a hypothetical Pangaea continent that could have existed before the flood. If that were the case and the continents had rent asunder years after the flood, all life-supporting elements would have been destroyed all over again. The tremendous energy produced by volcanic activity in the mid-Atlantic and Pacific ridges would have destroyed the environment, eliminating any possibility of maintaining life upon the earth due to the volcanic gasses and smoke. The division of the continents most probably took place during the flood, not after it.
1:20 An inclusio contains the genealogy of Joktan. It starts in 1:20 and ends in 1:23 with the same words, “the sons of Joktan.” Almodad means “the beloved” or “God is beloved.” This is the first of the thirteen sons of Joktan (Gen 10:25–29). He probably represents a tribe that inhabited the southern area of the Arabian Peninsula. Sheleph formed a clan that settled in the Arabian Peninsula (Gen 10:26). Hazarmaveth is attached to a clan or district in south Arabia (Gen 10:26). They were descendants of Shem through Joktan. No district or social group has been discovered so far in the ANE with this name, Jerah.
1:21 The name Hadoram is found in 18:10 and in 2 Chronicles 10:18 (Gen 10:27). It might be also identified with a Yemenite region named Dauram or with a Bedouin tribe of south Arabia. Uzal: The name Uzal occurs in Genesis 10:27. Perhaps it also occurs in Ezekiel 27:19 as the name of a place: “Dan and Javan from Uzal” (LXX). Diklah: Its meaning is “place of palms”; compare with Genesis 10:27. Perhaps it was a south Arabian tribe or place-name connected to a palm-bearing district or an oasis.
1:22 Ebal: He was one of the sons of Joktan, descendant of Shem. In the Table of Nations, his name is spelled Obal (Gen 10:28). This is probably a clan name that appears in the genealogical clan list of Seir the Horite (see Gen 36:23) and in the parallel text of 1:40. Sheba is a town in the territory assigned to Simeon (Josh 19:2). It appears in 1:32 as one of the sons of Jokshan, son of Keturah. This name is also listed as the son of Raama, son of Cush (1:9).
1:23 Ophir: The eleventh in order of the sons of Joktan (Gen 10:29). There is a reference to Ophir in Genesis 10:29. It is the name of a land to the southeast of Palestine. Solomon’s vessels set out from Ezion-geber at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba, returning with gold, precious stones, and wood (1 Kgs 9:28; 10:11; 22:48; 2 Chr 8:18). The gold of Ophir was so pure that it became proverbial (29:4; Job 28:16; Ps 45:9; Isa 13:12); in two passages, the form “Uphaz” is used for Ophir (Jer 10:9; Dan 10:5). Havilah: This is mentioned together with Shur as one of the limits of the territory of the Ishmaelites in Genesis 25:18 and of the Amalekites in 1 Samuel 15:7. It is described (Gen 2:11–12) as having the river Pishon as its boundary and as being rich in gold and bdellium. No exact topographical location has been found for this name. Jobab: This is probably a nomadic tribe of the desert in the Arabian Peninsula (Gen 10:29). This name occurs as the king of Edom (Gen 36:33–34) and as a Canaanite king who fought against Joshua (Josh 11:1).
1:24 The genealogy of Shem is introduced again in order to reach directly to Abraham (1:24–27). The names mentioned before this verse ******* the nations that form the entire world. Now it turns to the ancestral line that forms Israel as a nation and to all the descendants of Abraham. The Chronicler switches to the linear genealogy type again, with the purpose of reaching directly to the most important person in the history of Israel, namely, Abraham (1:26–27).
1:25 For the name Eber, see 1:18, and for Peleg, 1:19. Reu was a son of Peleg, a descendant of Shem (Gen 11:18; Luke 3:35). He lived for 239 years.
1:26 Serug. He is the father of Nahor (Gen 11:20–23). Luke calls him Saruch (Luke 3:35 KJV). Nahor was the father of Terah, who was the father of Abram (Gen 11:22–25; Luke 3:34). Nahor and Haran, brothers of Abraham, are not mentioned in Chronicles. Both Nahor and Terah worshipped other gods beyond the river, probably a syncretistic religion—a mixture of truth and error. Therefore, God decided to take Abraham from his own family to make him a great nation, one that would serve only Him. Terah: His name probably means “the Ibex mountain.” He had three sons, Haran, Nahor, and Abraham, and one daughter, Sarah, from another wife. Terah settled in Ur of the “Chaldeans,” where his son Haran died, leaving behind him his son Lot. Terah afterward migrated with Abraham (probably his youngest son) and Lot (his grandson), together with their families, from Ur, intending to go with them to Canaan; but he tarried at Haran. There, Terah spent the remainder of his days and died at the age of 205 years (Gen 11:24–32; Josh 24:2).
1:27 Here concludes the vertical genealogy of Abram, who is Abraham, indicating that the Chronicler was familiar with the event that changed Abram’s name to Abraham (Gen 17:5). He was considered the most important character in Israel’s history for through him all nations would be blessed (Gen 12:2–3). In him God would fulfill the promise given to Adam and Eve (Gen 3:15). So in Abraham, God’s people throughout human history would find a source of hope for their future and immediate comfort for their expectations. Since Abraham did not see the complete fulfillment of the promise given to him by God and still believed, all generations should have similar faith (Heb 11).
The Chronicler seems to have taken this information about Abraham from Genesis 11:26, but he omits detailed information regarding Abraham’s brothers Nahor and Haran, his father Terah, and his relative Lot. One of the reasons for this is that the Chronicler avoided materials that could distract the reader from the main purpose of his text, which is to point straightforward to the patriarchal predecessor of Israel. The reader would be able to complete the historical background information found in Genesis regarding God making His covenant with Adam (Gen 2), Noah (Gen 8:21–22; 9:1–17), and Abraham (Gen 17:4). These patriarchs are the ancestors of the postexilic community, those who had accepted to enter into a covenantal relationship with God. It emphasizes the importance of Abraham as patriarch; he was the father of nations coming from Isaac as well as from Ishmael. Isaac had twelve grandsons (and one granddaughter); Ishmael had twelve sons; and Keturah had six sons; each of them became a clan or a nation. Although many nations originated from Abraham, only Israel continues the line of God’s chosen people. This, however, did not make Israel better than the other nations; it only increased their responsibility more than their privileges. Their choice was bound to their obedience to God’s covenant.
(Fig. 5) 1:24–27, From Shem to Isaac
1:28 This verse introduces a horizontal genealogy of Abraham’s descendants. Notice that Isaac’s genealogy is introduced later, in 2:1–2. This is the Chronicler’s style: He mentions first those who are not the continuation of God’s people and then those representing the continuation of it.
The names of Sarah and Hagar are mentioned neither here nor in the subsequent verses. Since Genesis was a well-known historical account for the Chronicler’s audience, he might have omitted both names. The Chronicler avoided any comments on Abraham’s polygamous problems. The emphasis was on descendants and not on marriage dilemmas. Another possibility is that the Chronicler adopted a literary style of mentioning the least-known wives or concubines and omitting those who were well-known by his audience.
1:29–31 The Chronicler elaborates Ishmael’s genealogy and then the one from Keturah. Each of these genealogies is enveloped by an inclusio. An inclusio starts and ends with similar words. This literary tool provides an emphasis by separating the aforementioned genealogies from the rest of Abraham’s descendants through Isaac. This inclusio starts with The firstborn of Ishmael was (1:29) and ends with These were the sons of Ishmael (1:31).
(Fig. 6) 1:29–31, Genealogy of Ishmael
1:32–33 In the case of Keturah, the inclusio starts with Now the sons born to Keturah (1:32) and ends with All these were the children of Keturah (1:33). Keturah’s name is mentioned to avoid any ambiguity regarding her descendants. She receives the status of a concubine, while in Genesis she is called Abraham’s wife (Gen 25:1–4). This is probably to reinforce that Abraham had only one woman with the status of wife through whom the promised child came. Midian is the fourth son of Keturah and the one from whom the Midianites came. This nation played an important role in Israel’s history following Moses.
(Fig. 7) 1:32–33: Genealogy of Keturah
1:34 This clearly indicates the centrality of Isaac’s descendants in Chronicles. The expression Abraham begot Isaac is found only here. Ishmael and Keturah’s genealogy, though having an important place, is introduced without mentioning Abraham as begetting them. This does not mean that they were not his descendants; it just alludes to the importance the Chronicler wants to convey concerning Isaac’s family. His lineage was the one through whom the Promised One would arise.
1:35 The descendants of Esau are listed in 1:35–37. After dealing with Ishmael and Keturah, many verses are devoted to the descendants of Esau. This might be due first of all to the fact that Esau was the brother of Israel (Jacob) and second because the Amalekites, from Esau, the archenemies of Israel, arose from time to time (1:36). Among Esau’s descendants one finds Eliphaz. This name occurs six times in Job (Job 2:11; 4:1; 15:1; 22:1; 42:7, 9) and is always followed by the term “the Temanite.” Notice that Teman was the firstborn child of Eliphaz, the son of Esau (see 1:36; Gen 36:11–12, 15–16). Job (1:1) mentions the land of Uz, which is the name of the grandson of Seir (1:42). Therefore, one possibility is that Eliphaz in Job was one of the descendants of Esau. The wives of Esau are not mentioned in this genealogy as they were in the Genesis account. Chronicles purposely avoids any reference to Esau’s marriage problems. Keep in mind that Esau married women who were not according to the desire of his parents (Gen 28:7–8).

 
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Old 09-10-2020, 04:34 PM   #24
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1:36 There is a difference between the Genesis narrative and the parallel passage from 1 Chronicles that can be easily solved by a careful observation of the text. Genesis 36:12 mentions that Timna was the concubine of Eliphaz, and both were the parents of Amalek, while in 1:36 Timna seems to be a daughter of Eliphaz and sister of Amalek. Notice, however, that in 1:39 Timna is the sister of Lotan, son of Seir. Therefore, the best explanation is that Timna was the concubine of Eliphaz, placed at the end of his genealogy, indicating that by Timna he had Amalek, as is translated in the NKJV, and by Timna, Amalek (the preposition by is not in the Hebrew text but implied by the context).
(Fig. 8) 1:35–37, Genealogy of Esau
1:38–42 The descendants of Seir are listed here. Seir is not connected to any of Esau’s genealogical line or to any other descendant of Abraham. Seir seems to have been living in the mountains that received his name—the Mountains of Seir. Later, the descendants of Esau, initially enjoying cordial relationships, inhabited this place; e.g., Timna, from Seir, married Eliphaz, the firstborn of Esau. Later, by aggressive conquest (Gen 36:9, 21, 43; Deut 2:5, 12), Seir is destroyed by Esau’s people. The name Seir has the probable meaning of “hairy.” Thus, the name became synonymous with Esau and, consequently, with his people the Edomites. In Genesis 36:20, Seir is called by the name of his grandson, Hori, hence Horite. These people were living in the land of Seir.
(Fig. 9) 1:38–42, the Genealogy of Seir
1:43 An inclusio exists in 1:43–54. It contains the list of kings who reigned in the land of Edom before the Israelites had a king (this list was based on Gen 36:31–39). Therefore, this might be a possible reference to the time of the judges: “In those days there was no king in Israel” (Judg 21:25). Notice that King Hadad, from the time of Solomon, seems to have belonged to a hereditary monarchy (1 Kgs 11:14–15), which is not the case of this text, where kings are taken from different families. Therefore, these verses are a reference to a period when there was not yet a dynasty in Edom or kings in Israel. There is not much information available about King Bela or of his capital Dinhabah.
1:44 When Bela died, not his son but another became the king, thus supporting that there was not yet a hereditary monarchy in Edom. Jobab became the king; he was the son of Zerah, who probably was the grandson of Esau and son of Reuel. This might be the reason why this is the only instance that a father is mentioned in this list of kings. The Chronicler wants to show the political importance not only of Jobab but also of his capital Bozrah. This was the most important center for the Edomites (Amos 1:11–12) and later did not lose its political influence (Isa 34:6; 63:1; Jer 49:13, 22).
1:45 The only information about Husham is found in this verse. On the other hand, Teman (Temanites), is an Edomite region that became a synonym for Edom (Jer 49:20; Hab 3:3; Obad 9); see also comments on 1:35.
1:46 A battle took place between Hadad and the Midianites. In Judges 6, the Midianites raided Israelite territory. They came first as raiders at the time of the harvest (Judg 6:4). The aggressive behavior of these desert tribes made necessary a constant state of alertness and defense (Judg 6:2). Therefore, this battle seems to be a reference to the Edomite reaction to these Midianite attacks.
1:47 Samlah is an unidentified location. Masrekah seems to be a place located near Aqaba, but its exact location is still uncertain (see Gen 36:36).
1:48 Rehoboth by the River is a reference to a site in the northwest section of Edom. The phrase “on/by the river” cannot be a reference to the Euphrates River, for this would be too distant from Edom. Nonetheless, according to Zwickel, the term “river” may indicate a brook or a creek or a possible seasonal brook, like Wadi al-Ḥasâ. Saul was a king, but nothing is known besides that.
1:49 The only reference to Baal-Hanan outside of this genealogy is found in 27:28, where David places an overseer with this name in charge of his olive and sycamore trees. Regarding the name Achbor, it is found also in Genesis 36:38–39; 2 Kings 22:12, 14; Jeremiah 26:22; 36:12. None of these references, however, are related to the two names found in this verse.
1:50 Hadad became king over the Edomites. It is not known to which Hadad this verse is referring. This is probably a reference to an ancestor of Hadad from the time of King Solomon (1 Kgs 11:14–22). His capital was Pai, probably the town of Pau mentioned in Genesis 36:39. Notice that the kings of Edom are from many different families, while those from Judah are from David’s line. This seems to be the argument the Chronicler wants to demonstrate by listing all these Edomite kings. The name Hadad became important in Israel’s history. Therefore, to avoid confusion, his wife’s (Mehetabel), his mother-in-law’s (Matred), and his grandmother-in-law’s (Mezahab) names are introduced to the reader as a reference to the particular Hadad the Chronicler was considering. Only the Chronicler’s audience could have been familiar with this information.
1:51 The Chronicler alludes to Genesis 36:40 in this verse. The purpose seems to be simple. He avoids any right to possession of territory to the Edomites, especially if these rights were carried on to the postexilic time. Notice that several prophecies are against Edom (Isa 34:5; Jer 49:7–18; Ezek 25:13; Joel 3:19; Amos 1:11). Timnah should not be confused with the concubine of Eliphaz (see 1:36; Gen 36:12, 22). This was a leader—a chief (in this case a masculine name)—among the Edomites.
1:52 Aholibamah should not be confused with the wife of Esau (Gen 36:2, 5, 14, 18, 25). Here the reference is to a chief (man) among the Edomites. The name Pinon is related to a mining town located at the Wadi Araba, approximately thirty km from the southern section of the Dead Sea (Num 33:42–43 reads “Punon”).
1:53 Kenaz and Teman were the sons of Eliphaz. Both are mentioned in Genesis 36:11, 15. Kenaz is probably the ancestor of the Kenizzites (Num 32:12; Josh 14:6; 15:17). Mibzar is probably a fortification at nearby Petra.
1:54 Magdiel: Edomite chief listed in Genesis 36:40–43. Eusebius mentions this name as a site in the Gebalene.
2:1–2 Jacob, in most instances in Chronicles, is called Israel, except in 16:13, 17. The change of Jacob to Israel is found in Genesis 32:28; 35:10. The sons of Jacob are listed here in a similar way to Genesis 35:22–26 (compare with Exod 1:2–5). The only exception in the order is Dan, which occurs after the last son of Leah, Zebulun, and before Joseph, the first son of Rachel. This order of Israel’s sons is found nowhere else.
(Fig. 10) 2:1–2, Descendants of Israel
Dan is almost completely ignored in Chronicles, with the exception of one of his probable descendants, Hushim (7:12; see my comments on this passage under its respective chapter). Unfaithfulness to God’s covenant of grace might have been the deterrent for the tribe of Dan. Having the name of “judge,” they should have acted as leaders in their community. Even in the NT, Dan is omitted from the 144,000, together with Ephraim (see Rev 7). God’s election does not exclude faithfulness and the chosen ones are not predestined; they continue to be free to exercise their willpower.
(Fig. 11) 2:3–8 Descendants of Judah

THE ROYAL TRIBE: THE TRIBE OF JUDAH (2:3–4:23)
Judah was the continuation of God’s people who would eventually, through David, lead to the coming of the Messiah. Judah had the responsibility of maintaining and keeping the sacred oracles. These verses (2:3–55) outline the descendants of Judah without mentioning detailed information found elsewhere in the Bible (see Gen 38:1–5; 46:12; Num 26:19–21).

2:3–8. DESCENDENTS OF JUDAH
1 CHR 2:3–8 NKJV
3 The sons of Judah were Er, Onan, and Shelah. These three were born to him by the daughter of Shua, the Canaanitess. Er, the firstborn of Judah, was wicked in the sight of the LORD; so He killed him.
4 And Tamar, his daughter-in-law, bore him Perez and Zerah. All the sons of Judah were five. 5 The sons of Perez were Hezron and Hamul.
6 The sons of Zerah were Zimri, Ethan, Heman, Calcol, and Dara—five of them in all.
7 The son of Carmi was Achar, the troubler of Israel, who transgressed in the accursed thing. 8 The son of Ethan was Azariah.

1 CHR 2:3–8 ESV
3 The sons of Judah: Er, Onan and Shelah; these three Bath-shua the Canaanite bore to him. Now Er, Judah’s firstborn, was evil in the sight of the LORD, and he put him to death.
4 His daughter-in-law Tamar also bore him Perez and Zerah. Judah had five sons in all.
5 The sons of Perez: Hezron and Hamul.
6 The sons of Zerah: Zimri, Ethan, Heman, Calcol, and Dara, five in all.
7 The son of Carmi: Achan, the troubler of Israel, who broke faith in the matter of the devoted thing;
8 and Ethan’s son was Azariah.

2:3 Judah had five sons from his two wives. The three sons borne to him from his Canaanite wife, the daughter of Shua, were Er, Onan, and Shelah (Gen 38:2). The Chronicler omits any comment about Judah’s avoidance in fulfilling his obligation according to the law of the levirate toward his oldest son, Er. God had killed him for being evil in His sight (Gen 38:7). Notice that Judah’s wife is mentioned as a Canaanite woman. This detail of information, regarding Judah’s first wife’s nationality, was preserved in order to show a possible relationship between the unfaithfulness of Er and the Canaanite influence he might have received as he was reared. Abraham didn’t want a Canaanite woman as a wife for his son Isaac (Gen 24:1–4). Later, God forbade them to marry Canaanite women (Exod 34:11–16; Deut 7:1–6). The text, however, does not indicate the specific sin of Er.
No comment is presented regarding Onan’s death and his unwillingness to perform the duty as the next closest relative to Er, a fact clearly mentioned in Genesis 38:6–10. The second part of this verse indicates that Er was wicked in the sight of the LORD; so He killed him. The same words are found in Genesis 38:7 to describe Er’s wicked behavior. He killed him—this is the first reference in Chronicles to the direct consequence of a sinful act. On the other hand, Onan’s particular sin was omitted, but the Chronicler’s audience was familiar with the Genesis narrative. They knew that the sin of Onan made him wicked in the sight of the Lord, as his brother Er had been. Therefore, God takes into account all wicked behavior and secret sins; nothing can be hidden from His sight.
2:4 Tamar. No information is given regarding Tamar’s family. In Genesis, a detailed account is presented regarding this situation (Gen 38:11–30). The Chronicler had the intention of introducing Judah’s genealogy without any comment on his marital problems, in the same way as the Chronicler had done in the case of Abraham’s and Jacob’s genealogies. The goal of this section is to get the reader up to the postexilic time without much of the background information that can be obtained from Genesis account.
Judah had five sons: Er, Onan, Shelah, Perez, and Zerah. The first and second sons died in Canaan (Num 26:19). Perez, then his firstborn with Tamar, was the continuation of the chosen line. God used Perez to accomplish His will. One can see here that God does not choose the best according to human standards, but He chooses the willing one. Then He works with that person, molding and transforming his or her life according to His will. All things are possible with Him.
2:5–8 Through Hezron, firstborn of Perez, the genealogical line continues. He is found in Genesis 46:12; Numbers 26:20–21; Ruth 4:18–19. The Chronicler keeps in his narratives the tragedy regarding one of the descendants of Zerah, brother of Perez. Zerah had Zimri, and Zimri had Carmi, and Carmi had Achar, the troubler of Israel, who transgressed in the accursed thing. Observe the spelling of his name, Achar. In Joshua, his name is spelled Achan (Josh 7:1, 18–20, 24). The Chronicler associated Achan (Achar) with the Hebrew verb ‘acar (עכר) “to trouble,” thus emphasizing the behavior of Achan. Even a valley takes the name of Achor (Josh 7:24–26). Here one can see why Perez continued the genealogy of the remnant; his family was faithful, except Achar/Achan, descendant of Zerah, the troubler of Israel.

2:9. THE DESCENDANTS OF HEZRON
1 CHR 2:9 NKJV
9 Also the sons of Hezron who were born to him were Jerahmeel, Ram, and Chelubai.

1 CHR 2:9 ESV
9 The sons of Hezron that were born to him: Jerahmeel, Ram, and Chelubai.

2:9 Hezron, son of Perez, had three sons, Jerahmeel, Ram, and Chelubai. The family of Jerahmeel (see 2:25) is mentioned in 1 Samuel 30:29 among the list of Judah’s inhabitants receiving the gift from David. Both Jerahmeel and Chelubai received an extensive genealogical list, while Ram is just a part of the vertical list leading up to David. Nevertheless, Chelubai (כלובי) may be a different spelling for Caleb (כלב). Observe that in 2:18 Chelubai is spelled Caleb. Though both spellings might be correct, we should not quickly assume that Chelubai son of Hezron and Caleb the son of Jephunneh (Num 13:6) the Kenazzite (Num 32:12) are the same person. The latter is found in 4:15 following the genealogy of Kenaz, his most probable brother (Josh 15:17). Also, Othniel is mentioned (4:13) as one of the sons of Kenaz, thus being the nephew of Caleb.

2:10–17. GENEALOGY OF RAM TO DAVID
1 CHR 2:10–17 NKJV
10 Ram begot Amminadab, and Amminadab begot Nahshon, leader of the children of Judah; 11 Nahshon begot Salma, and Salma begot Boaz;
12 Boaz begot Obed, and Obed begot Jesse;
13 Jesse begot Eliab his firstborn, Abinadab the second, Shimea the third,
14 Nethanel the fourth, Raddai the fifth,
15 Ozem the sixth, and David the seventh.
16 Now their sisters were Zeruiah and Abigail. And the sons of Zeruiah were Abishai, Joab, and Asahel—three.
17 Abigail bore Amasa; and the father of Amasa was Jether the Ishmaelite.

1 CHR 2:10–17 ESV
10 Ram fathered Amminadab, and Amminadab fathered Nahshon, prince of the sons of Judah. 11 Nahshon fathered Salmon, Salmon fathered Boaz,
12 Boaz fathered Obed, Obed fathered Jesse.
13 Jesse fathered Eliab his firstborn, Abinadab the second, Shimea the third,
14 Nethanel the fourth, Raddai the fifth,
15 Ozem the sixth, David the seventh.
16 And their sisters were Zeruiah and Abigail. The sons of Zeruiah: Abishai, Joab, and Asahel, three.
17 Abigail bore Amasa, and the father of Amasa was Jether the Ishmaelite.


2:10 Amminadab, son of Ram, begot Nahshon. Nahshon became a leader (nasy’ prince) in Judah. In Numbers 1:7, Nahshon is an assistant to Moses and Aaron in the process of taking the census of Israel in the wilderness (Num 2:3; 7:12, 17; 10:14). He receives the title, “prince of the sons of Judah” (ESV).
2:11 Nahshon begot Salma, and Salma begot Boaz. Bethlehem of Ephrathah seems to receive its name from the son of Salma (2:50–54). His name is spelled Salmon in Ruth 4:20. Boaz, son of Salma, is one of the direct forefathers of David (Ruth 4:19–22).
2:12–15 The first three sons of Jesse are known from Samuel (“Eliab,” 1 Sam 16:6; 17:13, 28; “Abinadab,” 1 Sam 16:8; 17:13; and “Shammah,” 1 Sam 16:9; 17:13). In the book of Samuel, eight sons are attributed to Jesse, while Chronicles lists only seven. This might be an indication that one of them did not survive long enough to have a descendant. David’s brothers, Nethanel, Raddai, and Ozem are mentioned only here, in Chronicles, by name. Josephus mentions seven sons of Jesse, and a fresco on the wall of the Dura-Europos Synagogue from AD 244–245 presents Jesse with six sons and David as his seventh one, thus indicating that Chronicles was well-known in the first three centuries after Jesus.
2:16–17 Zeruiah and Abigail, the two sisters of David, are considered in the genealogy as the heads of their respective families. Both are, for the first time in the Bible, introduced as the sisters of David. This shows the importance of women in the Chronicler’s theological understanding.
In 2 Samuel 17:25, Abigail is the wife of Ithra (ytra’), which is a variant spelling for Jether (yeter). Notice that Jether is called the Ishmaelite in Chronicles (2:17), but “an Israelite” in Samuel (as Ithra, 2 Sam 17:25). This may reflect the historical perspective of each book rather than representing a genealogical error. One author may have emphasized the place where Jether was born, while the other, his descendants. Abigail had Amasa.
Based on this text (see 2:16), Joab is David’s nephew. David, in 2 Samuel 19:13, also says that Amasa was his bone and flesh, implying that they were close relatives. The husband of Zeruiah is unknown, but his tomb was located in Bethlehem (2 Sam 2:32). One would expect Joab, being the first son, to be the first in the list of Zeruiah’s sons, but the Chronicler probably placed him as the second because of Joab’s attempt to support the wrong candidate to the throne of David in the rebellion of Adonijah (1 Kgs 1:7).
(Fig. 12) 2:10–17, Genealogy of Jesse

2:18–24. GENERAL GENEALOGICAL INFORMATION
1 CHR 2:18–24 NKJV
18 Caleb the son of Hezron had children by Azubah, his wife, and by Jerioth. Now these were her sons: Jesher, Shobab, and Ardon.
19 When Azubah died, Caleb took Ephrath as his wife, who bore him Hur.
20 And Hur begot Uri, and Uri begot Bezalel.
21 Now afterward Hezron went in to the daughter of Machir the father of Gilead, whom he married when he was sixty years old; and she bore him Segub.
22 Segub begot Jair, who had twenty-three cities in the land of Gilead.
23 (Geshur and Syria took from them the towns of Jair, with Kenath and its towns—sixty towns.) All these belonged to the sons of Machir the father of Gilead.
24 After Hezron died in Caleb Ephrathah, Hezron’s wife Abijah bore him Ashhur the father of Tekoa.

1 CHR 2:18–24 ESV
18 Caleb the son of Hezron fathered children by his wife Azubah, and by Jerioth; and these were her sons: Jesher, Shobab, and Ardon.
19 When Azubah died, Caleb married Ephrath, who bore him Hur.
20 Hur fathered Uri, and Uri fathered Bezalel.
21 Afterward Hezron went in to the daughter of Machir the father of Gilead, whom he married when he was sixty years old, and she bore him Segub.
22 And Segub fathered Jair, who had twenty-three cities in the land of Gilead.
23 But Geshur and Aram took from them Havvoth-jair, Kenath, and its villages, sixty towns. All these were descendants of Machir, the father of Gilead.
24 After the death of Hezron, Caleb went in to Ephrathah, the wife of Hezron his father, and she bore him Ashhur, the father of Tekoa.

2:18 This is not the Caleb mentioned in Joshua; it is Chelubai the third son of Hezron (see 2:9) and not the son of Jephunneh (4:15). Chelubai/Caleb seems to have had a wife named Azubah and probably a concubine named Jerioth. Both together had three sons. It was common to employ a concubine if, they thought, the wife was not able to bear children. This might be one of these cases. Thus, the children of Jerioth were considered also of Azubah, as in the case of Jacob’s wives. No further information is given in the Bible regarding the three sons of Chelubai/Caleb.

2:19–20 After the death of Azubah, Chelubai/Caleb married Ephrath, with whom he had Hur. Hur was the grandfather of Bezalel—one of the craftsmen God chose to labor in the temple (Exod 31:2; 35:30; 38:22). Hur was probably the assistant of Moses and Aaron in the battle against the Amalekites (Exod 17:10, 12; 24:14). One may conclude that both—Caleb, son of Jephunneh, and Chelubai/Caleb, son of Hezron—were contemporaries in the wilderness.
2:21–22 Hezron had Segub with the daughter of Machir, the father of Gilead. Segub had Jair. The Chronicles record mentions that Jair had twenty-three cities in the land of Gilead (2:22). A possible relationship may exist with Judges 10:3–4, where a judge also named Jair had thirty towns in Gilead. Joshua 13:30, however, mentions sixty towns belonging to Jair. Notice that Hezron was not a young man anymore; emphasis is given to his age here (2:21). This casts light on 2:24, where the death of Hezron is mentioned.
2:23 The Chronicler is bringing to the mind of his readers an event that took place much later than the genealogy itself. King Geshur and the Syrians took sixty towns from the inhabitants of Gilead. Notice that much later, David married a daughter of Geshur (2 Sam 3:3; 1 Chr 3:2), and Absalom had to escape there after killing Amnon (2 Sam 13:37). Thus, Geshur went from being an enemy to becoming an ally.
2:24 Hezron died. A reference like this is rare in the OT. Usually, the death of a person is related to an event or to having lived a good number of years. But no reason for his death is presented here. The name Tekoa echoes the city built by Rehoboam (2 Chr 11:5–6)—a very important town in Israel’s history (Jer 6:1; Amos 1:1).
(Fig 13) 2:18–24. Genealogy of Chelubai/Caleb son of Hezron

2:25–33. DESCENDANTS OF JERAHMEEL
1 CHR 2:25–33 NKJV
25 The sons of Jerahmeel, the firstborn of Hezron, were Ram, the firstborn, and Bunah, Oren, Ozem, and Ahijah.
26 Jerahmeel had another wife, whose name was Atarah; she was the mother of Onam.
27 The sons of Ram, the firstborn of Jerahmeel, were Maaz, Jamin, and Eker.
28 The sons of Onam were Shammai and Jada. The sons of Shammai were Nadab and Abishur. 29 And the name of the wife of Abishur was Abihail, and she bore him Ahban and Molid.
30 The sons of Nadab were Seled and Appaim; Seled died without children.
31 The son of Appaim was Ishi, the son of Ishi was Sheshan, and Sheshan’s son was Ahlai. 32 The sons of Jada, the brother of Shammai, were Jether and Jonathan; Jether died without children.
33 The sons of Jonathan were Peleth and Zaza. These were the sons of Jerahmeel.

1 CHR 2:25–33 ESV
25 The sons of Jerahmeel, the firstborn of Hezron: Ram, his firstborn, Bunah, Oren, Ozem, and Ahijah.
26 Jerahmeel also had another wife, whose name was Atarah; she was the mother of Onam. 27 The sons of Ram, the firstborn of Jerahmeel: Maaz, Jamin, and Eker.
28 The sons of Onam: Shammai and Jada. The sons of Shammai: Nadab and Abishur.
29 The name of Abishur’s wife was Abihail, and she bore him Ahban and Molid.
30 The sons of Nadab: Seled and Appaim; and Seled died childless.
31 The son of Appaim: Ishi. The son of Ishi: Sheshan. The son of Sheshan: Ahlai.
32 The sons of Jada, Shammai’s brother: Jether and Jonathan; and Jether died childless.
33 The sons of Jonathan: Peleth and Zaza. These were the descendants of Jerahmeel.

2:25–33 These verses introduce the sons of Jerahmeel, the firstborn of Hezron. His genealogy is placed in an inclusio. The beginning (2:25) and the end (2:33) are marked by the same phrase—the sons of Jerahmeel. This literary device emphasizes and separates his genealogy from the others, as in the case of Ishmael and Keturah from Isaac’s genealogy.
Jerahmeel had two wives. The first wife is unnamed, and the second was Atarah. Usually, Chronicles mentions the least-known wife by name—see the case of Keturah (1:32–33). She is mentioned, but Sarah and Hagar are not (1:28). Two sons of Atarah were childless (2:30, 32); hence, the extinction of their clan was irremediable.
(Fig. 14) 2:25–33. Descendants of Jerahmeel

2:34–41. GENEALOGY FROM SHESHAN TO ELISHAMA
1 CHR 2:34–41 NKJV
34 Now Sheshan had no sons, only daughters. And Sheshan had an Egyptian servant whose name was Jarha.
35 Sheshan gave his daughter to Jarha his servant as wife, and she bore him Attai.
36 Attai begot Nathan, and Nathan begot Zabad;
37 Zabad begot Ephlal, and Ephlal begot Obed;
38 Obed begot Jehu, and Jehu begot Azariah;
39 Azariah begot Helez, and Helez begot Eleasah;
40 Eleasah begot Sismai, and Sismai begot Shallum;
41 Shallum begot Jekamiah, and Jekamiah begot Elishama.

1 CHR 2:34–41 ESV
34 Now Sheshan had no sons, only daughters, but Sheshan had an Egyptian slave whose name was Jarha.
35 So Sheshan gave his daughter in marriage to Jarha his slave, and she bore him Attai.
36 Attai fathered Nathan, and Nathan fathered Zabad.
37 Zabad fathered Ephlal, and Ephlal fathered Obed.
38 Obed fathered Jehu, and Jehu fathered Azariah.
39 Azariah fathered Helez, and Helez fathered Eleasah.
40 Eleasah fathered Sismai, and Sismai fathered Shallum.
41 Shallum fathered Jekamiah, and Jekamiah fathered Elishama.

2:34 Sheshan had no sons. Verse 31 mentions Ahlai as one of his daughters. So Sheshan took his Egyptian servant Jarha and gave him to his daughter Ahlai. Thus, Jarha continues his genealogical line. A similar case happened with the daughters of Zelophehad (Num 27:1–11). In Numbers 36:1–12 these daughters of Zelophehad had to find a husband within their tribe in order to keep the land inside their own tribe. If the husbands were from another tribe, their inheritance would belong to the husband’s tribe. Thus, Sheshan, due to the lack of a suitable candidate, takes a foreigner, a servant, for his daughter. In this manner, he keeps his inheritance within his tribe. For all children, born from a non-Israelite servant to an Israelite master, would belong to his master (Lev 25:39–54), and the inheritance would continue within his master’s property.
2:35¬–41 These verses end with the name of Elishama (2:41), perhaps as emphasis on his genealogy. Based on the Bible text, there is no way to find out who Elishama was. One possibility is that he was living during or close to the time of Chronicles’ composition. Hence, the Chronicler’s audience would have been acquainted with him, and no further information was needed. Remember that one of the characteristics of Chronicles is to omit information that was easily available to readers living in the postexilic time.

2:42–50. DESCENDANTS OF CHELUBAI/CALEB
1 CHR 2:42–50 NKJV
42 The descendants of Caleb the brother of Jerahmeel were Mesha, his firstborn, who was the father of Ziph, and the sons of Mareshah the father of Hebron.
43 The sons of Hebron were Korah, Tappuah, Rekem, and Shema.
44 Shema begot Raham the father of Jorkoam, and Rekem begot Shammai.
45 And the son of Shammai was Maon, and Maon was the father of Beth Zur.
46 Ephah, Caleb’s concubine, bore Haran, Moza, and Gazez; and Haran begot Gazez.
47 And the sons of Jahdai were Regem, Jotham, Geshan, Pelet, Ephah, and Shaaph.
48 Maachah, Caleb’s concubine, bore Sheber and Tirhanah.
49 She also bore Shaaph the father of Madmannah, Sheva the father of Machbenah and the father of Gibea. And the daughter of Caleb was Achsah.
50 These were the descendants of Caleb: The sons of Hur, the firstborn of Ephrathah, were Shobal the father of Kirjath Jearim,

1 CHR 2:42–50 ESV
42 The sons of Caleb the brother of Jerahmeel: Mareshah his firstborn, who fathered Ziph. The son of Mareshah: Hebron.
43 The sons of Hebron: Korah, Tappuah, Rekem and Shema.
44 Shema fathered Raham, the father of Jorkeam; and Rekem fathered Shammai.
45 The son of Shammai: Maon; and Maon fathered Beth-zur.
46 Ephah also, Caleb’s concubine, bore Haran, Moza, and Gazez; and Haran fathered Gazez. 47 The sons of Jahdai: Regem, Jotham, Geshan, Pelet, Ephah, and Shaaph.
48 Maacah, Caleb’s concubine, bore Sheber and Tirhanah.
49 She also bore Shaaph the father of Madmannah, Sheva the father of Machbenah and the father of Gibea; and the daughter of Caleb was Achsah.
50 These were the descendants of Caleb. The sons of Hur the firstborn of Ephrathah: Shobal the father of Kiriath-jearim,

2:42 Caleb (כלב) is spelled Chelubai (כלובי) in 2:9. Verse 42 is a reference to the son of Hezron and not to the son of Jephuneh. Mareshah as the father of Hebron might imply that the Calebites were in possession of Hebron since ancient times. Most of the names in this genealogy can be identified as geographic place-names and can be located on an archeological map.
2:43–45 In Psalms 42–49, 84–85, 87, a clan by the name of “Korahites” or “the sons of Korah” occurs as the composers of these psalms. No one knows if they had the same Korah as their father, but the possibility should not be discarded.
2:46–48 Two concubines of Chelubai/Caleb are mentioned by name (Ephah and Maachah), while his wife is not (in 2:42–45). This convention seems to be a characteristic of Chronicles, as mentioned above (2:25–33). The wife, known to the author’s audience in relationship to the names of her children, was omitted. The concubines, whose historical participation in the formation of Israel was unknown or at best confusing, were mentioned by their proper names. A similar case is found with Sarah and Hagar; both were known based on their respective sons, Isaac and Ishmael. Therefore, they were omitted. Keturah, however, is mentioned by name before her descendants because she was the least-known wife, or less important (see 1:32–33).
A town named Beth-Pelet was located in the territory of Judah (Josh 15:27), and a city also had this name in the postexilic time in Judah (Neh 11:26). In Samuel, David had one of his strong men called Helez the Paltite (2 Sam 23:26); in 11:27, however, he is called the Pelonite. This implies that this name was very well-known at the time and had different vocalizations throughout history.
2:49 The name Achsah is the name of the daughter of Caleb son of Jephunneh (Josh 15:16–19; Judg 1:12–15); it is, as well, the name of the daughter of Chelubai/Caleb, son of Hezron (see 2:9, 18, 42, 46, 48–49). In this text (2:49), no name of her mother or husband was associated with her. The name Achsah was probably placed here to show the similarity between genealogies—the one belonging to Caleb, son of Jephunneh, and the one of Chelubai/Caleb, son of Hezron, and their descendants.
2:50a This genealogy is marked by an inclusio, as few of them are, hence, emphasizing and separating it from the remaining list of Hezron’s descendants. It starts with the phrase, the descendants of Caleb (in 2:42), and ends with the same phrase in 2:50. Therefore, it would be better to take this phrase as the end of the preceding verse (2:49) and start 2:50 with the sons of Hur.
(Fig. 15) 2:42–50 Descendants of Chelubai/Caleb

2:50b–55. DESCENDANTS OF HUR, SHOBAL, AND SALMA
1 CHR 2:50b–55 NKJV
50 These were the descendants of Caleb: The sons of Hur, the firstborn of Ephrathah, were Shobal the father of Kirjath Jearim,
51 Salma the father of Bethlehem, and Hareph the father of Beth Gader.
52 And Shobal the father of Kirjath Jearim had descendants: Haroeh, and half of the families of Manuhoth.
53 The families of Kirjath Jearim were the Ithrites, the Puthites, the Shumathites, and the Mishraites. From these came the Zorathites and the Eshtaolites.
54 The sons of Salma were Bethlehem, the Netophathites, Atroth Beth Joab, half of the Manahethites, and the Zorites.
55 And the families of the scribes who dwelt at Jabez were the Tirathites, the Shimeathites, and the Suchathites. These were the Kenites who came from Hammath, the father of the house of Rechab.

1 CHR 2:50b–55 ESV
50 These were the descendants of Caleb. The sons of Hur the firstborn of Ephrathah: Shobal the father of Kiriath-jearim,
51 Salma, the father of Bethlehem, and Hareph the father of Beth-gader.
52 Shobal the father of Kiriath-jearim had other sons: Haroeh, half of the Menuhoth.
53 And the clans of Kiriath-jearim: the Ithrites, the Puthites, the Shumathites, and the Mishraites; from these came the Zorathites and the Eshtaolites.
54 The sons of Salma: Bethlehem, the Netophathites, Atroth-beth-joab and half of the Manahathites, the Zorites.
55 The clans also of the scribes who lived at Jabez: the Tirathites, the Shimeathites and the Sucathites. These are the Kenites who came from Hammath, the father of the house of Rechab.

2:50b The sons of Hur, the firstborn of Ephrathah, were Shobal the father of Kirjath Jearim. The genealogy of Hur envelops that of David in chapter 3. The list of descendants of Hur began in 2:19–20, 50, and then David’s sons are listed in chapter 3, coming back to Hur in 4:2–4 with the ending phrase, “These were the sons of Hur, the firstborn of Ephrathah the father of Bethlehem.” This arrangement, associating Bethlehem with Ephrata, as in Micah 5:1–2, together with the name Salma (2:51, 54) prepares the reader for David’s genealogy in 3:1–24, for David was from this geographic area: “Now David was the son of that Ephrathite of Bethlehem Judah” (1 Sam 17:12).
The town Kirjath Jearim, the name of Shobal’s son, became the geographic center for this family clan. Shobal probably took this name from an existing city, since the time of Joshua (see Josh 9:17). Shobal’s descendants continue in 2:52–53; 4:2.
2:51 Salma was the father of Bethlehem and the possible leader of this territory. He became the father of Boaz, Boaz of Obed, and Obed of Jesse, culminating with the most important character in Israelite history after Abraham, namely, David. All these people were somehow related to the town of Bethlehem (see 2:12–15; Ruth 4:20–22). Until the end of this chapter, a list of clans is introduced as the inhabitants of this territory around Bethlehem, from where David’s family came. It seems that by mentioning Salma, son of Ram and the forefather of David, the Chronicler indicates that Ram’s clan was living among the Calebites at this time. Hareph the third son of Hur was the father of Beth Gader and possible founder or leader of Beth-gader, a small city/village close to Bethlehem. His genealogy continues in 4:2–3.
2:52–55 A list of family clans is introduced to properly locate Bethlehem among its closest topographic neighbors: the families of Manuhoth, the Ithrites, the Puthites, the Shumathites, the Mishraites, the Zorathites, the Eshtaolites, the Netophathites (2 Sam 23:28–29; 1 Chr 11:30), half of the Manahethites, the Zorites, the Tirathites, the Shimeathites, the Suchathites, and the Kenites. This last one seems to be a non-Israelite clan, but if so, they had a good relationship with the Israelites. The Bible mentions the Kenites as living in or around Canaan as early as the time of Abraham (Gen 15:18–21). At the Exodus, Jethro, Moses’s father-in-law, and his clan inhabited the vicinity of Mount Sinai (Exod 3:1). Jethro was a Kenite (Judg 1:16) living in the land of Midian.
The word scribes may indicate that the inhabitants of Jabez were well-known for their skills as scribes.
In this subsection, the Chronicler sets aside the family of David from the tribe of Judah in the geographic territory of Bethlehem with the family clans of the Calebites, among whom Jesse’s family lived. This seems to be an effort to show the legitimacy of the descendants of David as kings through their genealogical ancestors. In the next chapter, David’s children are introduced. Thus, the royal family receives legitimacy from the past up to the postexilic time.
This chapter is a demonstration that God chooses His leaders, not based on their socioeconomic status or geostrategic location but on their willingness to serve Him. From being a shepherd, a son of Jesse, and an ordinary inhabitant of a small town of Judah, David became the king of Israel.

3:1–24. DESCENDANTS OF DAVID
Chapter three is a part of the general genealogy of Judah (2:3–4:23). The first section (3:1–4) introduces the children born to David in Hebron (2 Sam 3:2–5; 5:5). The second section (3:5–9) lists the children of David born to him in Jerusalem (2 Sam 5:13–16; 1 Chr 14:3–7). The third section (3:10–16) presents the descendants of Solomon, who were kings in Judah. The last section (3:17–24), lists the descendants of Jeconiah up to the seventh generation, taking us to the postexilic time.

1 CHR 3:1–24 NKJV
1 Now these were the sons of David who were born to him in Hebron: The firstborn was Amnon, by Ahinoam the Jezreelitess; the second, Daniel, by Abigail the Carmelitess;
2 the third, Absalom the son of Maacah, the daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur; the fourth, Adonijah the son of Haggith;
3 the fifth, Shephatiah, by Abital; the sixth, Ithream, by his wife Eglah.
4 These six were born to him in Hebron. There he reigned seven years and six months, and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty–three years.
5 And these were born to him in Jerusalem: Shimea, Shobab, Nathan, and Solomon—four by Bathshua the daughter of Ammiel.
6 Also there were Ibhar, Elishama, Eliphelet,
7 Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia,
8 Elishama, Eliada, and Eliphelet—nine in all.
9 These were all the sons of David, besides the sons of the concubines, and Tamar their sister.
10 Solomon’s son was Rehoboam; Abijah was his son, Asa his son, Jehoshaphat his son, 11 Joram his son, Ahaziah his son, Joash his son,
12 Amaziah his son, Azariah his son, Jotham his son,
13 Ahaz his son, Hezekiah his son, Manasseh his son,
14 Amon his son, and Josiah his son.
15 The sons of Josiah were Johanan the firstborn, the second Jehoiakim, the third Zedekiah, and the fourth Shallum.
16 The sons of Jehoiakim were Jeconiah his son and Zedekiah his son.
17 And the sons of Jeconiah were Assir, Shealtiel his son,
18 and Malchiram, Pedaiah, Shenazzar, Jecamiah, Hoshama, and Nedabiah.
19 The sons of Pedaiah were Zerubbabel and Shimei. The sons of Zerubbabel were Meshullam, Hananiah, Shelomith their sister,
20 and Hashubah, Ohel, Berechiah, Hasadiah, and Jushab–Hesed—five in all.
21 The sons of Hananiah were Pelatiah and Jeshaiah, the sons of Rephaiah, the sons of Arnan, the sons of Obadiah, and the sons of Shechaniah.
22 The son of Shechaniah was Shemaiah. The sons of Shemaiah were Hattush, Igal, Bariah, Neariah, and Shaphat—six in all.
23 The sons of Neariah were Elioenai, Hezekiah, and Azrikam—three in all.
24 The sons of Elioenai were Hodaviah, Eliashib, Pelaiah, Akkub, Johanan, Delaiah, and Anani—seven in all.

1 CHR 3:1–24 ESV
1 These are the sons of David who were born to him in Hebron: the firstborn, Amnon, by Ahinoam the Jezreelite; the second, Daniel, by Abigail the Carmelite,
2 the third, Absalom, whose mother was Maacah, the daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur; the fourth, Adonijah, whose mother was Haggith;
3 the fifth, Shephatiah, by Abital; the sixth, Ithream, by his wife Eglah;
4 six were born to him in Hebron, where he reigned for seven years and six months. And he reigned thirty–three years in Jerusalem.
5 These were born to him in Jerusalem: Shimea, Shobab, Nathan and Solomon, four by Bath–shua, the daughter of Ammiel;
6 then Ibhar, Elishama, Eliphelet,
7 Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia,
8 Elishama, Eliada, and Eliphelet, nine.
9 All these were David’s sons, besides the sons of the concubines, and Tamar was their sister.
10 The son of Solomon was Rehoboam, Abijah his son, Asa his son, Jehoshaphat his son, 11 Joram his son, Ahaziah his son, Joash his son,
12 Amaziah his son, Azariah his son, Jotham his son,
13 Ahaz his son, Hezekiah his son, Manasseh his son,
14 Amon his son, Josiah his son.
15 The sons of Josiah: Johanan the firstborn, the second Jehoiakim, the third Zedekiah, the fourth Shallum.
16 The descendants of Jehoiakim: Jeconiah his son, Zedekiah his son;
17 and the sons of Jeconiah, the captive: Shealtiel his son,
18 Malchiram, Pedaiah, Shenazzar, Jekamiah, Hoshama and Nedabiah;
19 and the sons of Pedaiah: Zerubbabel and Shimei; and the sons of Zerubbabel: Meshullam and Hananiah, and Shelomith was their sister;
20 and Hashubah, Ohel, Berechiah, Hasadiah, and Jushab-hesed, five.
21 The sons of Hananiah: Pelatiah and Jeshaiah, his son Rephaiah, his son Arnan, his son Obadiah, his son Shecaniah.
22 The son of Shecaniah: Shemaiah. And the sons of Shemaiah: Hattush, Igal, Bariah, Neariah, and Shaphat, six.
23 The sons of Neariah: Elioenai, Hizkiah, and Azrikam, three.
24 The sons of Elioenai: Hodaviah, Eliashib, Pelaiah, Akkub, Johanan, Delaiah, and Anani, seven.

3:1 Ahinoam was the mother of Amnon (1 Sam 25:43; 2 Sam 3:3). She and Abigail were taken captive when the Amalekites destroyed Ziklag (1 Sam 30:5, 18), but David and his men rescued them. In 2 Samuel 13, Amnon’s attitude toward his half-sister Tamar is described together with the narrative of his death. These events were omitted in Chronicles.
David’s second wife Abigail had a son named Daniel (דניאל). Notice in the text that the Chronicler omitted her relationship to Nabal, her former husband. In 2 Samuel 3:3 it is written that she was the wife of Nabal the Carmelite. It has been so far a characteristic of Chronicles to avoid any discussion of family problems. Therefore, it seemed irrelevant for the Chronicler to mention this fact. In 2 Samuel 3:3 the name of Abigail’s son is Chileab (khileab), while in Chronicles, it is Daniel (danie’l). Both seem to be the same person but with a later change in name, as occurred with Jacob/Israel and Abram/Abraham. Chileab means “like [his] father.” Remember that Abigail was the widow of Nabal and that she could have been pregnant when she married David. Therefore, to avoid any misunderstanding, he could have received a new name, Daniel. He probably died before reaching adulthood, or he lived a life outside the political arena, because he is not among the sons of David in the struggle to inherit the throne of Israel.
3:2–3 David’s marriage to Maacah was possibly a political move to obtain an ally, the king of Geshur. The result of this marriage was not altogether the best. Her son, Absalom, tried to take over his father’s kingdom. It is unknown whether this rebellion was an influence coming from his mother—who was not an Israelite and was the daughter of a Canaanite king—or whether it was the result of David’s polygamous marriage. Adonijah, the son of Haggith, attempted to take the throne by cunning device but was executed by Solomon (1 Kgs 1–2). Shephatiah and Ithream (2 Sam 3:4–5) both did not dispute the throne of David.
3:4 Ending the list of sons born to David in Hebron, the Chronicler introduces the length of time David reigned over Israel: seven years and six months from Hebron and thirty–three years in Jerusalem (2 Sam 3:5; 5:5; 1 Kgs 2:11). The age of David is not included at his accession in Chronicles, while Samuel gives him the age of thirty years (2 Sam 5:4). Jerusalem receives a special place in the literary structure of Chronicles—it is the center for worship and government that will remain until the postexilic period and beyond.
3:5 The list of those born to David in Jerusalem is introduced to the reader. Jerusalem was to be the place for the central government for the rest of Israelite history. Second Samuel 12:24–25 indicates that Solomon was Bathsheba’s first child, after the one who died, with David. Thus, Solomon was not the fourth child of a supposed Bathshua, the daughter of Ammiel. Notice that the difference in Hebrew between the spelling of Bathsheba (bat sheba’) and Bathshua (bat shua’) is just one letter (beit for a vav). Therefore, both spellings might refer to the same person. A careful observation demonstrates that the name Ammiel (‘ammi’el) is the reverse order of the letters of the name Eliam (‘eli’am), the father of Bathsheba in 2 Samuel 11:3.
Observe that the order of the four sons of David was not based on age but rather on the importance of each of them; thus, Solomon was actually the first but placed in the fourth place to emphasize his leadership.
3:6–9 Nine more children are mentioned in the list of those born to David in Jerusalem. All are mentioned by name, while David had many others by his concubines. Tamar is listed here as their sister; actually, she was the sister of Absalom. The Chronicler probably added her at the end to support her case against Amnon’s sexual misconduct toward her. He was her half brother. Verse 9 starts with the words these were all the sons of David, ending an inclusio from 3:1 containing the same words.
(Fig. 16) 3:5–9 David’s Children born in Jerusalem
3:10–14 A genealogical list is provided with the descendants of Solomon who served as kings in Judah after the division between Jeroboam and Rehoboam. Athaliah is omitted because she was not Solomon’s descendant. She was the daughter of Ahab (2 Chr 21:6; 22:2). This list contains the kings discussed in the narrative of 2 Chronicles. Notice that Azariah (3:12) is known as Uzziah (2 Kgs 14:21; 2 Chr 26; 27:2; Isa 6:1)
3:15–16 Johanan might have died without reaching adulthood; therefore, he was not considered in other texts, such as 2 Kings. Consequently, the order of the descendants of Josiah was Jehoahaz, as the first son to become a king (2 Chr 36:1), called also Shallum in Jeremiah 22:11; then his son Jehoiakim, known as Eliakim (2 Chr 36:4); and then Jehoiachin son of Jehoiakim (2 Chr 36:8), also known as Jeconiah (or Coniah—see Jer 22:24, 28). Thus, the order of this list (3:15) does not correspond to their age. It corresponds to their importance in the genealogy. The last, Shallum/Jehoahaz, was the first after Josiah to become king. The Chronicler, however, seems to favor this order to emphasize the fourth one as the main protagonist. For instance, notice that Solomon is also in the fourth place, even though he was the firstborn child of Bathsheba (see comments on 3:5).
3:17–18 A better translation would be “the sons of Jeconiah the captive, was Shealtiel his son” instead of the sons of Jeconiah were Assir, Shealtiel his son. The Hebrew term assir can be translated as “captive” or by the proper name Assir. Hence, Jeconiah could have been born before the captivity, and then he became a captive of the Babylonians. Shealtiel, then, was born in Babylon. A list of Jeconiah’s sons born to him during the exile is provided in 3:18.
3:19–20 Zerubbabel is listed here as Pedaiah’s son, while in Ezra 3:2, 8; Nehemiah 12:1 (cf. Hag 1:1; 2:2; Matt 1:12; Luke 3:27), he is the son of Shealtiel (see 3:17). This can be solved by taking into consideration that Zerubbabel might have been the son of Shealtiel, and after Shealtiel’s death, Pedaiah, who could have adopted him, raised him. Another possibility is that by the levirate law, Zerubbabel became the son of Pedaiah, who reared him as his son, together with Shimei. There is not a sure answer from the Bible text—one can only deduce from the historical context of the exilic and postexilic periods.
3:20 Zerubbabel had seven sons and one daughter; five of them seem to have been born to him after the first two sons and his daughter. They were probably born after the exile. These five had distinctive names that brought hope to the community, as did the prophets of old. For instance, the names of Isaiah’s children were significant for the historical event Judah was going through (Isa 8:3). Thus, Hashubah means (a man of) “distinction”; Ohel means “tent [of meeting/temple]”; Berechiah, “Yahweh blesses”; Hasadiah, “Yahweh is gracious”; and Jushab–Hesed, “let grace/justice be restored.”
(Fig. 17) 3:17–22 (a) Jeconiah’s Descendants
3:21–24 A list of subsequent descendants of Zerubbabel is provided. They were most probably born after the exile. Anani is the last of David’s line and the seventh among his brothers, as David was the seventh in 2:15. “Cloud” is the translation of αναν. It usually refers to the pillar of “cloud” which directed the Israelites through the desert and represented God’s presence over the tabernacle (Exod 13–14, 16, 33, 40; Num 9–12, 14, 16). When the temple was built, a “cloud” was over it (1 Kgs 8:10–11; 2 Chr 5:13–14). “Clouds” accompanied God’s presence when He met with Moses on Mount Sinai (Exod 19:9, 16; 24:15–16, 18; Deut 4:11; 5:22; Ps 97:2). As Jesus comes the second time, clouds will be around him (Dan 7:13). Therefore, the name Anani could carry on some of these meanings to the postexilic community of faith.
David and his family line are central for the Chronicles’ theology. Though the tribe of Benjamin is in a parallel position of importance (8:1–40) in Chronicles, the legitimacy of the kingdom is to David’s family. Therefore, this chapter casts support for the descendants of David, not only as kings but also as political rulers in the postexilic time, as is the case of Zerubbabel. It may be an indirect messianic expectation through the royal line.
(Fig. 18) 3:22b–24 Shemaiah’s Descendants

4:1–23. CONTINUING THE DESCENDANTS OF JUDAH
Chapter 4:1–23 completes the genealogy of Judah, which has its beginning in 2:3. The purpose of this chapter is to continue the emphasis on the importance of the tribe of Judah for the history of Israel. Three tribes—Judah, Levi, and Benjamin—basically formed the postexilic community. These three are arranged in a chiastic structure, with Judah first, Levi as the central tribe, and Benjamin in parallel with Judah as the former royal tribe. Judah comes first for three reasons: First, it shows the relevance of Israel as God’s people. Second, its territory as occupied by the postexilic community is somehow demarcated by the names of cities and villages of Judah and its environs. Third, it is the perpetual royal tribe chosen by God through which the Messiah would come.

1 CHR 4:1–23 NKJV
1 The sons of Judah were Perez, Hezron, Carmi, Hur, and Shobal.
2 And Reaiah the son of Shobal begot Jahath, and Jahath begot Ahumai and Lahad. These were the families of the Zorathites.
3 These were the sons of the father of Etam: Jezreel, Ishma, and Idbash; and the name of their sister was Hazelelponi;
4 and Penuel was the father of Gedor, and Ezer was the father of Hushah. These were the sons of Hur, the firstborn of Ephrathah the father of Bethlehem.
5 And Ashhur the father of Tekoa had two wives, Helah and Naarah.
6 Naarah bore him Ahuzzam, Hepher, Temeni, and Haahashtari. These were the sons of Naarah. 7 The sons of Helah were Zereth, Zohar, and Ethnan;
8 and Koz begot Anub, Zobebah, and the families of Aharhel the son of Harum.
9 Now Jabez was more honorable than his brothers, and his mother called his name Jabez, saying, “Because I bore him in pain.”
10 And Jabez called on the God of Israel saying, “Oh, that You would bless me indeed, and enlarge my territory, that Your hand would be with me, and that You would keep me from evil, that I may not cause pain!” So God granted him what he requested.
11 Chelub the brother of Shuhah begot Mehir, who was the father of Eshton.
12 And Eshton begot Beth-Rapha, Paseah, and Tehinnah the father of Ir-Nahash. These were the men of Rechah.
13 The sons of Kenaz were Othniel and Seraiah. The sons of Othniel were Hathath,
14 and Meonothai who begot Ophrah. Seraiah begot Joab the father of Ge Harashim, for they were craftsmen.
15 The sons of Caleb the son of Jephunneh were Iru, Elah, and Naam. The son of Elah was Kenaz.
16 The sons of Jehallelel were Ziph, Ziphah, Tiria, and Asarel.
17 The sons of Ezrah were Jether, Mered, Epher, and Jalon. And Mered’s wife bore Miriam, Shammai, and Ishbah the father of Eshtemoa.
18 (His wife Jehudijah bore Jered the father of Gedor, Heber the father of Sochoh, and Jekuthiel the father of Zanoah.) And these were the sons of Bithiah the daughter of Pharaoh, whom Mered took.
19 The sons of Hodiah’s wife, the sister of Naham, were the fathers of Keilah the Garmite and of Eshtemoa the Maachathite.
20 And the sons of Shimon were Amnon, Rinnah, Ben-Hanan, and Tilon. And the sons of Ishi were Zoheth and Ben-Zoheth.
21 The sons of Shelah the son of Judah were Er the father of Lecah, Laadah the father of Mareshah, and the families of the house of the linen workers of the house of Ashbea;
22 also Jokim, the men of Chozeba, and Joash; Saraph, who ruled in Moab, and Jashubi-Lehem. Now the records are ancient.
23 These were the potters and those who dwell at Netaim and Gederah; there they dwelt with the king for his work.

1 CHR 4:1–23 ESV
1 The sons of Judah: Perez, Hezron, Carmi, Hur, and Shobal.
2 Reaiah the son of Shobal fathered Jahath, and Jahath fathered Ahumai and Lahad. These were the clans of the Zorathites.
3 These were the sons of Etam: Jezreel, Ishma, and Idbash; and the name of their sister was Hazzelelponi,
4 and Penuel fathered Gedor, and Ezer fathered Hushah. These were the sons of Hur, the firstborn of Ephrathah, the father of Bethlehem.
5 Ashhur, the father of Tekoa, had two wives, Helah and Naarah;
6 Naarah bore him Ahuzzam, Hepher, Temeni, and Haahashtari. These were the sons of Naarah. 7 The sons of Helah: Zereth, Izhar, and Ethnan.
8 Koz fathered Anub, Zobebah, and the clans of Aharhel, the son of Harum.
9 Jabez was more honorable than his brothers; and his mother called his name Jabez, saying, “Because I bore him in pain.”
10 Jabez called upon the God of Israel, saying, “Oh that you would bless me and enlarge my border, and that your hand might be with me, and that you would keep me from harm so that it might not bring me pain!” And God granted what he asked.
11 Chelub, the brother of Shuhah, fathered Mehir, who fathered Eshton.
12 Eshton fathered Beth-rapha, Paseah, and Tehinnah, the father of Ir-nahash. These are the men of Recah.
13 The sons of Kenaz: Othniel and Seraiah; and the sons of Othniel: Hathath and Meonothai. 14 Meonothai fathered Ophrah; and Seraiah fathered Joab, the father of Ge–harashim, so-called because they were craftsmen.
15 The sons of Caleb the son of Jephunneh: Iru, Elah, and Naam; and the son of Elah: Kenaz. 16 The sons of Jehallelel: Ziph, Ziphah, Tiria, and Asarel.
17 The sons of Ezrah: Jether, Mered, Epher, and Jalon. These are the sons of Bithiah, the daughter of Pharaoh, whom Mered married; and she conceived and bore Miriam, Shammai, and Ishbah, the father of Eshtemoa.
18 And his Judahite wife bore Jered the father of Gedor, Heber the father of Soco, and Jekuthiel the father of Zanoah.
19 The sons of the wife of Hodiah, the sister of Naham, were the fathers of Keilah the Garmite and Eshtemoa the Maacathite.
20 The sons of Shimon: Amnon, Rinnah, Ben-hanan, and Tilon. The sons of Ishi: Zoheth and Ben-zoheth.
21 The sons of Shelah the son of Judah: Er the father of Lecah, Laadah the father of Mareshah, and the clans of the house of linen workers at Beth-ashbea;
22 and Jokim, and the men of Cozeba, and Joash, and Saraph, who ruled in Moab and returned to Lehem (now the records are ancient).
23 These were the potters who were inhabitants of Netaim and Gederah. They lived there in the king’s service.

4:1 This genealogy of Judah presents a summary of its components. Even though they are not in a direct sequential order, they are part of Judah’s genealogy. Notice that Judah had Perez his son (2:4), and Perez had Hezron (2:5). Carmi was the grandson of Zerah, brother of Perez. Hur (2:19) was the son of Chelubai/Caleb (2:9), son of Hezron. Shobal (2:50) was the son of Hur. Therefore, all of them were direct descendants of Judah.
4:2 Here is the only instance of the names Jahath, Ahumai, and Lahad in the Bible. The Zorathites are associated with Kirjath Jearim, son of Shobal (2:50–53). One must keep in mind that many of these names of Judah’s genealogy became related to a topographic place, city, village, valley, and so on. Some were located in Palestine, while the locations of others are still unknown.
(Fig. 19) 4:1–2, Judah Descendants
4:3 In this verse Etam is added without any former connection to Judah. No father is mentioned for him. Since 4:1 ends with Shobal the first son of Hur, Etam is probably the son of Hareph, the third son of Hur (see 2:51). Shalma, the second son of Hur, was the father of Bethlehem, Hareph of Beth Gader, and Shobal of Kirjath Jearim (see 2:51–52). Each of these names was taken from or became the name of a topographic site. Thus, the descendants of Etam, mentioned in Joshua 15:59, are also names of villages and towns. For instance, Jezreel is found in Joshua 15:56 (1 Sam 25:43). These names seem to be found around Bethlehem and its environs. Hazelelponi was their sister, but no local place was found for that date with that name.
4:4 Gedor and Hushah are local places close to Hebron and Bethlehem, respectively. These settlements are important for David’s family. Hebron, Bethlehem, and Jerusalem are the main local places where the history of David took place. In 2:54 Salma, son of Hur, is the father of Bethlehem, but here Hur is called the father of Bethlehem, even though he is his grandfather (2:54). This was a normal practice in Israelite culture—to call a grandson a son. Notice that the descendants of David are called his sons in several instances (1 Kgs 15:24; 22:50; 2 Kgs 15:38).
4:5 Ashhur was the brother of Hur. One was the father and the other the grandfather, respectively, of people whose names became neighboring towns, Tekoa and Bethlehem. This verse is the only information in the Bible regarding Ashhur’s two wives.
4:6 Hepher is probably mentioned in 1 Kings 4:10, in the third district of Solomon. One should not confuse this Hepher with the grandfather of the daughter of Zelophehad (Num 26:32–33) from Manasseh.
4:7 Helah, Ashhur’s second wife, bore to him four sons. Ethnan (Ithnan) is probably located as a settlement in the southern part of Judah (Josh 15:23). The other names are not related to any topographic site found up to the present time.
4:8 Anub, or Anab, appears in Joshua 15:50 in the list of towns from Judah. Aharhel is the son of Harum, and both are descendants of Koz. Consequently, Koz is called their father, in harmony with the Israelite cultural tradition of calling a grandfather father, thus bringing closer the gap between generations. Zobebah may be the same Zobah of 2 Samuel 23:36.

 
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4:9 One might guess that Jabez is from Judah because he is mentioned here. Otherwise, there is no direct connection between him and Judah. His name is not mentioned anywhere else. His mother bore him in pain, probably a reference to a difficult delivery. There is another reference in the Bible to a similarly difficult delivery—for instance, when Rachel delivered her son, she called him Ben-Oni, but Jacob changed his name to Benjamin (Gen 35:16–18).
4:10 Jabez’s prayer had the purpose of counteracting what his mother said at his birth. His name had a meaning that involved the concept of “pain.” Therefore, he was looking for a more positive and hopeful life than the one wished for him by his mother. It was not as materialistic a prayer as it may sound.
Notice that there are three elements in this prayer. First, Jabez asks for an expansion of his territory, which would be a natural petition in the context of the conquest and settlement of Canaan. Second, he asks for the company of God to be with him. This was the source of victory over his enemies. God was the one who fought for Israel (Deut 1:30). Third, he requests that pain would be taken away from him. This pain seems to be related to the conquest of the land. It might imply that he wanted to inherit his share without inflicting pain on his enemies, or that God would fight for him so his family would not suffer pain. Therefore, Jabez focuses on God as the only giver of peace (no war), shelter (land), food (land), and happiness (absence of pain).
Throughout Judah’s genealogy, one can observe that most, if not all, the members mentioned in the list are placeholders. Each founded a city, village, or a topographic site. Thus, Jabez’s prayer gives an overall perspective of the hope Israel, now Judah, had regarding God’s guidance in the ownership of the land as it was in the past and as it should be in the postexilic time. The Chronicler had many examples to motivate the settlement of the land based on the book of Joshua, but he chose the nonviolent one, the prayer of Jabez, from another historical source not available to us. Consequently, God granted Jabez’s petition.
4:11 Chelub should not be confused with Chelubai/Caleb son of Hezron (2:9) or with Caleb the son of Jephunneh (4:15). The family of Chelub is as unknown to us as Jabez’s family is. The only thing we know for sure is that he is part of Judah’s genealogy. Shuhah, Mehir, and Eshton cannot be identified as well. They were included for the sake of the community that knew their descendants at a certain period of time.
4:12 The descendants of Paseah are listed among the temple servants at the time of Ezra and Nehemiah (Neh 7:51; Ezra 2:49). The other names are not identified up to the present with any topographic place. Ir-Nahash might be an inference to a city of craftsmen. Rechah probably settled the geographic area of Beth–Rechab (2:55), forming the descendants of Jonadab son of Rechab, therefore known as Rechabites (2 Kgs 10:15–17, 23; Jer 35:2–19). In Jeremiah, the Rechabites were considered faithful to their ancestor’s command; thus, God promised them that Jonadab would never fail to have a descendant to serve Him (Jer 35:19).
4:13 Kenaz was the youngest brother of Caleb son of Jephunneh. Therefore, Othniel was the nephew of Caleb (Josh 15:17; Judg 1:13; 3:9, 11). Othniel is associated with the city of Kirjath Sepher (Josh 15:16). He conquered the city to obtain his wife Achsah, daughter of Caleb (Josh 15:16). Caleb is associated with Hebron, the city he conquered in Canaan (Josh 15:13). Maon (Meonothai) is mentioned in Joshua 15:55, associated with Carmel and Ziph.
4:14 Notice that Ophrah was a fairly common name. There is an Ophrah in Benjamin (Josh 18:23), another in Manasseh (Judg 6:11), and one person with this name in Judah, here in this verse. This probably indicates a city or village with this name in Judah also. The name Ge Harashim is of a city located in the valley settled by some from the tribe of Benjamin in the postexilic period (Neh 11:35).
4:15 Iru is the term for “city” in Hebrew. This is the only thing known about him. Naam is still unidentified with a topographic site in the archeology of Palestine, and Elah might be related to the valley of Elah, where David faced Goliath in a mortal duel (1 Sam 17:2, 19; 21:9).
4:16 Even though Jehallelel seems to be related to Judah since he is listed here, there is no genealogical connection between both in this verse. Ziph is a known site close to Carmel, located in the southern part of Hebron (1 Sam 23:14). It was the fortress of Rehoboam (2 Chr 11:8). Ziphah, Tiria, and Asarel are not identified yet in the Palestinian topographical sites up to this date. A probability exists that Asarel is related to Asriel from Manasseh (Num 26:31; Josh 17:2; 1 Chr 7:14).
4:17 The sons of Ezrah are not identified by any text outside Chronicles. They may have not had enough descendants. Therefore, there is no village or any city with their names, or these sites simply have not yet been found in Palestine. Ezrah himself is not connected directly to the tribe of Judah through a linear genealogy, except as he is in the list of descendants. His parents are not mentioned in the text. Eshtemoa seems to be the same city mentioned in Joshua 15:50 (see also 1 Sam 30:28). Ezrah may have been a Calebite.
4:18 Jered had a wife from the tribe of Judah. To him, she bore three sons. Some of these names can be identified with topographical sites in Palestine. For instance, Sochoh is a town mentioned in Joshua 15:48 and located in the region of Hebron. Zanoah was a city noted in Joshua 15:34 (see also Josh 15:56) and settled after the exile (Neh 11:30), and its population participated in the building of the wall during Nehemiah’s administration.
Mered, son of Ezrah, married a daughter of Pharaoh. This could have been a political move made by Pharaoh regarding his influence in Palestine. Mered, though an insignificant character in Judah’s genealogy, was in a geostrategic location of trade and diplomatic connection with the Middle East. Thus, Pharaoh could obtain some benefit through a political alliance by marrying his daughter with a possibly influential man like Mered and his family. It happened with Solomon, and even though the case was different, the purpose seems to have been the same—a simple political convenience for Pharaoh (1 Kgs 3:1; 7:8; 9:16; 11:1; 2 Chr 8:11). Bithiah may have become a name of a town also.
4:19 Naham was the father of Keilah and probably the founder of a city with this name. In the time of Nehemiah, a group from the town helped in the construction of the wall of Jerusalem (Neh 3:17–18).
4:20 The list of names provided here is so far unknown. No topographical place has been found with any of these names, neither are they found in any other book of the Bible. They were important for the sake of completing the Chronicler’s community; thus, no further information was given.
4:21 Shelah was the son of Judah with the daughter of Shua (see 2:3). The Er mentioned here is not the son of Shelah with Tamar. Notice that in Genesis 38:11, Shelah was promised by Judah to Tamar for the purpose of fulfilling the levirate law to his brother Er, who was killed by God for being wicked. In the narrative of Genesis, it is Judah, however, who fulfills the levirate with Tamar, Er’s wife—and not Shelah. Thus, the indications here are that Shelah probably had a son with another woman who was not Tamar, and he chose to name him by his oldest brother’s name, Er.
Centuries later, Rehoboam built a fortress in Mareshah, a town in the land of Judah (2 Chr 11:8). The reference to the clan of linen workers at Ashbea indicates a community that had the technology and skills to produce linen, much as the ones mentioned in 4:23 manufactured clay pots, probably close to Mareshah.
4:22 Shelah’s descendants continue here. Joash and Saraph seem to have intermarried with Moabite women, like the case of Mahlon and Chilion in the book of Ruth (Ruth 1:2–3). Notice that the construction weyashubi-lahem (qal imperfect third masc. pl. with waw consecutive plus a noun, “they returned to [Beth]–Lehem”) should be understood as a verb plus a noun and not a proper name—“Jashubi-lehem”—as some English version do, for instance, the NKJV. Thus, this would indicate that Joash and Saraph were in Moab. Later, they returned to (Beth) Lehem. Chozeba may come from the place his mother bore him, Chezib (Gen 38:5). The last part, the records are ancient, refers to the source where the Chronicler found this information—either a written source or an oral tradition. Whatever it was, it was from ancient times.
4:23 The people of Cozeba and the descendants of Joash and Saraph were the potters working for the king. They were working from (Beth) Lehem and its neighboring towns, Netaim and Gederah, as the verse before indicates.
As the genealogies are read, it is impossible not to perceive that God keeps His promises to His people throughout history (David’s eternal promise). Despite human failure, God maintains His watching care over His children. In the genealogy of Judah, in general, and in the genealogy of David, in particular, one can see the hand of God guiding His people as individuals, as families, and as a nation.
(Fig. 20) 4:21–23 Genealogy of Shelah

SECONDARY TRIBES (4:24–5:26)
The goal of these verses is to make the reader aware that these tribes, Simeon, Reuben, Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, had a legitimate ownership of their specific territory. God blessed them as an important part of Israel as a whole. Even though Judah and Levi were the central tribes, pertaining to authority and spiritual leadership, the other tribes also had the right to be part of God’s people. They were taken captive centuries before Chronicles was written (5:26), with the exception of some people of these tribes who migrated to Judah during King Hezekiah’s reform (2 Chr 30:1, 11, 18).

4:24–43. TRIBE OF SIMEON
1 CHR 4:24–43 NKJV
24 The sons of Simeon were Nemuel, Jamin, Jarib, Zerah, and Shaul,
25 Shallum his son, Mibsam his son, and Mishma his son.
26 And the sons of Mishma were Hamuel his son, Zacchur his son, and Shimei his son. 27 Shimei had sixteen sons and six daughters; but his brothers did not have many children, nor did any of their families multiply as much as the children of Judah.
28 They dwelt at Beersheba, Moladah, Hazar Shual,
29 Bilhah, Ezem, Tolad,
30 Bethuel, Hormah, Ziklag,
31 Beth Marcaboth, Hazar Susim, Beth Biri, and at Shaaraim. These were their cities until the reign of David.
32 And their villages were Etam, Ain, Rimmon, Tochen, and Ashan—five cities—
33 and all the villages that were around these cities as far as Baal. These were their dwelling places, and they maintained their genealogy:
34 Meshobab, Jamlech, and Joshah the son of Amaziah;
35 Joel, and Jehu the son of Joshibiah, the son of Seraiah, the son of Asiel;
36 Elioenai, Jaakobah, Jeshohaiah, Asaiah, Adiel, Jesimiel, and Benaiah;
37 Ziza the son of Shiphi, the son of Allon, the son of Jedaiah, the son of Shimri, the son of Shemaiah—
38 these mentioned by name were leaders in their families, and their father’s house increased greatly.
39 So they went to the entrance of Gedor, as far as the east side of the valley, to seek pasture for their flocks.
40 And they found rich, good pasture, and the land was broad, quiet, and peaceful; for some Hamites formerly lived there.
41 These recorded by name came in the days of Hezekiah king of Judah; and they attacked their tents and the Meunites who were found there, and utterly destroyed them, as it is to this day. So they dwelt in their place, because there was pasture for their flocks there.
42 Now some of them, five hundred men of the sons of Simeon, went to Mount Seir, having as their captains Pelatiah, Neariah, Rephaiah, and Uzziel, the sons of Ishi.
43 And they defeated the rest of the Amalekites who had escaped. They have dwelt there to this day.

1 CHR 4:24–43 ESV
24 The sons of Simeon: Nemuel, Jamin, Jarib, Zerah, Shaul;
25 Shallum was his son, Mibsam his son, Mishma his son.
26 The sons of Mishma: Hammuel his son, Zaccur his son, Shimei his son.
27 Shimei had sixteen sons and six daughters; but his brothers did not have many children, nor did all their clan multiply like the men of Judah.
28 They lived in Beersheba, Moladah, Hazar–shual,
29 Bilhah, Ezem, Tolad,
30 Bethuel, Hormah, Ziklag,
31 Beth–marcaboth, Hazar–susim, Beth–biri, and Shaaraim. These were their cities until David reigned.
32 And their villages were Etam, Ain, Rimmon, Tochen, and Ashan, five cities,
33 along with all their villages that were around these cities as far as Baal. These were their settlements, and they kept a genealogical record.
34 Meshobab, Jamlech, Joshah the son of Amaziah,
35 Joel, Jehu the son of Joshibiah, son of Seraiah, son of Asiel,
36 Elioenai, Jaakobah, Jeshohaiah, Asaiah, Adiel, Jesimiel, Benaiah,
37 Ziza the son of Shiphi, son of Allon, son of Jedaiah, son of Shimri, son of Shemaiah— 38 these mentioned by name were princes in their clans, and their fathers’ houses increased greatly.
39 They journeyed to the entrance of Gedor, to the east side of the valley, to seek pasture for their flocks,
40 where they found rich, good pasture, and the land was very broad, quiet, and peaceful, for the former inhabitants there belonged to Ham.
41 These, registered by name, came in the days of Hezekiah, king of Judah, and destroyed their tents and the Meunites who were found there, and marked them for destruction to this day, and settled in their place, because there was pasture there for their flocks.
42 And some of them, five hundred men of the Simeonites, went to Mount Seir, having as their leaders Pelatiah, Neariah, Rephaiah, and Uzziel, the sons of Ishi.
43 And they defeated the remnant of the Amalekites who had escaped, and they have lived there to this day.

4:24–26 Five sons of Simeon are listed, based on Numbers 26:12–14. Two other sources for this list are available: Genesis 46:10 and Exodus 6:15. Notice, however, that they differ in the spelling of some of the names. Ohad is mentioned only in Genesis and Exodus. Perhaps he died and did not leave any descendants at the time of the Chronicler. Observe that Jachin is named Jarib in Chronicles, and Jemuel is named Nemuel. These changes may simply imply the custom of changing the name based on a specific event in the life of the person, as in the case of Jacob and Abram. The name Simeon suggests the meaning, “Yahweh hears,” based on Genesis 29:33 and on Deuteronomy 33:7.
A genealogy is presented listing the names of the descendants of Simeon until Shimei in 4:27. All of these names are sons of Shaul, the last son of Simeon.
4:27 Emphasis is given to the large number of children engendered by Shimei. It seems an appeal to continue this effort, and a blessing in occupying the land God gave them, especially in the postexilic time when the population of Judah was not large, thus echoing Genesis 1:28. The Chronicler continues to mention that Shimei’s brothers did not have many descendants, the cause for the Simeonites being lesser in number than the Judahites. Thus, Simeon was absorbed by the tribe of Judah for three reasons: first, for being small in number; second, due to the words of Jacob pronounced upon them (in Gen 45:7); and third, for having their territory inside Judah’s inheritance (Josh 19:9).
4:28 Beersheba: The most probable meaning of Beersheba is “the well of seven” or “the well of oath.” In Genesis 21:31, Abraham and Abimelech took an oath, and seven ewe lambs were offered in sacrifice at that place. Another account is given (Gen 26:23–33), where Isaac takes an oath giving Beersheba its name. Geographically, Beersheba is the city that marked the southern limit of Judah, being the “river of Egypt”—the topographical border with Egypt (Gen 15:18).
Moladah was located in the far southern region of the Negev, toward Edom (Josh 15:26). It was reckoned as an inheritance given to Simeon (Josh 19:2; 1 Chr 4:28) and remained until after the captivity (Neh 11:26). It was located in proximity to Beersheba. Hazar Shual: A place located in the south of Negev (Josh 15:28) and assigned to Simeon (Josh 19:3; 1 Chr 4:28). This city was reoccupied in the postexilic time (Neh 11:27).
4:29 Bilhah: A city in the territory of Simeon spelled Balah in Joshua 19:3 and Baalath in Joshua 19:44. Ezem: A settlement in the territory of Simeon (Josh 15:29). Ezem appears in Joshua (15:29) listed as part of the tribe of Judah and in 19:3 as part of a Simeonite settlement. It is also listed in 4:29 as a town in Simeon. Ezem is most probably located in the southernmost district of Judah, the Negev. Its exact location, however, is difficult to know precisely. Tolad: This might be a reference to a productive town, in the sense of agriculture. Its meaning is “fecund” or “productive,” which is significant for a town in the desert of Negev. Tolad was located in the south of Judah and is mentioned in Joshua 19:4.
4:30 Bethuel. Its possible meanings are “the one who abides in God,” “man of God,” “virgin of God,” or “house of God.” A common name in the OT (see Gen 22:23; 24:15, 24, 47, 50; 25:20; 28:2, 5), Bethuel is a town of Simeon, the same as Bethul (in Josh 19:4) and, probably, as the Bethel of 1 Samuel 30:27.
Hormah appears in the episode of the frustrated invasion of Canaan by the Israelites. When the Amorites resisted their invasion, the Israelites were pursued as far as Hormah (Num 14:45; Deut 1:44). Later, another text mentions the destruction of Arad by the Israelites (Num 21:1–3). The town was afterward renamed Hormah, meaning “destruction.” A third reference indicates that the name Hormah was applied to the ruins of a city called Zephthah, taken after the conquest by Simeon and Judah (Judg 1:17). Hormah is in the list of conquered cities in Joshua 12:14 and was given to the tribe of Judah (Josh 15:30), though it was in principle part of Simeon’s territory (Josh 19:4; 1 Chr 4:30). Hormah is listed also as one of the towns to which David sent booty after his victory over the Amalekites at Ziklag (1 Sam 30:30).
Ziklag was a city in southern Judah close to Chesil and Hormah (Josh 15:31; 19:5; 1 Chr 4:30). Simeon possessed it as his territory, and later it was assigned to David by Achish, king of Gath, for the Philistines had taken it. From there, David went up against the Geshurites, Gezrites, and Amalekites (1 Sam 27:8–9; 30:14, 26). He dwelt there a year and four months; it was there he received daily news of Israel’s political situation (12:1, 20) and heard of Saul’s death (2 Sam 1:1; 4:10); from there, he went to Hebron (2 Sam 2:1).
4:31 Beth Marcaboth, Hazar Susim, Beth Biri, and Shaaraim belonged to Simeon’s descendants, but David took these towns for himself when he became king. Thus, David brought some modifications to the original distribution of the land. Perhaps, based on 1 Samuel 27:6 (“So Achish gave him Ziklag that day. Therefore Ziklag has belonged to the kings of Judah to this day.”), the Chronicler was aware that David received Ziklag from Achish, and other cities were probably added to that as David’s territory (likely Hormah, Chorashan, and Athach; 1 Sam 30:26–30).
4:32 The text mentions the pronoun “their,” the antecedent of which were the Simeonites. They had five villages (Josh 19:6–7); namely, Etam, Ain, Rimmon, Tochen, and Ashan.
4:33 Several villages were in their possession as far distant as a place named Baal. In Joshua 19:8 the name is Baalath Beer instead of Baal. This city is mentioned together with Ramah in the Negev desert. As a matter of fact, the Chronicler does not show any interest in indicating any geographic places outside the promised land—those he deemed irrelevant to his audience. Dwelling places implies that these places were their permanent inhabitation, as demarcated since Joshua’s time, when the word “inheritance” was used instead (Josh 19:8). The statement that they maintained their genealogy goes with the following list of thirteen leaders in 4:34–37.
4:34–37 Here, a list without much explanation is introduced. These are the antecedents of the personal pronoun “they” in 4:38–43. They are probably related to the thirteen cities of the Simeonites mentioned in Joshua 19:2–8. This is not a genealogical list; rather, it is simply a list of names with a short genealogy of Amaziah, Asiel, and Shemaiah:
Meshobab
Jamlech
Amaziah–Joshah
Joel
Asiel—Seraiah—Joshibiah—Jehu
Elioenai
Jaakobah
Jeshohaiah
Asaiah
Adiel
Jesimiel
Benaiah
Shemaiah—Shimri—Jedaiah—Allon—Shiphi—Ziza
4:38 This verse makes reference to the preceding list of “princes” (nesi’im). The words increased greatly are an indication that they spread across their inheritance and had many children. The verb “to increase” in Hebrew (parats) also means “to break through,” implying an increase in birthrate. This increase in number should not be considered an exaggeration in quantity, for 4:27 mentions that they were few in number. Verse 27 is a comparison with the tribe of Judah, which was great in number.
4:39 As they multiplied, though they were not as numerous as the tribe of Judah, the need for more land and food for their flocks increased. Therefore, the Simeonites moved to the west looking for good pasture. They drew closer to Gerar, which is located near Ziklag.
4:40 The group of princes found a spacious land here, probably rolling meadows with good pasture—a peaceful place without any fortified cities or warlike tribes. The descendants of Ham lived there. The area refers to the Canaanite inhabitants of the land before Joshua’s conquest.
4:41 It seems that in the days of Hezekiah a list was made of the descendants of Simeon, mentioning these princes and their territory. Notice that Hezekiah attacked Gaza in one of his campaigns (2 Kgs 18:8). Thus, he could have made a redistribution of the land to the Simeonites who had conquered part of this territory decades before. The Meunites were nomadic tribes living in tents who did not build cities or villages. They were driven out of this land, and the Simeonites dwelled there.
4:42 Five hundred men, with their leaders Pelatiah, Neariah, Rephaiah, and Uzziel—all brothers and sons of Ishi—moved to the east, conquering some territory from the Edomites in their mountain, Seir.
4:43 The purpose of their move to the east is delineated here. They destroyed the portion of the Amalekites living in that geographical area, who had probably escaped from Joshua’s army and dwelled there until the postexilic time. Some Simeonites probably remained in that land during the Babylonian exile as well.

5:1–10. THE TRIBE OF REUBEN
1 CHR 5:1–10 NKJV
1 Now the sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel—he was indeed the firstborn, but because he defiled his father’s bed, his birthright was given to the sons of Joseph, the son of Israel, so that the genealogy is not listed according to the birthright;
2 yet Judah prevailed over his brothers, and from him came a ruler, although the birthright was Joseph’s—
3 the sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel were Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi.
4 The sons of Joel were Shemaiah his son, Gog his son, Shimei his son,
5 Micah his son, Reaiah his son, Baal his son,
6 and Beerah his son, whom Tiglath-Pileser king of Assyria carried into captivity. He was leader of the Reubenites.
7 And his brethren by their families, when the genealogy of their generations was registered: the chief, Jeiel, and Zechariah,
8 and Bela the son of Azaz, the son of Shema, the son of Joel, who dwelt in Aroer, as far as Nebo and Baal Meon.
9 Eastward they settled as far as the entrance of the wilderness this side of the River Euphrates, because their cattle had multiplied in the land of Gilead.
10 Now in the days of Saul they made war with the Hagrites, who fell by their hand; and they dwelt in their tents throughout the entire area east of Gilead.

1 CHR 5:1–10 ESV
1 The sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel (for he was the firstborn, but because he defiled his father’s couch, his birthright was given to the sons of Joseph the son of Israel, so that he could not be enrolled as the oldest son;
2 though Judah became strong among his brothers and a chief came from him, yet the birthright belonged to Joseph),
3 the sons of Reuben, the firstborn of Israel: Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi.
4 The sons of Joel: Shemaiah his son, Gog his son, Shimei his son,
5 Micah his son, Reaiah his son, Baal his son,
6 Beerah his son, whom Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria carried away into exile; he was a chief of the Reubenites.
7 And his kinsmen by their clans, when the genealogy of their generations was recorded: the chief, Jeiel, and Zechariah,
8 and Bela the son of Azaz, son of Shema, son of Joel, who lived in Aroer, as far as Nebo and Baal-meon.
9 He also lived to the east as far as the entrance of the desert this side of the Euphrates, because their livestock had multiplied in the land of Gilead.
10 And in the days of Saul they waged war against the Hagrites, who fell into their hand. And they lived in their tents throughout all the region east of Gilead.

5:1 Reuben was the firstborn child of Jacob—the son of Leah (Gen 29:32). Notice carefully that Jacob’s family had several problems. This was the fruit of an undesired marriage with Leah and a polygamous circumstance with Rachel. Thus, Jacob might have treated Reuben as the son of the least-loved wife, Leah. Therefore, Reuben grew up in an environment where respect for the father was based more on political calculations rather than rooted in genuine love. Thus, it is easier to see why he ended up defiling his father’s bed.
According to Leviticus 20:11, a later Levitical law, both Reuben and Bilhah should have been disciplined. Of course, Jacob lived centuries before Leviticus, but this was already a grievous transgression in the ANE moral context. The Chronicler explains the decline of Reuben as a tribe as being the direct consequence of his incestuous sin against his father (Gen 35:22). Thus, Reuben lost his firstborn rights, which passed to his brother Joseph, son of Rachel, the beloved wife of Jacob. Ephraim, then, became the firstborn. For the Chronicler, both sons of Joseph were blessed (Gen 48:17–20).
The postexilic community accepted Manasseh and Ephraim, the two sons of Joseph, even after their apostasy in the preexilic period. Thus, their territory belonged to them and not to the Samaritans. Notice that in 9:3 some from Ephraim and Manasseh were the first inhabitants of Jerusalem after the Babylonian exile, so they could claim their former lands under the Samaritan occupation. Thus, the firstborn right was not given based on genealogical right but because of the special circumstances mentioned above.
5:2 Notice that neither Reuben nor the sons of Joseph occupied the position of preeminence in the genealogy. This privilege is given to Judah. The reason is that from him a ruler was to come. A direct reference to David and his descendants is made—and an implied messianic expectation (Gen 49:10; 1 Chr 2:10–17; 3:1–24). Though the coming of King David honors Judah, Joseph continues to have the right of the firstborn son among the tribes.

Chiastic Structure of 5:1–3a
A “Now the sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel––he was indeed the firstborn,
B but because he defiled his father’s bed, his birthright was given to the sons of Joseph, the son of Israel, so that the genealogy is not listed according to the birthright;
C yet Judah prevailed over his brothers, and from him came a ruler,
B1 although the birthright was Joseph’s—
A1 the sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel.”

5:3 The Chronicler does not ******* all the sons of Reuben given in Numbers 26:8–11, namely, Dathan, Abiram, and Nemuel—sons of Eliab, son of Pallu. This is because of their rebellion in the wilderness against God (Num 16).
5:4–6 None of these sons of Joel are known elsewhere. The name Baal may be an indication of apostasy among the Reubenites. The name of the Assyrian king is spelled “Tillegath-pilneser,” which is Tiglath-Pileser III (745–727 BC). Tiglath-Pileser took Beerah into captivity. He was an important figure in the tribe of Reuben. Thus, seven generations are given for his genealogy. The exile of the two and a half tribes by the Assyrians is documented in 5:22, 26.
5:7–8 Joel seems to be the same as in 5:4 but through a different descendant, namely, Shema. Bela had two brothers, Jeiel and Zechariah. Both were sons of Azaz. This one was the son of Shema, and Shema was the son of Joel, from 5:4. The only information about these names is found in this verse. Aroer, where they settled, was located near the Arnon River close to the Dead Sea. This city belonged initially to the tribe of Gad (Num 32:34) and was located right on the border between Reuben and Gad (Josh 13:16, 25). Both Nebo and Baal Meon were inside the territory of Reuben (Num 32:38). This territory was contested by Aram and Ahab (1 Kgs 22). Hazael made raids on this area (2 Kgs 10:32–33; 13:3).
5:9 The Reubenites and Gadites had a large number of cattle. Therefore, they had to look for pasture to sustain these animals. One way was to expand to the east toward the Euphrates River at the edge of the desert (Num 32:1; Judg 5:16). Both tribes had an overlapping portion of the land (Num 32:29, 33; Deut 3:12, 16). Gilead belonged to both tribes; this might be one of the reasons why their cattle multiplied: Gilead was a fertile land with abundant pastureland.
5:10 This is the first reference to Saul in Chronicles. The battle against the Hagrites is not attested elsewhere; thus, one may conclude that this was a battle between Reuben and the Hagrites without Saul’s interference. Remember, Saul was so busy chasing David that he had no time for the nation’s interest. Though Psalm 83:6 lists the Hagrites among the enemies of Israel, David probably had an officer from this ethnic group (2 Sam 23:36; see also 1 Chr 11:38) and another in charge of his sheep (27:31). This again is evidence that the invitation to be part of the remnant people was open to all without exception.

5:11–17. THE TRIBE OF GAD
1 CHR 5:11–17 NKJV
11 And the children of Gad dwelt next to them in the land of Bashan as far as Salcah:
12 Joel was the chief, Shapham the next, then Jaanai and Shaphat in Bashan,
13 and their brethren of their father’s house: Michael, Meshullam, Sheba, Jorai, Jachan, Zia, and Eber—seven in all.
14 These were the children of Abihail the son of Huri, the son of Jaroah, the son of Gilead, the son of Michael, the son of Jeshishai, the son of Jahdo, the son of Buz;
15 Ahi the son of Abdiel, the son of Guni, was chief of their father’s house.
16 And the Gadites dwelt in Gilead, in Bashan and in its villages, and in all the common-lands of Sharon within their borders.
17 All these were registered by genealogies in the days of Jotham king of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam king of Israel.

1 CHR 5:11–17 ESV
11 The sons of Gad lived over against them in the land of Bashan as far as Salecah:
12 Joel the chief, Shapham the second, Janai, and Shaphat in Bashan.
13 And their kinsmen according to their fathers’ houses: Michael, Meshullam, Sheba, Jorai, Jacan, Zia and Eber, seven.
14 These were the sons of Abihail the son of Huri, son of Jaroah, son of Gilead, son of Michael, son of Jeshishai, son of Jahdo, son of Buz.
15 Ahi the son of Abdiel, son of Guni, was chief in their fathers’ houses,
16 and they lived in Gilead, in Bashan and in its towns, and in all the pasturelands of Sharon to their limits.
17 All of these were recorded in genealogies in the days of Jotham king of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam king of Israel.

5:11 The children of Gad received Bashan as their inheritance (Num 32:33). This area extended from Mount Hermon to the Yarmuk River. Gad was the son of Zilpah, Leah’s servant (Gen 30:10–11). Salcah is mentioned in Deuteronomy 3:10; Joshua 12:5; 13:11 as a city taken from Sihon, an Amorite king, and Og, king of Bashan.
5:12–13 These four leaders—Joel, Shapham, Janai, and Shaphat—dwelt in Bashan, but little is known about them, except as mentioned in this verse. They seem to be brothers. Verse 13 lists the names of seven relatives of theirs from their father’s house—all are unknown elsewhere.
5:14–15 A list of Abihail’s descendants is introduced here without any connection to a previous genealogy. The main figure was Ahi, mentioned as the son of Abdiel and chief in his father’s house.
5:16 The Gadites inhabited Gilead, as seen above in 5:9. Also, they took possession of Bashan and all the pasturelands of Sharon. This Sharon was not the one from the Mediterranean coast. It is probably a different spelling for Sirion, another name for Mount Hermon (Deut 3:9–10; Ps 29:6).
5:17 King Jotham (758–742 BC) of Judah and King Jeroboam (790–750 BC) of Israel were in power in the same period, for at least seven years. This could be the time Jeroboam made the genealogical registration.

5:18–22. MILITARY CAMPAIGN OF REUBEN, GAD, AND THE HALF-TRIBE OF MANASSEH
1 CHR 5:18–22 NKJV
18 The sons of Reuben, the Gadites, and half the tribe of Manasseh had forty-four thousand seven hundred and sixty valiant men, men able to bear shield and sword, to shoot with the bow, and skillful in war, who went to war.
19 They made war with the Hagrites, Jetur, Naphish, and Nodab.
20 And they were helped against them, and the Hagrites were delivered into their hand, and all who were with them, for they cried out to God in the battle. He heeded their prayer, because they put their trust in Him.
21 Then they took away their livestock—fifty thousand of their camels, two hundred and fifty thousand of their sheep, and two thousand of their donkeys—also one hundred thousand of their men;
22 for many fell dead, because the war was God’s. And they dwelt in their place until the captivity.

1 CHR 5:18–22 ESV
18 The Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half–tribe of Manasseh had valiant men who carried shield and sword, and drew the bow, expert in war, 44,760, able to go to war.
19 They waged war against the Hagrites, Jetur, Naphish, and Nodab.
20 And when they prevailed over them, the Hagrites and all who were with them were given into their hands, for they cried out to God in the battle, and he granted their urgent plea because they trusted in him.
21 They carried off their livestock: 50,000 of their camels, 250,000 sheep, 2,000 donkeys, and 100,000 men alive.
22 For many fell, because the war was of God. And they lived in their place until the exile.

5:18 Verse 10 mentions a battle against the Hagrites; this was probably the first military encounter with them. Now, a full-fledged war takes place between the Hagrites and the three tribes from the eastern side of the Jordan. The Chronicler makes the point that while they were faithful, God fought for them, but when they abandoned the covenant, they were left alone in the battle against their enemies.
The tribe of Manasseh itself had 44,760 bney chayil “mighty men” or “brave men” of war. In Numbers 1:35, they had 32,200 men; in Numbers 26:34, they had a total of 52,700 men of war; and in 1 Chronicles 12:37, the total of the three tribes was 120,000 men. Most probably, the difference in the totals is attributable to the number of men available on different occasions, so it should not be considered as an error in the text. The text does not give any explanation why only Manasseh is numbered here.
5:19 Jetur and Naphish are known from the genealogy of Ishmael in Genesis 25:15 and 1 Chronicles 1:31. Nodab is related to a tribe met by Tiglath-Pileser III in 734 BC at the border of Egypt. The date for this war is not mentioned in the text, but based on the context, one may assume a time when the central government of Israel was engaged in another activity, such as pursuing David in the time of Saul. Verse 10 was probably the beginning of this war, when the three tribes became involved.
5:20–21 The Chronicler clearly indicates that the only reason for their victory was their trust in God. He was the source of power against their enemies, thus fulfilling the promise of God to deliver their enemies into their hands (Deut 1:29–31). The booty was extraordinary.
5:22 The victory was solely due to the intervention of God as a response to their faithfulness toward Him. They could not boast of their merits. They dwelt in that area until the Assyrian captivity, when Tiglath-Pileser III took them to exile (5:6). Thus, faithfulness was the condition to obtaining victory over their enemies, as unfaithfulness was for defeat. Verses 25–26 describe the unfaithfulness that caused their captivity.

5:23–24. HALF-TRIBE OF MANASSEH
1 CHR 5:23–24 NKJV
23 So the children of the half–tribe of Manasseh dwelt in the land. Their numbers increased from Bashan to Baal Hermon, that is, to Senir, or Mount Hermon.
24 These were the heads of their fathers’ houses: Epher, Ishi, Eliel, Azriel, Jeremiah, Hodaviah, and Jahdiel. They were mighty men of valor, famous men, and heads of their fathers’ houses.

1 CHR 5:23–24 ESV
23 The members of the half–tribe of Manasseh lived in the land. They were very numerous from Bashan to Baal-hermon, Senir, and Mount Hermon.
24 These were the heads of their fathers’ houses: Epher, Ishi, Eliel, Azriel, Jeremiah, Hodaviah, and Jahdiel, mighty warriors, famous men, heads of their fathers’ houses.

5:23 Senir and Baal Hermon probably were the names of different peaks of the same mountain called Hermon. This mount is located on the north border of the land taken from Og king of Bashan (Deut 3:8; Josh 11:17; 12:7)—also called Sirion by the Sidonians and Senir by the Amorites (Deut 3:9; Ezek 27:5). In Song of Songs, however, Senir and Hermon are considered two different mountains (Song 4:8). The territory encompassed by Bashan land extended from Mount Hermon to the Yarmuk River in the south (Deut 3:10). Other than in Chronicles, Baal Hermon occurs only in Judges 3:3.
5:24 The list of mighty men of valor is not specifically related to any descendant of Manasseh, and none of these names are known from other genealogical lists in the Bible. Therefore, their importance is related to the valor they demonstrated in battle—undoubtedly an indication of trust in God in a moment of crisis.

 
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And the footnotes:

. See a similar chiastic structure presented by Gary N. Knoppers in “Greek Historiography and the Chronicler’s History: A Reexamination,” JBL 122, no. 4 (2003): 631.
. Hahn writes that “the sequence of biblical covenants is central to the Chronicler’s understanding of the divine economy. This can be traced from the early pages of his work. Beginning with Adam and the covenant of creation, his genealogy follows the path of God’s covenant through Noah, Abraham, Israel, and, finally and cumulatively, David, with whom God makes a ‘covenant of salt,’ meaning a new and everlasting covenant.” Hahn, The Kingdom of God as Liturgical Empire, 5. See also 2 Chr 13:5; 21:7.
. For further study on these names, see Jacques B. Doukhan, Genesis, SDAIBC (Nampa, ID: Pacific Press, 2016), 168–82.
. See map on the distribution of people upon the earth in Doukhan, Genesis, 183.
. Josephus, Ant. 1:123.
. Josephus, Ant. 1:124.
. Edward Lewis Curtis and Albert Alonzo Madsen, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Chronicles (New York: Scribner’s Sons, 1910), 60.
. Klein, 64.
. Josephus, Ant. 1:125
. David W. Baker, “Tiras,” ABD 6:571.
. Josephus, Ant. 1:125.
. Richard S. Hess, “Ashkenaz,” ABD 1:490.
. Klein, 64.
. Josephus, Ant. 1.126; Hess, “Riphath,” ABD 5:775.
. Baker, “Togarmah,” ABD 6:594.
. Baker, “Kittim,” ABD 4:93.
. Yohanan Aharoni, The Land of the Bible: A Historical Geography, trans. A. F. Rainey (Philadelphia, PA: Westminster, 1979), 144.
. W. W. Müller, “Seba,” ABD 5:1064.
. Müller, “Sabtah,” ABD 5:861–62.
. Müller, “Sabteca,” ABD 5:862–63.
. Doukhan, Genesis, 174.
. Baker, “Naphtuhim,” ABD 4:1022.
. Baker, “Pathos,” ABD 5:178.
. See Hess, “Casluhim,” ABD 1:877–78, for more information.
. Except for the first two names, Sidon and Heth, all are with a gentilic ending. This ending indicates a specific social group and not just a personal name for an individual person or place. For example, Sidon is a personal name, while Sidonians is the name of the people living in Sidon or born there. Therefore, in the Hebrew language, Sidonians would have a gentilic ending to indicate this.
. Baker, “Girgashite,” ABD 2:1028.
. Gregorio del Olmo Lete and Joaquín Sanmartín, A Dictionary of the Ugaritic Language in the Alphabetic Tradition, HdO 67, 2nd ed. (Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2004), 308. See also Edwin C. Hostetter, EDB, 506.
. Allen C. Myers, ed., “Arkite,” in EDB (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1987), 85. Hess, “Arkite,” ABD 1:393–94.
. Baker, “Sinite,” ABD 6:50.
. Hess, “Arvad,” ABD 1:468; Myers, ed., “Arkite,” EDB, 88.
. Baker, “Zemarite,” ABD 6:1074.
. David Noel Freedman, ed., Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2000), 386.
. Josephus, Ant. 1:144; Larry L. Walker, “Lud,” EDB, 827.
. Patricia A. MacNicoll, “Uz,” EDB, 1349.
. Hess, “Eber,” ABD 2:260.
. Ronald A. Simkins, “Eber,” EDB, 364.
. Doukhan, Genesis, 182.
. Hess, “Peleg,” ABD 5:218; see also Bruce W. Gentry, “Peleg,” EDB, 1024.
. Müller, “Sheleph,” ABD 5:1193-93. [ED. NOTE: WILL NEED THE AUTHOR TO PROVIDE CORRECTED PAGING FOR THIS REFERENCE]
. Müller, “Hazarmaveth,” ABD 3:85–86; C. Shaun Longstreet, “Hazarmaveth,” EDB, 559.
. Müller, “Hadoram,” ABD 3:16; Chris A. Rollston, “Hadoram,” EDB, 538.
. Ludwig Koehler et al., eds., “Diklah,” in HALOT, trans. M. E. J. Richardson et al., (Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 1994–1999), 1:229.
. Robert T. Anderson, “Ebal,” EDB, 363.
. b. Nedarim 3:11g–r, 14.I:18. In the Talmud is written, “Said R. Zechariah in the name of R. Ishmael, ‘The Holy One, blessed be He, wanted to bring forth the priesthood through Shem: And he, Melchizedek, was the priest of the Most High God,’ (Gen. 14:18). But because he gave priority, when he bestowed his blessing, to Abraham over God, he brought the priesthood forth through Abraham: ‘And he blessed him and said, blessed be Abram of the most high God, who holds heaven and earth, and also blessed be the most high God’ (Gen. 14:19–20). Said Abraham to him, ‘Is the blessing of a servant to take priority over the blessing of the master?’ Forthwith the priesthood was given to Abraham: ‘The LORD said to my Lord, Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies your footstool’ (Ps. 110:1); then: ‘The LORD has sworn and will not repent, you are a priest forever, after the order of Melchizedek’ (Ps. 110:4)—because of what Melchizedek said.’ ” It seems that according to the Talmud, Melchizedek was Shem.
. W. F. Albright, “Contributions to Biblical Archaeology and Philosophy,” JBL 43, no. 3/4 (1924): 386–87. He suggests that Tilsha Turahi could well be the location for a place with the name of “Ibex” or “Mountain Goat.”
. Ernst Axel Knauf, “Teman,” ABD 6:347–48.
. W. Zwickel, “Rehobot-Nahar,” BN 29 (1985), 28–34.
. Ulrich Hubner, “Pinon,” ABD 5:373.
. Eusebius, Onom. 124.22–23; Hubner, “Magdiel,” ABD 4:464.
. Josephus, Ant. 6.161–63.
. Kalimi, The Retelling of Chronicles in Jewish Tradition and Literature: A Historical Journey (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2009), 127.
. According to Japhet, “we should therefore attribute this note to the waxing of the power of Aram in Transjordan, sometime in the ninth century.” Japhet, I and II Chronicles: A Commentary (Louisville, KY: Westminster, 1993), 81.
. Japhet, I and II Chronicles, 90.
. Ofer mentions that “the only information about ancient Hebron comes from the Bible, where it is also called Kiriath-Arba and Manre. These names are commonly considered evidence that the town was divided into quarters (arba’, or ‘four,’ in Hebrew) or clans. Various locations are mentioned as being in the Hebron region: Elonei (“oaks of”); Mamre; the Eshcol and Hebron Valleys; and the Cave (field) of Machpelah.” Avi Ofer, “Hebron,” in NEAEHL 2, ed. Ephraim Stern (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society and Carta, 1993), 606.
. Jeconiah is called Jehoiachin in the Chronicles narrative (2 Chr 36:8–9). The change of names may imply the tradition of changing names based on events that marked the life of a specific person; for example, Jacob was changed to Israel and Abram to Abraham (Gen 17:5; 32:28).
. Jeffrey R. Zorn, “Ezem,” ABD 2:722.
. Jeffreis M. Hamilton, “Hormah,” ABD 3:288–89.
. Kalimi, The Reshaping of Ancient Israelite History in Chronicles, 228; see also A. Shinan and Y. Zakovich, The Story about Reuben and Bilhah [in Hebrew] (Jerusalem, 1983), 14.
. The Hebrew text has haggadic. The article and the proper noun, or the letter D in Hebrew being similar to the letter R, may have contributed to an exchange of letters. The NIV reads Hagri instead of Haggadi in this verse.
. The LXX understood the personal name Shaphat as the verb “to judge” in the participle form, thus translating it as the one “who was judging.”
. Knauf, “Nodab,” ABD 4:1134.

 
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1 CHRONICLES

INTRODUCTION

Chronicles was initially considered to be a single book, but it was divided into two books in most Bible translations (1 and 2 Chronicles). In the Christian canon, Chronicles is grouped with the historical books after 1 and 2 Kings. In Jewish Bibles, however, Chronicles comes at the end of the Writings, after Ezra-Nehemiah.
The book of Chronicles begins with a collection of genealogical lists (chs. 1–9). The mention of the name of Adam at the beginning of its genealogies (1:1) provides a close relationship to the Creation account of the book of Genesis (Gen 1–3). Then, after the genealogical lists, Chronicles narrates the stories of David (chs. 10–29), Solomon (2 Chr 1–9), and the kings of Judah from the end of the united monarchy to the fall of Jerusalem (2 Chr 10–36). Although Solomon built the temple and set its cult in motion, David was the architect of the temple—the second Moses. David is the one responsible for the establishment of the liturgy, following God’s instructions given to him by the prophets inspired by God (2 Chr 29:25).
David’s descendants are either praised for their faithfulness or cursed for their unfaithfulness regarding their relationship to God’s covenant, which is represented through the rituals of the sanctuary/temple. The destruction of the temple and the fall of Jerusalem are blamed upon the failure of the leaders and of the people to seek the Lord according to His will, as David had done in the past (9:1). Therefore, the postexilic community of Chronicles’ time was warned to avoid the mistakes and failures of their forefathers and not to forget God’s guidance (see for instance, 2 Chr 7:14).

IMPORTANCE OF 1–2 CHRONICLES
According to the Mishnah, Chronicles was read before the high priest just on the eve of the Day of Atonement to prevent him from falling asleep, which could make him unfit to officiate during the next morning’s rituals. This can be an object lesson; a conscious existence regarding the time and age we are living in should be a priority. Falling spiritually asleep can be a dangerous condition to anyone who is going through the final historical events. This condition can make a person unfit for heaven’s eternal life. This reading before the Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) seems to match the purpose of Chronicles. This is a book girded toward the temple, its rituals, the Levites, and the priests. Thus, it was suitable to be read as a preparation for the next day’s sacred events.
Therefore, the relevance of a community of faith, according to Chronicles, is not just on being a religious people but being the people with a peculiar character modeled after the similitude of God’s will, as revealed in His word. In other words, the covenantal community of God has a peculiar identity that should not be lost even at the peril of life, persecution, or exile. Faithfulness to His covenant is an important component of the true community (see 9:1b; 10:13; 2 Chr 19:9; 28:22; 32:1). This component is grounded in the plan of salvation and didactically presented through the rituals of the sanctuary throughout the OT, from the simple patriarchal altar to the elaborate sacrificial system of the sanctuary/temple.
Having this in mind, one can understand why the Chronicler presents the temple and Jerusalem as the only places for true worship. The Northern Kingdom had its places of worship at Bethel and Dan (1 Kgs 12:29), but the Chronicler does not mention them. Notice that they were not the places legitimized by God’s choosing and anointing; therefore, they were irrelevant for the chronicling purpose. One of the reasons for not mentioning the northern kings is that the book of Chronicles has a particular concern with the Davidic dynasty. Second, a detour to any other subject is avoided so the reader can focus on the main purpose of this book, faithfulness to God.
Hence, the book(s) of Chronicles should be carefully read by any community of faith that is experiencing the same or similar events as postexilic Judah had gone through. This similarity might be in the sense of ideologies and worldviews as forces containing the power of diluting the true identity of God’s people. According to Chronicles, in order to define and maintain the peculiar identity of God’s people, one must have much communion with and a study of God’s will (28:7, 9; 2 Chr 20:20; and so on). This is also true for God’s people living before the coming of the Lord (see Rev 12:17). I have purposely given special attention to the genealogies (chs. 1–9). They have a didactic function, containing information toward a proper understanding of Chronicles.

TITLE AND AUTHORSHIP OF 1–2 CHRONICLES
The two books, 1–2 Chronicles, were considered as a single book in the Hebrew Bible. This can be deduced by finding editorial notes only at the end of 2 Chronicles in Hebrew manuscripts and codices. Usually, each book of the OT in the Hebrew language had its own final and marginal editorial notes. The final editorial notes are placed at the midpoint of 1–2 Chronicles in 1 Chronicles 27:25. Therefore, I shall treat these two books as one in this general introduction to 1–2 Chronicles.
The name of this book in Hebrew is dibre hayamim “the account/words of the days.” A superficial reading may conclude that the books of Chronicles are simply a compilation of royal annals. See, e.g., 1 Kings 14:19; Esther 2:23; and so on, where the same expression (dibre hayamim) appears with reference to the royal account in different circumstances. Chronicles, however, is more than just royal annals. With the exception of the narratives of King David and his son Solomon, these books are a historical account of selected kings of Judah. They cover the time from the division of Israel’s territory between Jeroboam and Rehoboam until the exile. The Chronicler had a theological purpose in view. No king from the north is mentioned in a particular way. Tribes like Manasseh, Zebulun, and Ephraim are mentioned as being invited to worship God at the temple in Jerusalem (2 Chr 30:10).
In the printed editions of the Hebrew Bible and in Hebrew codices, the book of Chronicles is located as the last book of the third division of the Hebrew canon named Ketuvim “Writings.” This probably indicates that Chronicles was composed as one of the last books of the OT.
The separation into two books was most probably due to the Greek version, the Septuagint. The scribes or translators of the Greek version might have thought it too long for a single scroll to contain such large amounts of information regarding the kings of Judah, making thus the handling and dealing of the scroll by a scribe more difficult, especially in the process of copying it. The Greek version placed Chronicles before Ezra and Nehemiah. This organization was adopted by Jerome’s Latin Vulgate and later by Luther’s German version. Thus, the English version inherited this order from one of the last two translations.
Concerning the name of Chronicles, the Greek Codex Alexandrinus has the following title: “The things left [regarding] the kings of Judah” (paraleipoménōn basiléon Iouda), while other Greek manuscripts omitted the phrase, “the kings of Judah” (basiléon Iouda). This title implies that the Greek translators of 1–2 Chronicles believed that Chronicles had an account that supplemented the narratives of 1–2 Samuel and 1–2 Kings.
Of note is that the oldest Jewish tradition, the Babylonian Talmud, credited the authorship of Chronicles to Ezra and Nehemiah. Ezra, according to this tradition, compiled the genealogies up to his days, and Nehemiah completed the gap that was left unfinished. “Ezra wrote the book that bears his name and the genealogies of the Book of Chronicles up to his own time. This confirms the opinion of Rab, since Rab Judah has said in the name of Rab: Ezra did not leave Babylon to go up to Eretz Yisrael until he had written his own genealogy. Who then finished it [the Book of Chronicles]? — Nehemiah, the son of Hachaliah.”
This view has been criticized due to linguistic features that show differences between the books of Ezra-Nehemiah and Chronicles. This conclusion has led some scholars to reject the Talmudic view. Linguistic differences should not be the only argument, though, for an author can use different rhetorical approaches, including different vocabulary, to achieve a specific goal. On the other hand, the author may have been a scribe from Ezra’s school, one under the direct guidance of Ezra or from a generation later. Therefore, it would be acceptable to say that an unknown person, acquainted with the works of Ezra-Nehemiah, wrote this book (1–2 Chr) in the postexilic period; this was most probably a Levite from the singer’s guild.
Regarding Chronicles, there are quite a few indications in the text pointing to its authorship. First of all, the author seems to have had a profound knowledge of Israel’s history. His knowledge was not only about history but also about the meaning and implications of each historical event for the socioreligious situation of the postexilic community and for the future of Judah as a chosen people.
Therefore, one might conclude that the Chronicler had a purpose in mind. His job was not only to present and to preserve a mere list of historical facts about the kings of Judah. His arrangement of the events was purposely chosen to accomplish a predetermined theological, sociopolitical, and religious goal. His effort implies revelation and illumination from God. It was more than a simple work of investigation and organization of historical material; it was a work of a prophet. The author prepared his book by organizing it as a selection of sermons based on historical events. The Chronicler chose the facts considering the future of Judah as a depositary of the sacred oracles of God.
In the theology of the Chronicler, the tribe of Judah and its territory had a special role in the historical setting of humanity. Therefore, one may conclude that he was not just a historian or theologian; he was more than that—he was a prophet and a preacher. The prophet had the role of preaching the message he had received from God to his people. Chronicles is a collection of sermons presented to the postexilic community to exhort them as God’s people.
The Chronicler writes his book with a specific message, having in mind the situation that his people were going through, with his hopes centered on the temple and its rituals, on the sacred oracles, on the city of Jerusalem, on the prophets, and on the chosen dynasty of David. He keeps constantly in view, in the literary arrangement of his book, the promises of the OT as they were being fulfilled through Israel’s history.

LITERARY SOURCES FOR CHRONICLES
The Chronicler had access to an enormous corpus of literary work (see the following list) from his time and before. This access, which one can assume was carefully kept, indicates that he might have had some degree of influence within the political and religious sphere with priests in Jerusalem and with the Levite community living in and out of Judah, so that he could obtain such an enormous number of books and information from official annals and religious books (e.g., 2 Sam; 1–2 Kgs), like the work accomplished by Ezra and Nehemiah. Following is the list of literary works to which the Chronicler had access in writing his sacred history:

Access to Genealogies
a) Of the tribe of Simeon (4:33)
b) Of the tribe of Gad (5:17)
c) Of the tribe of Benjamin (7:9)
d) Of the tribe of Asher (7:40)
e) Of Rehoboam (2 Chr 12:15)
Access to Official Registration
a) Of Israel (9:1)
b) Of the doorkeepers (9:22)
Access to Official Records
a) Chronicles of the kings of Israel (9:1; 2 Chr 20:34)
b) Chronicles of the kings of Judah and Israel (2 Chr 16:11; 25:26; 32:32)
c) Chronicles of the kings of Israel and Judah (2 Chr 27:7; 35:27; 36:8)
d) Chronicles of King David (27:24)
e) The records of the kings of Israel (2 Chr 33:18)
f) Midrash sefer hamelakhin “the commented book of the kings” (2 Chr 24:27)
g) Ketab, the “writing” of David and of Solomon his son (2 Chr 35:4)
Access to Prophetic Writings
a) The writings of Samuel the seer (29:29)
b) The writings of the prophet Nathan (29:29; 2 Chr 9:29)
c) The writings of Gad the seer (29:29)
d) The prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite (2 Chr 9:29)
e) The vision of Iddo concerning Jeroboam, the son of Nebat (2 Chr 9:29)
f) The writings of Shemaiah the prophet (2 Chr 12:15)
g) The vision of Iddo the seer (2 Chr 12:15)
h) The commentary (midrash) of the prophet Iddo (2 Chr 13:22)
i) The writings of Jehu ben Hanani (2 Chr 20:34)
j) The history of King Huzziah which Isaiah the prophet wrote down (2 Chr 26:22)
k) The vision of the prophet Isaiah, son of Amoz (2 Chr 32:32)
l) The writing of Manasseh (2 Chr 33:19)
m) The sayings of Hozai (2 Chr 33:18–19)
Access to Official Letters
a) Message of Sennacherib to Hezekiah (2 Chr 32:9–15)
b) Letters of Sennacherib (2 Chr 32:17)
Access to Other Sources
a) The words of David and Asaph (2 Chr 29:30)
b) Plans for the temple (28:19)
c) Lamentations (2 Chr 35:25)

These materials were written on different scrolls, probably together with other information considered unnecessary for the purpose of the Chronicler and therefore omitted. Guided by the inspiration of God, he may have selected the portions that would fit the message he wanted to convey in his book. Most of these written documents did not survive in any form up to the present time, but they were available in those days for the preparation of Chronicles. In this way, one can have a glimpse into the written records of preexilic and exilic documents that survived the Babylonian exile. Some information could have been selected from 2 Samuel, 1–2 Kings, the Pentateuch, and other sources such as the oral tradition, where parallel passages could be found with similar information for the composition of Chronicles. God can act through the selection of material, as well as by visions and direct revelation. An example of selection and historical investigation in the NT is the sacred history written by Luke concerning Jesus Christ (Luke 1:1–3).

AUDIENCE
Written at the end of the OT period, Chronicles had a special community of faith in view. This community faced unique historical challenges. They were the sole inheritors of the temple and its related institutions. They represented “all Israel,” decreased, however, in number. In the text, one can perceive the effort made by the author to address this community.
The genealogies and the narratives contain enough information about its audience. For instance, chapter 9 says, “But Judah was carried away captive to Babylon because of their unfaithfulness. And the first inhabitants who dwelt in their possessions in their cities were Israelites, priests, Levites, and the Nethinim. Now in Jerusalem the children of Judah dwelt, and some of the children of Benjamin, and of the children of Ephraim and Manasseh” (9:1–3). This passage mentions the reasons for the captivity and lists some of those who returned to Jerusalem after the exile. In 3:17–24, a list of the royal family is introduced, implying a sequence from the preexilic community to the postexilic one. Another reference to a postexilic audience occurs in Cyrus’s decree that indicates a possibility of returning to the land of Israel (2 Chr 36:1–6; Ezra 1:1–6).
This decree was proclaimed around the year 539 BC. Therefore, the descendants of those who heard the decree and obeyed it composed the Chronicler’s audience. The returnees went up to Jerusalem in various times of opportunity under several leaders, for instance, with Zerubbabel. Later, a new group returns with Ezra, based on the permission granted by Artaxerxes (457 BC).
Nehemiah contributed by finishing Jerusalem’s walls. The returnees needed a message of hope. They were small in number, and they were “all Israel” in a completely different world. They were powerless and politically weak. Thus, Chronicles fills this need by providing a selected narrative of past history showing clearly their obligation and right to succeed. Remember, they had just rebuilt the temple on a smaller scale; they were ill treated by their neighbors during the construction of Jerusalem; and they were still under the Persian government. Consequently, their hope was centered on the temple and its rituals. Thus, the postexilic community in the Persian province of Judah (Yehud) was the direct audience to which this literary work was addressed. Any community throughout history, going through a similar experience, can obtain hope and guidance by reading Chronicles.

TIME, PLACE, AND SITUATION
Scholars are not unanimous with regard to the date of Chronicles’ composition. Many dates are suggested by different studies. These different dates will not be analyzed or discussed here, for it is not the purpose of this study to evaluate these theories but rather to suggest the most possible one based on the internal evidence of the text. Internal evidence indicates an approximate date for the final composition of Chronicles: (a) Chronicles ends with a reference to the first decree of Cyrus in the first year of his reign (539 BC), fulfilling the seventy years of Jeremiah’s prophecy regarding the Babylonian exile (Jer 29:10); therefore, Chronicles must have been written after that date. (b) Valuable metals are also calculated in darics (29:7; weadrakonim). This manner of reckoning was introduced by the Persian king Darius I (521–486 BC); thus, it is reasonable to assume that this book does not fall within the beginnings of the Persian period. (c) The genealogy of the royal house of David seems to reach up to the sixth generation after Zerubbabel (3:19–24). This makes the date for 1–2 Chronicles, reckoning twenty years for a generation, as possibly around 400 BC. The Septuagint has eleven generations altogether. This could be explained by Robert Hubbard’s comments about Kalimi’s book: “Concerning the number of generations after Zerubbabel (1 Chr 3) … If I may venture a thought of my own, the proximate location of the LXX translators and the Akabia tomb suggests a possible explanation for the Septuagint’s larger number. If the Alexandrian tomb were familiar to the translators, and if they identified Akabia with Akkub of 1 Chronicles 3:24, those assumptions might have led them to extend their list to eleven descendants. If so, that number would say more about the date of LXX Chronicles than it does about the Masoretic Text.”
Therefore, one may conclude with certainty that the book of Chronicles was written by an unknown writer, none the less influential, around the end of the fifth century before Christ during the Persian Empire in the land of Judah. The writer was probably a Levite from Ezra’s scribal school and/or a musician.

PURPOSE
The Chronicler has a unique approach to Israel’s history. He seems to convey the reasons to avoid the mistakes of the past and presents a motivation to continue looking forward to the future in a more positive way. Chronicles presents the foundations of Israel’s theocracy as being the covenant of God. Thus, the emphasis is on the temple, the priesthood, the Levites, the prophets, and the chosen royal house of David. The temple represents the presence of God (Exod 25:8), the oracles of God, and the essence of the covenant broken in the past. This breaking of the covenant was the main reason for the Babylonian captivity (9:1). The priesthood represents the religious leadership responsible to preserve the covenant established with God at Sinai. They were the mediators between God and humans. The Levites were the instructors of the people; they had the ministry of teaching the law. The prophets were charismatic figures whom Jehovah raised when necessary to uphold the truth amid apostasy and rebellion or in a crisis. Finally, the chosen royal house of David and its lineage were of great importance for the postexilic returnees. The royal house was the only legitimized lineage of the new Davidic king who was to come.
The understanding of these sacred institutions is crucial for the interpretation and purpose of Chronicles. The author wanted to guide the mind of the postexilic community to the only way to avoid the same mistakes that caused the Babylonian exile. Thus, the Chronicler proposed faithfulness to the covenant established by God, which was didactically presented through the rituals of the sanctuary in the desert, in Solomon’s temple, and now in the temple of Zerubbabel. This was the only remedy to heal their spiritual sickness. Hence, Chronicles fits perfectly into the postexilic time when prophets like Malachi would prophesy the coming of the great and terrible day of the Lord (Mal 4:5).
Ezra, another postexilic author, came also into this historical scenario. He came as a priest and scribe of the law (Ezra 7:12), teaching the law which was the foundation of the covenant of God. Thus, Ezra had the same preoccupations as Chronicles. He was worried with the temple services, the teaching of the law, and Israel’s separation from the customs of the people living in the land that surrounded them. Chronicles reflects similar worries to the ones Ezra had. He had done all in his power to avoid the mistakes that occasioned the captivity (Ezra 9:7).
Chronicles ends its account in a positive way, with the decree of Cyrus allowing the exiles from Judah to return to their land. In Kalimi’s view, the Chronicler avoids mentioning the non-returnees; instead, one finds the command, “Let him go up” (Ezra 1:3). This might be, according to Kalimi, a possible permission for immigration for the Jewish communities in Babylon. In his words, this command is “a comforting royal decree from the king of Persia, which enables a new ‘exodus’ and re-creation of a better future.” Second Chronicles concludes with a citation from Ezra 1:2–4, which indicates a close relationship between these two books.

THE BOOK AS A WHOLE
Basic information for the understanding of this book as a whole will be presented in this section. Therefore, the reader should become familiar with it before reading the commentary. It is not meant to be exhaustive; rather, it is just illustrative of the background of Chronicles.

Genre and Forms
A variety of genres is found in Chronicles. The first is the genealogical one, from chapters 1 through 9. This serves as the general introduction to the entire work. Thus, the reader becomes acquainted with the historical links among the preceding generations of Israel until the postexilic time. The second type, and the most common, are the historical narratives placed in sequence throughout the book. The bulk of this literary work is composed in this type of genre, based on a selected amount of historical material having a special purpose in mind. The third type is the poetic one. It follows the style of Psalms. For instance, a psalm of gratitude is introduced in 16:8–33, and probably one of praise in 29:10b–19. The fourth one is the prophetic genre (e.g., the prophecy of Micaiah; 2 Chr 18:16, 18–22). The epistolary genre is present in the message of Elijah to king Jehoram (2 Chr 21:12–15). Therefore, Chronicles is rich in its literary style and in its arrangement of the material, indicating the skillful literary gift of its author.

General Structure and Outline
The content of Chronicles is centered on the temple and its related institutions—the priesthood, the Levites, the prophets, and the chosen royal house of David. Having this in mind, one can better understand the purpose of the Chronicler in choosing his selection of historical events from the large corpus of literature he had available at that time. Also, by observing the centrality of the temple and its related institutions, one may rightly conclude that 1–2 Chronicles had a single author and was considered as a single book at the outset of its production. It seems that Chronicles was never a part of the books of Ezra and Nehemiah.

Structure of the Book of Chronicles
For the Chronicler, the temple and its rituals represent a crucial part of the identity of Israel. This identity should not be lost in the postexilic community as it was before the exile. Therefore, the main ingredient of faithfulness was to follow carefully the instructions revealed in the Pentateuch regarding the rites the sanctuary contained in its daily services and the proper order regarding God’s worship.
Literary Structure
Following is the literary structure of 1–2 Chronicles, presented to guide the reader in the process of reading the message of Chronicles. Observe that I have not discussed the various sections in detail. My intention here is to guide readers through the book’s narrative sections (1–2 Chr). These are the major sections of this commentary as well.
1. Genealogy (1:1–9:44). This section introduces the foundation of the entire work—1 and 2 Chronicles. It contains a genealogical list. Notice that Matthew and Luke also begin their NT books with Jesus’s genealogy.
The Chronicler wanted to preserve the genealogical identity of the nation as a whole and of the Davidic lineage in particular. Therefore, for the Chronicler, it was crucial to link the genealogy of Israel with the temple and its services, including the work of the Levites and priests. One of the reasons for this might be that the temple services were understood as the symbolic representation of the promises of the coming Messiah. This is the same understanding found later in the NT (Heb 8:5).
For the Chronicler, it is not only Israel’s identity that is at risk but also the identity of the entire human race. Israel was the repository of God’s grace, and they had an obligation to preserve the knowledge of it for later generations. Therefore, this section links the historical origin of the returnees to Adam and to God as Creator.
2. David’s Kingdom (10:1–22:1). The central interest here is the temple and, in a special way, the ark of God. The author probably had the purpose of encouraging the postexilic community to pay respect and reverence to the oracles of God. It introduces the place where the temple should be built (21:26; 22:1). Also, David’s soldiers are listed—those men supporting the kingdom and the temple through their military services (11:26–47). Furthermore, David himself is introduced as doing something that was not according to the will of God (ch. 13). Even if good intentions were involved, David had to learn the lesson of consulting God in order to know His revealed will (15:13).
Therefore, good intentions are not enough. He who knows and has access to the revealed will of God must abide by it. The central point here is that the purpose of the ark was fulfilled by Israel’s performing according to the prescribed will of God. The ark was the symbolic representation of God’s presence and His glory, the Shechinah.
Even though the ark of the covenant is not mentioned anymore in any text from the Babylonian invasion of Judah onward, the postexilic community should remember the sacredness of the temple and its rituals. Now, even without the ark, which was the representation of the presence of God, He would fulfill His promise, found in Jeremiah, to the postexilic community: “ ‘For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days,’ declares the LORD, ‘I will put My law within them and I will write it on their hearts. And I will be their God, and they shall be My people’ ” (Jer 31:33 ESV).
3. David’s Preparation for the Building Project (22:2–29:30). In this section, the Chronicler conveys his purpose by means of two or more speeches pronounced by David to Israel as a whole and to Solomon in particular. Here one finds the reasons why David did not build the temple and the choosing of Solomon as the king and future builder of God’s house. Instructions are presented so that Solomon could start to execute the plans for the magnificent project never attempted before (chs. 28–29). The legitimacy of the new authorities established by David is found in chapters 23–27. Nobody can argue about it—David himself chose them. The descendants of Aaron are introduced as the most important group of people to serve before the Lord in the rituals of the temple (24:1–19).
4. Solomon, the Temple Builder (2 Chr 1:1–9:34). To observe how carefully the Chronicler weaves these sections guiding the reader to the central point—namely, the dedication of the temple—is truly interesting. In this section, the author introduces the wealth and wisdom of Solomon. In 2 Chronicles 2, 8–9, the international relationship skills of the newly elected king are demonstrated, and 2 Chronicles 3–4 indicate how good an architect Solomon was. Nevertheless, the most brilliant of all of his accomplishments was the building of the temple, following the desire and will of God: “When Solomon had finished praying, fire came down from heaven and consumed the burnt offering and the sacrifices; and the glory of the LORD filled the temple” (2 Chr 7:1). This was an example that the postexilic community followed: “Now the temple was finished on the third day of the month of Adar, which was in the sixth year of the reign of King Darius. Then the children of Israel, the priests and the Levites and the rest of the descendants of the captivity, celebrated the dedication of this house of God with joy” (Ezra 6:15–16). As the temple was the uniting force of the preexilic community, thus should it be in the postexilic one. The main lesson here was not of wealth, political skills, and power. The real and true lesson was the continual fulfillment of God’s will, both in their individual lives and also in their public worship at the temple.
5. Division of All Israel (2 Chr 10:1–20:37). In this section, the Chronicler recounts the reigns of four kings of Judah. He organizes the material in such way as to highlight the deeds these kings accomplished concerning the temple, priests, and Levites (Rehoboam, 2 Chr 11:13–17; Abijah, 2 Chr 13:4–12; Asa, 2 Chr 15:8–19). Jehoshaphat’s account, on the other hand, is larger, with more detailed information. This will be discussed later on in the commentary (2 Chr 18:12–22).
The use of the priests and Levites by the good king Jehoshaphat is found in 2 Chronicles 17:1–19. He placed these religious leaders as teachers of the law. The intention of the author is probably to indicate that these kings—Rehoboam, Abijah, Asa, and Jehoshaphat—accomplished some good deeds for the temple and its servants. The postexilic community should not forget this; on the contrary, these good deeds should be imitated.
6. Eight Kings (2 Chr 21:1–28:27). The following section introduces to the reader eight kings who were not quite as successful in their administration. These are the kings between the good king Jehoshaphat and the religious reformer Hezekiah. This structured organization of the material emphasizes the contrast between the good and the bad deeds focused on the temple, the priests, and the Levites. One cannot miss the point that the consequences were according to the choices made by the rulers. The failure of these kings is directly related to their approach toward the temple. Some, like Jotham, neglected the temple; others, like Uzziah, committed sacrilege toward the temple (2 Chr 26:16). Joash was moderately successful as long he was faithful to the covenant represented by the temple rituals (2 Chr 24:17–19). The intention of the author most probably was to warn the postexilic community about the consequences of good or bad actions regarding the temple and its representatives.
7. End (2 Chr 29–36). The final section presents the deliverance of Hezekiah and Jerusalem by God’s power. The primary message of this final section seems to be that miracles are not independent from faithfulness and adherence to the revealed will of God. It started with Hezekiah’s reformation by cleansing the temple, by celebrating the Passover feast, and by purging the land from idols. The Chronicler wants to make a grand finale in his book in such way that none would forget it. He calls for obedience to the covenant established by Jehovah with His people, reverence to the temple and its rituals, faith in the promises of God, and separation from idolatry, and maintains this as the only way to bring prosperity and deliverance to the nation as a whole. The postexilic community should not miss this lesson. Even if Zerubbabel’s temple was small and simple in comparison to the one Solomon built (Ezra 3:12), it ought to receive its due reverence and respect from the chosen people and its representative authorities.
The second half of this section has a downbeat tone. The consequence of disloyalty is apparent, as it took the nation into captivity. King Manasseh began to reverse his father’s religious reforms. Josiah tried his best to restore faithfulness to the covenant and reverence to the sacred rituals of the temple but without much success. This section presents the final four kings who did not follow the example of good king Hezekiah. They took the temple and its rituals lightly; they were not loyal to God’s covenant, and as a result, the Babylonian exile took place. Even though the events taking place in this final section seem to be depressing, the author leaves a message of hope for the postexilic community.
The call to return decreed by Cyrus is placed at the end of Chronicles, showing that the promise of Jehovah is being fulfilled (2 Chr 36:22–23; Jer 25:11–12; 30:3; 31:33). God will establish His new covenant with His people. Now the golden opportunity is available for Judah to restore its loyalty to the covenant and continue the historic and prophetic lineage of God’s chosen people, thus preparing the way for the final fulfillment of all the messianic prophecies of the OT.

OUTLINE OF 1–2 CHRONICLES
A. GENEALOGY (1:1–9:44)
1. Adam to Esau (1:1–54)
a. Adam to Noah (1:1–4a)
b. The descendants of Noah (1:4b–23)
c. Shem to Abraham (1:24–27)
d. Abraham (1:28–34)
e. Esau and Edom (1:35–54)
2. The tribes of Israel (2:1–9:1)
a. The sons of Israel (2:1–2)
b. The tribe of Judah (2:3–4:23)
c. The tribe of Simeon (4:24–43)
d. The Transjordanian tribes (5:1–26)
e. The tribe of Levi (6:1–81)
f. The west Jordan tribes (7:1–40)
g. The tribe of Benjamin (8:1–40)
h. Conclusion to tribal lists (9:1)
3. Back to Jerusalem (9:2–34)
a. Resettling the towns (9:2)
b. Laymen in Jerusalem (9:3–9)
c. Priests in Jerusalem (9:10–13)
d. Levites in Jerusalem (9:14–16)
e. Gatekeepers in Jerusalem (9:17–32)
f. Musicians in Jerusalem (9:33–34)
4. Genealogy of Saul’s family (9:35–44)
B. DAVID’S KINGDOM (10:1–22:1)
a. The end of Saul’s house (10:1–14)
b. All Israel recognizes David as king (11:1–12:40)
c. The transferal of the ark and its journey: the first phase (13:1–14)
d. David’s house and family (14:1–17)
e. The ark completes its journey: the second phase (15:1–29)
f. Blessing, worship, and praise (16:1–43)
g. David’s good intentions (17:1–2)
h. The promise of the Davidic covenant (17:3–15)
i. David’s prayer (17:16–27)
j. David’s victories over the nations (18:1–17)
k. David’s victories over the Ammonites (19:1–20:3)
l. Victories over the Philistines (20:4–8)
m. Census of Israel and Judah (21:1–30)
C. DAVID’S PREPARATION FOR THE BUILDING PROJECT (22:2–29:30)
a. David’s initial preparation for the temple (22:2–19)
b. The Levites prepare for the temple (23:1–26:32)
c. Other leaders prepare for the temple (27:1–34)
d. David’s final preparations for the temple (28:1–29:25)
e. Concluding formula for David (29:26–30)
D. SOLOMON, THE TEMPLE BUILDER (2 Chr 1:1–9:31)
a. Solomon’s splendor (2 Chr 1:1–17)
b. Solomon’s preparations (2 Chr 2:1–18)
c. Beginning to build the temple (2 Chr 3:1–2)
d. The ground plan and porch (2 Chr 3:3–4a)
e. The golden temple (2 Chr 3:4b–13)
f. The veil (2 Chr 3:14)
g. The pillars (2 Chr 3:15–17)
h. The temple equipment (2 Chr 4:1–22)
i. Completion of the temple (2 Chr 5:1)
j. The ark and the cloud (2 Chr 5:2–14)
k. Solomon’s praise and prayer (2 Chr 6:1–42)
l. God’s answer to prayer (2 Chr 7:1–22)
m. Solomon’s other building work (2 Chr 8:1–6)
n. Foreigners in Solomon’s kingdom (2 Chr 8:7–11)
o. Temple ceremonies and personnel (2 Chr 8:12–15)
p. The temple completed (2 Chr 8:16)
q. Solomon’s international relationships (2 Chr 8:17–9:12)
r. Solomon’s wisdom, fame, and fortune (2 Chr 9:13–28)
s. Concluding formula for Solomon (2 Chr 9:29–31)
E. DIVISION OF ALL ISRAEL (2 Chr 10:1–20:37)
a. Israel separates from Judah (2 Chr 10:1–19)
b. Rehoboam’s strength (2 Chr 11:1–23)
c. Rehoboam’s repentance (2 Chr 12:1–16)
d. Abijah (2 Chr 13:1–14:1)
e. Asa (2 Chr 14:2–16:14)
f. Jehoshaphat, Ahab, and the prophets (2 Chr 17:1–19:3)
g. Jehoshaphat’s legal reforms (2 Chr 19:4–11)
h. Jehoshaphat’s faith (2 Chr 20:1–37)
F. EIGHT KINGS (2 Chr 21:1–28:27)
a. Jehoram (2 Chr 21:1b–20)
b. Ahaziah (2 Chr 22:1–9)
c. Athaliah (2 Chr 22:10–12)
d. Joash (2 Chr 23:1–24:27)
e. Amaziah (2 Chr 25:1–26:2)
f. Uzziah (2 Chr 26:3–23)
g. Jotham (2 Chr 27:1–9)
h. Ahaz (2 Chr 28:1–27)
G. END (2 Chr 29:1–36:23)
a. Hezekiah’s reforms (2 Chr 29:1–31:21)
b. God saves Judah through Hezekiah’s faith (2 Chr 32:1–33)
c. Manasseh (2 Chr 33:1–20)
d. Amon is unrepentant (2 Chr 33:21–25)
e. Josiah (2 Chr 34:1–36:1)
f. The fall of Jehoahaz (2 Chr 36:2–4)
g. The fall of Jehoiakim (2 Chr 36:5–8)
h. The fall of Jehoiachin (2 Chr 36:9–10)
i. The fall of Zedekiah and of the kingdom (2 Chr 36:11–20)
j. Prophecy fulfilled and Cyrus’s decree (2 Chr 36:21–23)

THEOLOGY OF 1–2 CHRONICLES AND ITS MAIN THEMES
Israel’s forefathers received God’s revelation, and it continued to sustain the self-identity of the nation for centuries, up to the Babylonian exile. Therefore, Chronicles did not present a new conception of God and His will. On the contrary, it presented a new didactical approach to the continuity of God’s eternal covenant with His people, established on His immutable law and on His never-ending grace. This new approach had the purpose of nurturing the spiritual needs of the postexilic community with the necessary elements for its self-identity and self-understanding as being “all Israel,” without changing the content of the ancient message. Therefore you will find below various theological concepts found in 1–2 Chronicles.

God in Chronicles
In Chronicles’ theology, God receives the primacy. He is the central character who brings in the elements necessary to make sense of every historical event. Without Him, any event that came upon Israel or Judah would get lost in a maze of human philosophical explanation; thus, no redemptive purpose would be perceived in them.
For the Chronicler, God reveals His will through the rituals and personnel of the sanctuary (2 Chr 2:1–6; 7:1), including the priests and Levites. “For a long time Israel has been without the true God, without a teaching priest, and without law” (2 Chr 15:3). By the sacred law, “He commanded Judah to seek the LORD God of their fathers, and to observe the law and the commandment” (2 Chr 14:4) and 2 Chr 12:1; and to heed the prophets (17:1; 2 Chr 15:8; 18:6; 21:12; 25:15; 32:20; 36:12).
The God presented here is the same God of their forefathers, and He judges the entire world, including Israel (16:33; 2 Chr 6:23). He is the one who gives victory in battle over their foes (11:14; 18:6; 2 Chr 13:15–17). Even though His dwelling place is in heaven (2 Chr 7:14; 20:6; 30:27; 32:20), He abides with His people. The temple/sanctuary was the emblem of His presence since the time of Moses (29:1; 2 Chr 2:1–7; cf. Exod 25:8).
God is seen as holy, and this emphasis on His holiness should not be taken lightly. This concept comes from observing the rituals of the sanctuary, having as its theological source the book of Leviticus, as Moses said: “This is what the LORD spoke, saying: ‘By those who come near Me I must be regarded as holy; and before all the people I must be glorified’ ” (Lev 10:3; 1 Chr 16:35). His house is a holy place (29:3) and His name is holy (29:16). The holiness of God required those who ministered before Him to become holy as well (2 Chr 23:6; 35:6). All the offerings were holy too (2 Chr 35:11). The twenty-six instances of the word “holy” found in Chronicles are related to the temple, the offerings, Levites, priests, building structure, His ark, God, and His name. Through this focus and repetition, the books of Chronicles clearly want to teach the postexilic community that God has an immutable nature (Mal 3:6). He is the same holy God who made Israel into a nation: “For I am the LORD who brings you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God. You shall therefore be holy, for I am holy” (Lev 11:45).
God answers prayer. He hears His people when they talk to Him (4:10; 5:20; 29:10, and following; 2 Chr 14:11; 20:6–12). A living God who could actually hear His people was not as any pagan deity made of wood, metal, or any other lifeless object conceived by the human mind. He was the only God with the attribute of love. Notice that even other nations knew that God loved His people (2 Chr 2:11; 9:8).
The Chronicler presents God as the Creator of heavens and earth, in contrast to idols. “For all the gods of the peoples are idols, but the LORD made the heavens” (16:26; see also 2 Chr 2:12). He made His people (17:22). He made Solomon king over His people (2 Chr 1:11). God is the Giver of life and the Maker of all good things on this earth. The Chronicler ends his book with the decree of Cyrus, with the permission to return to Jerusalem. One might expect that the book of Isaiah was familiar to the Chronicler’s audience. If so, as he uses Cyrus’s decree, the text of Isaiah 45 would ring immediately in the mind of the reader:

For thus says the LORD,
Who created the heavens,
Who is God,
Who formed the earth and made it,
Who has established it,
Who did not create it in vain,
Who formed it to be inhabited:
‘I am the LORD, and there is no other’
(Isa 45:18).

God is the supreme ‘elohim (ch. 13), a term almost always used in connection with the temple as His house (9:11). The term Yahweh, on the contrary, is used for a closer relationship with His people in their daily activities (10:13–14; 11:14; 14:10). Chronicles makes clear to the reader that the Holy Spirit was part of the Godhead. The Spirit is described not only in regard to His function but also to His distinct place in the Godhead. The Spirit of God (2 Chr 15:1) is present when communication is needed between God and His prophets (2 Chr 20:14; 24:20).

God’s People in Chronicles
The term “remnant” is found in Chronicles with the root yatar “to be left” (6:70); it is also with sha’ar “to remain” (2 Chr 30:6) and with oun she’erit “the rest” (2 Chr 34:9). The motif of the true people of God is emphatically presented in the phrase “all Israel.” This phrase occurs forty-one times in 1–2 Chronicles. It indicates the importance of the entire nation, including the Northern Kingdom. However, with the destruction of Samaria in 722 BC, the hope of a unification of the tribes under a Davidic king was frustrated. While there was hope, the kings Hezekiah (2 Chr 30:10–12, 18, 25) and Josiah (2 Chr 34:9; 35:18) tried to implement a religious reform that would ******* the northern tribes, but they received opposition and their plan failed.
In Chronicles little interest is bestowed on northern history. The only few remarks about them are when the southern tribes are concerned or when efforts are made to bring the northern tribes under the rule of a king from David’s lineage. This lack of interest in the northern tribes was perhaps due to their rejection of God’s covenant (2 Chr 13:8–9). Chronicles, however, does not deny the existence of faithful people in the northern tribes (2 Chr 34:9), but the lineage of the faithful would continue through Judah and not through the northern Israelites.
In this context, the Chronicler presents his thesis that the returnees were the true continuation of Israel of old (16:13–22). It can be seen also in the writings of the postexilic prophet Haggai that the returnees were considered as the chosen people, the remnant: “Then Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and Joshua the son of Jehozadak, the high priest, with all the remnant of the people, obeyed the voice of the LORD their God, and the words of Haggai the prophet” (Hag 1:12).
The genealogies (chs. 1–9) start with Adam and continue with Judah. An effort was made to ******* not only Israel in the promise but all the faithful from all past generations. These genealogies provide a connection of the postexilic Judah to the promises given by God to Abraham. Hence, the postexilic community was the true inheritor of the OT promises and the sole remnant of Israel as a whole.
Chronicles’ theology seems to allude to Isaiah’s prophecy: “The remnant will return, the remnant of Jacob, to the Mighty God. For though your people, O Israel, be as the sand of the sea, a remnant of them will return” (Isa 10:21–22). The apostle Paul brings up the same text while writing about spiritual Israel (Rom 9:27). Thus, having it in mind, faithfulness to God’s covenant was one of the earmarks of the faithful community, the true Israel. This, however, does not indicate self-achievement. Their righteousness was not meritorious; on the contrary, they were just the recipients of God’s grace and served as His instruments to impart the knowledge of His grace to the world. Notice the prayer of Ezra (Ezra 9:8–9), where he mentions the “remnant” and the grace of God toward His people.
His people had a peculiar character that should not be lost or mixed with the popular religion of their neighbors.

Remember His covenant forever,
The word which He commanded, for a thousand generations,
The covenant which He made with Abraham,
And His oath to Isaac,
And confirmed it to Jacob for a statute,
To Israel for an everlasting covenant
(16:15–17).

The foundation of His covenant is His immutable law. It was the written revelation of God’s character; therefore, God’s grace and His law are inseparable. God’s grace toward His people is due to the unchangeable nature of His character/law. His law was written on tablets of stone, now hidden from human sight since the Babylonian invasion of Judah: “And there I have put the ark, in which is the covenant of the LORD which He made with the children of Israel” (2 Chr 6:11). The beginning of the preparation for the chosen people to receive the new covenant was probably the same as the old, with the sole exception that now the law was to be written in their hearts. “But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the LORD: I will put My law in their mind. and write it on their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people” (Jer 31:33; cf. Ps 40:8; Heb 8:10). There was no need for the law to be written on tablets of stones for it was now written in the Torah, and God wanted to write it on His people’s hearts.
Even though the self-identity of the postexilic community included faithfulness to God, the postexilic prophets made reference to an eschatological community as well. These prophets indicate that their readers were not the last remnant but rather the faithful continuation of the true Israel of old (Joel 2:32; Zech 8:6, 11–12; 13:8; 14:2). This future eschatological expectation was extended to other nations besides Judah: “And it shall come to pass that everyone who is left of all the nations which came against Jerusalem shall go up from year to year to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, and to keep the Feast of Tabernacles” (Zech 14:16).
Therefore, the postexilic community was not the eschatological one; there would be a last one at the end of time that would be faithful to Jehovah’s covenant by the grace of God. Chronicles extended its invitation to the northern tribes and to foreigners to come and be part of the remnant people; as they were not closed to themselves, they wanted to reach other nations, if possible, with the message of peace and hope (2 Chr 30:7, 9, 11). Thus, they were exclusive regarding the revealed message from God and inclusive by welcoming others who willingly joined them to obey Him.
Some characteristics of God’s people in Chronicles are:
a) They were spiritually guided by the words of God written in the Torah. Solomon was advised by his father to observe the Torah in order for his kingdom to prosper (22:12). This implies that the Torah was the foundation for the entire nation. By the order of Jehoshaphat, religious leaders took the Torah with them to instruct the people of Judah (2 Chr 17:9). The priests and Levites were designated interpreters of the word of God, the Torah (2 Chr 31:4). Josiah’s reform was based on the Torah (2 Chr 34:14–15, 19; 35:26). Thus, in the theology of the true Israel, the Torah was the revelation of God’s moral demands that they as His people should practice.
b) They should have faith in God, who was revealed in the ritual of the sanctuary as it was prescribed in the Torah; this ritual was pointing toward the fulfillment of God’s grace in the person of the Messiah (Isa 53). The burnt offering (Lev 1) is mentioned on several occasions in Chronicles (2 Chr 2:4; 13:11; 31:3; and so on). King David presented the meat offering (Lev 2) at the threshing floor of Ornan (21:23). This offering was used in combination with the daily sacrifices (23:29). King David offered a peace offering (Lev 3) as he transferred the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem (16:1–2); this offering was also presented to God in the dedication of the temple (2 Chr 7:7). King Hezekiah offered it as well when he cleansed the temple (2 Chr 29:35).
Therefore, rituals and participation in the process of offering was a must for the true Israel. All the faithful throughout human history until the end of time should follow this example by having faith in the person of Jesus as the fulfillment of the rituals in His own life and ministry. Their faith must be in the “Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world” (John 1:29).
c) They should rely completely upon the prophets because they spoke for God. In Chronicles, as mentioned above in the section of sources used by the Chronicler, the prophets’ writings were used as instruments to guide, to advise, and to rebuke. Therefore, the Spirit of prophecy was authoritative for the remnant.
d) They should always be engaged in bringing others to join them. They should be exclusive in the message received from God but inclusive in their call for faithfulness to God’s covenant of peace.
e) To be the people of God is not an unconditional status. It is directly related to the covenant. God’s grace does not preclude faithfulness on the part of His chosen people. Thus, Chronicles highlights God’s grace through Israel’s history rather than the faithfulness of the recipients of that grace. When the chosen people broke the covenant, God in His grace and mercy forgave them and gave them the conditions to come back into the covenant relationship with Him, but those who rejected the divine call were not counted as part of God’s people.
These elements that characterize the community of faith in the OT are present also in the last book of the NT. “If anyone adds to these things, God will add to him the plagues that are written in this book; and if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part from the Book of Life, from the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book” (Rev 22:18–19). Similar words are found in the books of Moses: “You shall not add to the word which I command you, nor take from it” (Deut 4:2).
The sanctuary/temple and its rituals are the backdrop to Chronicles. They are also found in Revelation, where the ark of the covenant is mentioned. The “testimony of Jesus,” that is, “the spirit of prophecy” (Rev 19:10), is interwoven in the events presented in Chronicles in the persons of the prophets. Thus, one can perceive that these elements are not just eschatological but also historical elements that characterize the remnant people of God throughout the ages until the end of time (Rev 12:17).
These elements that characterize God’s people in Chronicles are also present in the postexilic community. Notice that the first action taken by Ezra was to read the Torah to those who had returned (Neh 8:1–18). Zerubbabel built the altar and the temple as the central uniting force for his community (Ezra 3:8), and the prophets brought the message of reconciliation and hope (Haggai, Joel, Zechariah, and so on). Thus, the postexilic community understood themselves as the true continuation of faithful Israel, the covenant people of God. In this manner, the Bible as a whole has the purpose of indicating that in every period of time, God has had His remnant people with the same characteristics that can be summarized in a single phrase: “Faithfulness to God’s covenant.”

 
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Torah in Chronicles
For the Chronicler, there is an authoritative written text, the Torah. This is the most important component of his theology and cements all the other parts together. Their devotion to the Torah provides a specific identity to the people of God. Notice the emphasis that the prophet Azariah places upon the law when he speaks to the Israelites: “For a long time Israel has been without the true God, without a teaching priest, and without law [Torah]” (2 Chr 15:3). Thus, three things were lacking in Israel: God, a teaching priest, and the law. Instruction should come from the law—the Torah, received from God by the hand of Moses (Josh 1:7), that was to be taught by the priests “to offer burnt offerings to the LORD on the altar of burnt offering regularly morning and evening, and to do according to all that is written in the Law [Torah] of the LORD which He commanded Israel” (16:40; see also 2 Chr 17:9). Regarding the law, Chronicles says it is more than just a set of rules—it is the entire Pentateuch, including all the rituals for the various sacrifices. The written law (Torah) was the inspired “word of the LORD ” (2 Chr 34:21). God and Israel are mutually related through the Torah, God’s written revelation.
The written canon/law/Torah had the most important elements in the identity formation for the postexilic community. In the law they could find their origin as a nation, the promise of the land, the significance of right moral behavior, and the didactic rituals God used as a tool to teach them the plan of salvation and of His saving grace. Thus, God’s Word was authoritative for the postexilic community, just as it is for God’s community before the second coming of the Lord, for in His Word is the promise of a new earth (Rev 21:1), the plan of salvation accomplished by the Messiah/Christ (John 19:30; Col 2:14), and the moral behavior delineated in the Old and New Testaments (Matt 5), which taken together are the final fulfillment of the Torah (2 Tim 3:16).

Prophecy in Chronicles
The emphasis placed on the prophets by the Chronicler shows the important role they had for all Israel. No other book of the Bible has so many references about prophetic writings and their messages. This indicates how authoritative the guidance of these inspired men and women was (see Hulda; 2 Chr 34:22). All Israel was to take their messages seriously, including the returnees from the Babylonian exile. Chronicles presents the writings of Samuel the seer (29:29); the writings of the prophet Nathan (29:29; 2 Chr 9:29); the writings of Gad the seer (29:29); the prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite (2 Chr 9:29); the vision of Iddo concerning Jeroboam the son of Nebat (2 Chr 9:29); the writings of Shemaiah the prophet (2 Chr 12:15); the vision of Iddo the seer (2 Chr 12:15); the book of the prophet Iddo (2 Chr 13:22); the writings of Jehu ben Hanani (2 Chr 20:34); the history of the king Huzziah, which was written by Isaiah the prophet (2 Chr 26:22); and the vision of the prophet Isaiah, son of Amoz (2 Chr 32:32).
This amount of prophetic material provided a sure guidance for the leaders of Israel and Judah in the past and was to continue as the guidance for the postexilic community in all aspects of life. Regarding this, Jehoshaphat said, “Hear me, O Judah and you inhabitants of Jerusalem: Believe in the LORD your God, and you shall be established; believe His prophets, and you shall prosper” (2 Chr 20:20). The secret for a flourishing future was to follow the instructions left by God in His Word and to trust in the messages of the prophets. The revelation of God was the foundation of their existence as God’s people.
Another theological characteristic of Chronicles is found in the sentence, “the Spirit came upon” (12:18; cf. 28:12; 2 Chr 15:1; 20:14; 24:20). The Spirit came upon a specific person to communicate a godsent message to His people. The Holy Spirit was active among God’s people. He was the Giver of the gift of prophecy. Thus, the true community of Israel should continue to be inspired and guided by the same Spirit throughout history until the end of time (Joel 2:28–32). Peter uses this same text in his sermon during Pentecost (Acts 2:17–21). Therefore, in the NT the apostles saw themselves as the continuation of Israel of old. They were instructed by Christ to wait for the Holy Spirit to be poured upon them before starting their mission (Acts 1:5; 2:1–13). Jesus’s instruction is similar to the one received by the postexilic leader Zerubbabel through the prophet Zechariah: “This is the word of the LORD to Zerubbabel: ‘Not by might nor by power, but by My Spirit,’ says the LORD of hosts” (Zech 4:6).
In the same manner, God’s people should receive the true Spirit of God to guide them through the final perils of human history: “He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches” (Rev 3:13). For the Chronicler there was the true Spirit, as mentioned above, and the false one. God allowed a false spirit to speak through the false prophets—and a “lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets” because they were consciously rebelling against God’s revelation (2 Chr 18:21). The implications of this text are discussed under the corresponding verse in the body of this commentary.
The book of Revelation also presents the true Spirit of God and the deceiving one: “For they are spirits of demons, performing signs, which go out to the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty” (Rev 16:14). Therefore, the conclusion is that the true community of God should be very careful regarding which spiritual force is guiding them. Their faith, hope, trust, and confidence should be rooted in the word of God and not on personal feelings or an individual perception of what is true and false.

Music in Chronicles
The interest that the Chronicler bestows upon the subject of worship is evident, especially on the subject of music. Only Psalms has more instances of the words “music,” “song,” and “singing” than 1–2 Chronicles, leading to the conclusion that music was an important element of worship for the postexilic community. It was so important that it receives a great deal of space in Chronicles.
In 6:32 a genealogical list of the musicians is introduced at the outset of the book in order to avoid any misunderstanding regarding who is going to direct the songs of praise. In chapters 13 and 15, music, instruments, and songs play an important role in the moving of the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem. Music was an important element of worship in these two instances. The space dedicated to music in chapter 15 was significantly expanded compared to chapter 13. This is an indication of the importance of this element in God’s worship.
The ark represented His presence and holiness; the music used for His worship should fit the high moral standard of His character. David gave the order “to the leaders of the Levites to appoint their brethren to be the singers accompanied by instruments of music, stringed instruments, harps, and cymbals, by raising the voice with resounding joy” (15:16). This order was kept for the worship in the temple “with cymbals, stringed instruments, and harps, for the service of the house of God” (25:6). The lyric was inspired by God. “On that day David first delivered this psalm into the hand of Asaph and his brethren, to thank the LORD” (16:7–8).
The instruments were considered important for the worship of God, “with instruments of the music of the LORD [Hebrew: ‘instruments for the divine song’], which King David had made to praise the LORD” (2 Chr 7:6). Centuries later, King Hezekiah continued to follow the revelation of God regarding the use of music. “And he stationed the Levites in the house of the LORD with cymbals, with stringed instruments, and with harps, according to the commandment of David, of Gad the king’s seer, and of Nathan the prophet; for thus was the commandment of the LORD by his prophets” (2 Chr 29:25). The silver trumpets were also used as part of the worship: “the priests with the trumpets” (2 Chr 29:26b). God in the Pentateuch designed these trumpets, and Moses made them for use in the sanctuary, in the assembly, for guiding the people, and in wartime as well (Num 10:2–10; 2 Chr 23:13).
Chronicles are the only books that mention a victorious battle gained through singing, accompanied by sacred instruments: “He appointed those who should sing to the LORD, and who should praise the beauty of holiness, as they went out before the army and were saying: ‘Praise the LORD, for His mercy endures forever’” (2 Chr 20:21). The message from King Jehoshaphat was, “Hear me, O Judah and you inhabitants of Jerusalem: Believe in the LORD your God, and you shall be established; believe His prophets, and you shall prosper” (2 Chr 20:20). These were the two main foundations of God’s covenant—His words (the Torah) and the prophets’ message, written or spoken.
Thus, one can rightly conclude that music is an important part of worship and praise. Revelation mentions the saints playing “harps of God” and singing “the song of Moses, the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb” (Rev 15:2–3). These songs take place in the sanctuary in heaven (Rev 15:5). Music was important in the past and will be in the future. Thus, it is important for us today.

EXCURSUS: MUSIC IN THE TEMPLE
BY LILIANNE DOUKHAN

Organization of Music in the Temple
During their time of wandering, war, and conquest, Israel was predominantly occupied with survival activities. The First and Second Temple periods, however, brought times of peace and political stability favorable to the development and flourishing of the arts. Sacred music was provided by a guild of professional musicians, and the body of sacred songs was provided by the book of Psalms.
The organization of music and musicians in the temple is a vivid illustration of the importance that was put on the development of talent. The text of 25:6–8 describes a full-fledged music academy of 4,000 members, consisting of teachers and students. Of these, 288 among them were the professional singers (cf. 23:5) who officiated for the sacrifices in twenty-four groups of twelve. The minimum age for a singer to able to assist at the sacrifices was thirty years; the maximum age was set at fifty years. They were all under the supervision of King David. The expression “under the supervision of the king” uses the Hebrew phrase ‘al yad David (literally, “on the hand of David”), which points to the practice of chironomy. In this practice, the leader’s hand movements would indicate the shape of the melody (ascending, descending, and so on). This was a common practice in the ANE that served as a mnemonic device for the singers and instrumentalists in an exclusively oral tradition. This practice was then carried over into plainchant (characterized by a monophonic, a cappella, unaccompanied melodic line) and was in use until the advent of Western notation, around the eleventh century AD. All musicians, young and old, worked in carefully arranged shifts (23:9–31). Not everyone was occupied as a performing musician; many Levites were taking care of manufacturing and maintaining the instruments and garments, which were kept in storage rooms in the temple vicinity (28:11–13, 19).
The highly professional organization of the music in the temple speaks to the concern Israel’s leaders had for excellence. This is made very clear as we take a look at the circumstances that surrounded the service in both the tabernacle and the temple and realize how carefully the musicians were chosen and prepared for the service of the Lord. A careful reading of chapter 23 reveals that only the tribe of Levi was chosen to be part of music in the temple. To understand the reasons behind this choice, one must go back to the episode of the golden calf at the foot of Mount Sinai. Exodus 32:25–26 relates the end of that episode: “Now when Moses saw that the people were unrestrained (for Aaron had not restrained them, to their shame among their enemies), then Moses stood in the entrance of the camp, and said, ‘Whoever is on the LORD’S side—come to me!’ And all the sons of Levi gathered themselves together to him.” The Levites had been chosen to serve in the temple because of their faithfulness to the Lord, while all the rest of the people had fallen into idolatry: “It was found that the tribe of Levi had taken no part in the idolatrous worship … The Lord honored their faithfulness by bestowing special distinction upon the tribe of Levi.” This special distinction consisted of being set apart by God for service in His temple, including the position of temple musicians.

Functional Music
The music performed in the temple was not art for art’s sake—for art as an end in itself. The Israelites would not come to the temple to listen to a beautiful concert. The temple music was functional and liturgical. When used in liturgical settings, music was meant to accompany and beautify acts of adoration. In the temple, the main act of adoration took the form of sacrifices: “The duty of the Levites was to help Aaron’s descendants in the service of the temple of the LORD … They were also to stand every morning to thank and praise the LORD. They were to do the same in the evening and whenever burnt offerings were presented to the LORD on the Sabbaths, at the New Moon feasts and at appointed festivals” (23:28–31 NIV; cf. Ps 27:6).
The Mishnah (a collection of ancient Jewish oral traditions which were published in the second century AD) relates how the priests went about their liturgical duties accompanied by the Levite musicians singing and sounding their instruments, as the worshippers, assembled in the court of the Israelites, were bowing in prayer. In the same way that God had planned to embellish the difficult experience of learning the law, He had made provisions for the sacrifices—in themselves a physically repulsive act—to be embellished by musical offerings. This music was not meant to be listened to as an aesthetic experience per se. Its purpose was to lend beauty to an act of worship, to set it apart, and to elevate it above the ordinary so as to mark its particular character.

Temple Music: A God-Centered Activity
The physical arrangement of the musicians during the temple service indicates the OT’s understanding of the role of music during temple worship. The temple compound was made up of three courts. These courts included (1) the outer court of the heathen; (2) the inner court of the women; and (3) the court of the Israelites, where the sacrifices were actually performed. Only male Israelites were allowed to pass through the Nicanor Gate and had access to the court of the Israelites, up in a reserved area, to watch the sacrifices being performed. The Mishnah, which covers the time of the Second Temple period (536 BC–AD 70), gives us an insightful description of the way the sacrifices were done and the role the musicians played during the ceremonies. The trumpet players were placed west of the altar, whereas the singers/instrumentalists were placed east of the altar (cf. 2 Chr 5:12). Thus, the musicians, as they performed their music, were physically oriented toward the sacrifice, indeed, playing and singing to the Lord. In their very gesture of music making, the musicians impersonated the biblical principle of singing to the Lord, as expressed repeatedly in the psalms (cf. Pss 9:1–2; 27:6; 81:1; 95:1; 105:1–2). Music in the temple was done for the Lord; its focus was entirely on God, not on the self or on the congregation.
The psalms go a step farther in the way the focus of the musical experience is related: music should be expressed in such a way that it pleases God. “Let the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable in Your sight, O LORD, my strength and my Redeemer” (Ps 19:14; cf. Rom 12:1–2). “I will sing to the LORD all my life; I will sing praise to my God as long as I live. May my meditation be pleasing to him, as I rejoice in the LORD (Ps 104:33–34 NIV, emphasis supplied).

Participatory Music
By their very literary and poetic structures, the psalms indicate the performance manner in which they were sung. The literary parallelism characteristic of many psalms found a musical expression in antiphonal singing, in which two groups take turns in singing sections of the text, responding to each other and thus creating participatory singing. The participatory character of the music attached to the temple can be observed on occasions when all the people of Israel were involved in the celebration, such as journeys to Jerusalem in order to celebrate high feasts or the Feast of Tabernacles.
Ellen White remarks, “The service of song was made a regular part of religious worship, and David composed psalms, not only for the use of the priests in the sanctuary service, but also to be sung by the people in their journeys to the national altar at the annual feasts.” On those occasions the people would join in the singing. Ellen White gives a lively account of one such event, namely, the Feast of Tabernacles: “The temple was the center of the universal joy … Here, ranged on each side of the white marble steps of the sacred building, the choir of Levites led the service of song. The multitude of worshippers, waving their branches of palm and myrtle, took up the strain, and echoed the chorus; and again the melody was caught up by voices near and afar off, till the encircling hills were vocal with praise.” A number of liturgical psalms were written with the explicit function of inviting entry into the house of God (e.g., Pss 15, 24, 27, 95). These psalms present beautiful examples of participatory moments and are well suited for congregational reading at the beginning of a worship service.

Skillfulness and Excellence
The concern for excellence has been a traditional preoccupation in the Scriptures when dealing with matters pertaining to the sanctuary or the temple. Beauty as an aesthetic quality responds to certain standards of form and structure and is generally associated with craftsmanship and excellence. The various craftsmen working on the realization of the sanctuary were endowed with specific qualities. Exodus 35 introduces Bezalel, the goldsmith, as being filled with “the Spirit of God, in wisdom and understanding, in knowledge and all manner of workmanship” (Exod 35:31). The word khokmah “wisdom,” “skill” (NIV) is mentioned repeatedly in the following verses (Exod 35:35; 36:1–2) with reference to other artisans and craftsmen, so as to underline the importance of skill and ability in addition to being filled with the Holy Spirit. The same concern can be found in the texts that speak, a few centuries later, of the musicians involved with temple music, and just before that, with those who brought the ark to Jerusalem: “Chenaniah, leader of the Levites, was instructor in charge of the music, because he was skillful” (15:22). “All these were under the direction of their father for the music in the house of the LORD, with cymbals, stringed instruments, and harps, for the service of the house of God. Asaph, Jeduthun, and Heman were under the authority of the king. So the number of them, with their brethren who were instructed in the songs of the LORD, all who were skillful, was two hundred and eighty-eight” (25:6–7). Likewise, the psalmist exclaims: “Sing to Him a new song; play skillfully with a shout of joy” (Ps 33:3, emphasis supplied).

Instruments in the Temple
The instruments used in conjunction with the temple service, as well as on the occasion of bringing the ark to Jerusalem, are systematically listed as harps, lyres, trumpets, and cymbals (15:16, 19–22, 28; 16:5–6; 25:1–6; 2 Chr 5:12). The musical practices in the Israelite temple had many parallels in surrounding cultures. In Egyptian, Assyrian, and Sumerian civilizations, for instance, harps, lyres, cymbals, and trumpets were the prominent instruments for the temple service. Percussive instruments were of minor importance. Only one or two small drums (tambourines) and one or two cymbals (“modest noise-makers”) were part of those sacred pagan orchestras. The stress was on “vocal music and sweet singing,” and the ceremonies “had a certain dignity and holiness, inasmuch as those instruments employed were not held conducive to arousing sensuality.” In contrast to these religious cultures and to the Israelite practices, Phoenician ceremonies were of a noisy, sensuous, and exciting character, with louder instruments, such as double-pipes, cymbals, and drums, being “used so to stimulate the youths to a frenzied craze that they would emasculate themselves,” as commented on by the second-century AD thinker Lucian. The exciting character of the shrill sound of the double pipes was still acknowledged as such during ancient Greek civilization. These Phoenician practices featured female musicians who functioned at the same time as sacred prostitutes. The reader familiar with the story of Elijah’s competition with the prophets of Baal on Mount Carmel will easily recognize the kind of celebration described here. It appears, then, from these examples, that the use of instruments was partly determined by the particular character of the worship sought after.

Harps and Lyres. Both the harp and the lyre were plucked string instruments that produced a soft tone. The lyre, held in front of the musician’s chest, featured from three to eight asymmetrical gut strings drawn over a wooden resonating box and plucked with the fingers or a plectrum. The harp had a resonant body and was placed on the ground, according to Josephus. It had twelve strings that were plucked with the fingers. It could be compared in size to the Celtic harp of today that is used in folk singing. Both the harp and the lyre were used to accompany singing—they were not meant for solo performance. During the temple services, they accompanied the singing during the sacrifices.
Every single mention of music making related to the temple service lists those two instruments. They were foundational to the music that was part of liturgical or extra-liturgical celebrations. There is, however, no reason to conclude that they were “sacred” instruments, set apart for this particular purpose. On the contrary, both the harp and the lyre are presented many times by the prophets in association with prostitutes, drinking, and reveling (e.g., Isa 5:12; 23:16; 24:8–9; Amos 6:5; and so on). The use of the same instruments in situations of both adoration and immorality indicates that the Bible does not attribute particular virtues to instruments and does not label a particular instrument as good or bad, sacred or secular.

Cymbals. The ANE cymbals were small idiophones, i.e., instruments made to resonate by hitting, shaking, or scraping. They came in pairs of bell-shaped bronze disks approximately 2.5 to 4.5 inches in diameter. In the temple they were used to signal events in the process of musical or liturgical action, such as pauses and interruptions. They would indicate the beginning of a song or stanza, a stop in the performance to allow for a particular liturgical happening (acceptance of sacrifice, prayer, and so on), or a signal for the priests officiating at the altar.
Cymbals are generally associated with the word selah that marks off sections in the Psalms. They were not intended to be sounded like a modern, large, orchestral cymbal that adds resonance to climactic moments in a musical performance; their size was much too small for such a function. Cymbals were worn on the tips of two fingers of one hand, in the manner of castanets, and were clashed together by finger action. In the Bible, the use of cymbals was gender-specific: only male individuals, namely, the chief music leaders such as Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun, were to sound the cymbals (15:19; 16:5; Ezra 3:10). Cymbals were not sounded during the singing and were not used to produce noise, as was the case in pagan ceremonies.
The Hebrew word tseltselim, used to designate the cymbals in earlier texts (2 Sam 6:5), was traditionally associated with the pagan Canaanite cult. In later texts, especially those referring to Israelite religious events or ceremonies (13:8; Ezra 3:10), these cymbals came to be designated by a different word, metsiltayim, probably to avoid any connotation with pagan practices. The biblical writers obviously wanted to keep the liturgical situation clear of any ambiguities.

Trumpets. The word “trumpets,” as used in modern translations of the Bible, refers to several types of wind instruments: the short and wide mouthed military trumpet, the long silver trumpets, and the ram’s horn (shofar). Often the various translations of the Bible do not differentiate among them and call them, indiscriminately, trumpets. They were all used for the same purpose though—to signal events. None of them were used for melodic playing since they could produce only the natural harmonics of the fundamental tone (approximately two pitches for the silver trumpet and three to five for the shofar). All three instruments were used in situations of war; however, only the silver trumpets and the shofar were associated with the temple service.
The silver trumpets came with a long, straight, narrow tube and a bell-shaped ending. Twelve priests were present during the sacrifices to sound the trumpets to indicate specific moments of the sacrifice and especially when the sacrifice was accepted. At the consecration of the temple, their number was increased to 120 (2 Chr 5:12).
The sounding of the shofar, or ram’s horn, as associated with the temple service, was limited to heralding in the Jewish New Year and ending the Day of Atonement. It was also sounded for specific feasts and to welcome the Sabbath on Friday evening. Its symbolic use in the Bible is attested, such as at the beginning and end of Sabbath and on Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement). There is, however, a significant difference in the use and symbolism between the two instruments. The shofar’s symbolic meanings for the rabbis associated it with the sacrifice of Isaac, when a ram was caught by its horns in a thicket, becoming the substitute sacrifice for Isaac. From this time on, the ram’s horn was linked with sacrificial and liturgical events.

Flutes and Drums. The biblical texts do not mention either flutes or drums as part of the instruments in the First Temple. With regard to the flutes, the biblical records distinguish between the ugab “flute” (Gen 4:21)—a small pipe made of reed that produced a sweet tone—and the khalil “flute”—a big pipe with a mouthpiece that produced a sharp and penetrating tone similar to that of the oboe. According to the traditional texts, these instruments seem not to have been part, as a general rule, of liturgical events in the temple. Some texts, though, mention the guava as “retained from the first temple.” It appears, however, that it was never used on Sabbaths. Also, the list of instruments given in the Mishnah mentions the “sweet-sounding” flutes as being used in the second temple but only on twelve days during the year around the altar—during the Passover and Pentecost ceremonies and at the Feast of Tabernacles. The flute was, then, considered by the Israelites as an extra-liturgical instrument.
The flute known as khalil, a kind of big pipe featuring a sharp and penetrating tone and considered to be an exciting instrument, was allowed during the Second Temple period for processions and weddings and during joyous festivities around the temple area. According to these descriptions, the ancient Israelites made a distinction, with regard to instrument use, between extra-liturgical celebrations (festivals and other popular religious events or gatherings) and the liturgical moments (set apart for Sabbath services at the temple).
The same differentiation applied to the drums. The tof “timbrel” in ancient Israel was a small handheld frame drum similar to today’s tambourine (but without the bells). The tambourine is mentioned several times in the Bible as being part of extra-liturgical events, generally outdoors, such as the song after the crossing of the Red Sea (Exod 15:20), the reception of David after the slaying of Goliath (1 Sam 18:6), the victorious return of Jephthah the warrior (Judg 11:34), and the journey of the ark to Jerusalem (2 Sam 6:5; 1 Chr 15:28–29). The text in 2 Samuel explicitly mentions the tambourine; chapter 15 acknowledges only David’s dancing—the tambourine is not listed specifically with the other instruments. The tambourine was also part of certain celebrations (e.g., the water libations) during the Feast of Tabernacles, when great festivities were organized within the area of the court of the women in the temple, and men would dance and throw burning torches. White states that “the music and dancing in joyful praise to God at the removal of the ark had not the faintest resemblance to the dissipation of modern dancing. The one tended to the remembrance of God and exalted His holy name. The other is a device of Satan to cause men to forget God and to dishonor Him.” In ancient Israel, dance seems to have been part of certain religious ceremonies (see David dancing before the ark; cf. also Pss 149:3; 150:4). Though it was used during the Second Temple period for certain non-devotional celebrations (as at the Feast of Tabernacles), dancing was never part of the temple service per se. The only form of “dance” present in the temple occurred during the processions around the altar, accompanied by the singing of the Levites. Even though the tambourine did not have a place in liturgical settings, its presence was still very strong in extra-liturgical religious contexts.
With few exceptions, the playing of the tambourine was generally associated with women, who used the instrument to accompany singing and dancing. The playing of tambourines by male musicians appears, indeed, to have been exceptional. The text of 1 Samuel 10:5 relates how Saul encountered a band of prophets “coming down from the high place with a stringed instrument, a tambourine, a flute, and a harp.” These prophets were part of a movement known today as ecstatic prophecy—a unique and relatively short-lived phenomenon in Israel that flourished at the time of Samuel, then disappeared temporarily during the times of David and Solomon (the great temple era). It came to a definite end during the ninth century BC, when it took on characteristics of the Baal cult.
The cultural practice of the ANE to associate drums with women may provide one answer to the absence of drums in the temple service. Indeed, only men were allowed to serve in the temple, and the music was exclusively provided by male Levites. Even though women certainly played an important role in extra-liturgical events, they were not allowed to go beyond the court of the women and enter into the court of the Israelites, even less to officiate for the sacrifices in the priestly court. The female singers mentioned in Ezra 2:65 apparently belonged to the court musicians rather than to the Levite temple singers. It is, then, quite possible that the gender-specific character of the tambourine led to its exclusion from the temple service.

Concluding Remarks
As we look at the use of instruments in the temple service, it becomes clear that there were many parallels between Israelite practices and those of surrounding Near Eastern cultures. These parallels point to generally accepted standards for liturgical instrumentation for a given geographic area and/or time period. While we do notice the use of some similar instruments and musical practice in both pagan and Israelite worship, some instruments/practices were conspicuously absent from temple worship, probably in order to avoid associations with, or forms of, pagan worship. Yet, the opposite process may also be observed: instruments that at one time were not accepted found their way into the temple at a later time (though in slightly different circumstances), such as was the case with the flutes.
Out of a similar concern, care was taken to change the meaning or symbolism of a given instrument or musical practice because of a danger of misunderstanding or ambiguity as to associations with pagan forms of worship, such as happened with the cymbals. Though they were part of the unacceptable Phoenician worship, the cymbals found an essential place in Israelite temple worship by being given a new name and meaning. Instead of being used as noisemakers, under their new name they held the function of signaling moments in the musical performance. This reinterpretation of the meaning of certain musical elements present in surrounding cultural practices is steeped in the concern for appropriate worship and music making devoid of any ambiguity.
These observations underscore the importance of an objective and balanced approach to the appropriateness or inappropriateness of certain instruments for worship. Rather than condemning the use of an instrument because of its association with pagan rites and so on, the Scriptures indicate that such instruments can, on the contrary, be given an important place in God’s worship. Their meaning and associations can be changed and transformed.
In regard to instruments in worship, the decisions must be made within the context of performance. We have seen how the flute, though it held the reputation of a sensuous instrument and was associated with unacceptable worship practices, found its way into extra-liturgical Israelite celebrations and festivities because it was capable of creating a joyful and festive atmosphere.
The same was true for the drum. It was perfectly fitted for various extra-liturgical religious ceremonies, but it did not find a place in temple worship probably because women were not part of the liturgical setting in temple ceremonies and because it was an instrument closely associated with dancing, which was not part of temple worship practices.
The observation of temple practices in terms of instrumentation indicates that there was a real concern to parallel, in the music, the worship values expressed by the other liturgical actions. Temple worship, primarily focused on sacrifices, was not of an excited character but favored dignity and reverence. Such worship therefore avoided anything that would foster sensuous or exciting reactions. But joy and animated celebration were not banned from playing a part in biblical religious ceremonies. The numerous religious festivals, spread over the whole year, provided many opportunities for joyful, loud, and exuberant expression, in which instruments otherwise absent from the temple found a place. Appropriate use of music occurs when the music holds true to the values of the occasion and contributes to an authentic worship of God while, at the same time, maintaining a spirit of joy and reverence. Undoubtedly, this spirit can be observed in the ancient practices of Israelite temple worship.
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The Temple in Chronicles
The temple, its rituals, and its worship service are central to the theological and historical understanding of Chronicles’ content. Jerusalem is also central because it is the place where the temple was built. Even in the genealogies, the list presents Levite gatekeepers and singers working for the temple and living in Jerusalem in postexilic times (9:10–34).
Notice that the Chronicler pictures David as the second lawgiver, like the first one, Moses. This is evident based on the Hebrew term tabnit (28:11–19). The word itself is a powerful reminder of the tabnit for the tent Moses was responsible to build in the desert (Exod 25:9, 40). The term tabnit in Chronicles is a reference not only to the temple structure but also to Levitical functions as singers, gatekeepers, and officiating at the temple services. Consequently, in the postexilic period, the Second Temple ought to be faithful to the pattern given in the past and to the new revelation of the present. It was meant to be God’s dwelling place (Exod 25:8).
Evidently, 1 and 2 Chronicles have a preoccupation with the temple and its rituals. For instance, the genealogical section (chs. 1–9) has an important connection to the temple. It is through the correct lineage that Israel can relate historically to the Davidic line and after the exile to the hope in the future fulfillment of the messianic prophecies. The temple was the holder of the sacred symbols specially speaking in relationship to the covenant. The ark of God was in the Most Holy Place representing God’s presence. Chapters 10–12 and 18–20 narrate how David is related to the ark of God and ultimate to the temple. David is considered as a second Moses. Moses built the sanctuary in the desert, while David prepared everything to build the temple through his son Solomon. David is represented as the cultic king in contrast to Saul the non-cultic king. In Chronicles all subsequent kings after David are evaluated based on their relationship to the temple and its rituals, including their dealings with the Levites. After the disastrous census (ch. 21), David purchased the site from Araunah the Jebusite for the altar of burnt offering and the temple itself (22:1). The narrative of chapters 22, 28–29 supports Solomon as the chosen builder of the temple in Jerusalem. In 2 Chronicles the kings of Judah are considered based on their relationship to the temple, its services, and the Levites.
Second Chronicles takes Israel’s history until the exile and ends with Cyrus’s decree for them to return and rebuild the temple. Summing up, the temple was central for Israel’s identity as a peculiar people in the Chronicler’s theology. This was important before the exile and continued after the exile. But based on the symbolic understanding of the temple’s rituals, the importance rested on the future fulfilment of these symbols. This fulfilment gave not only hope but also a clearer perception of their identity as the chosen people. The temple connected the past history of Israel to the future fulfilment of God’s salvation in human history.

Covenant in Chronicles
The concept of the covenant is very important for the content of 1–2 Chronicles. The covenant is the foundation of the relationship between God and His people, including, in a special way, His leaders. The sequence of biblical covenants is important to the Chronicler’s understanding of God’s relationship to His people. This can be observed from the beginning of Chronicles (1:1). This sequence starts with Adam, the covenant of creation, then it follows God’s covenant with Noah, Abraham, Israel, and, finally, David. God makes a “covenant of salt” with David (2 Chr 13:5). This was a meaningful and everlasting new covenant (2 Chr 21:7).
Two covenants are explicitly mentioned in Chronicles, one between God and David (the leader) and another between God and Israel (the people). Both have the same essence and foundation. God’s covenant with David appears several times in the Bible and is mentioned twice in Chronicles (2 Chr 13:5; 21:7; see also 2 Sam 8:19). The covenant between God and Israel was first established in the past, including the patriarchal and the Sinaitic covenants. The patriarchal one is mentioned in 16:15–17. This is the only passage in Chronicles that mentions the covenant with the patriarchs. The Sinaitic one is found in 2 Chronicles 5:10: “There was nothing in the ark except the two tablets that Moses put there at Horeb, where the LORD made a covenant with the people of Israel, when they came out of Egypt” (ESV). The covenant with His people is mentioned in 2 Chronicles 6:11: “And there I have set the ark, in which is the covenant of the LORD that he made with the people of Israel” (ESV). In 2 Chronicles 6:11 the word “covenant” refers to the actual tablets or what was engraved upon them. Instead of “that he made with our fathers” (1 Kgs 8:21 ESV), Chronicles has “that he made with the people of Israel,” implying the entire nation.
In essence, these covenants are actually one. The tablets given at Sinai were the foundation of God’s covenant with David and with His people. God wanted to have a meaningful relationship with them. Therefore, He established a covenantal relationship of obligations and privileges that both parties should have as part of the covenant. Thus, the term “covenant” in Chronicles has to do with God’s grace toward humanity as a whole and a blessing to the individual person. This covenant of grace bridges the gap between God and humanity. Each time the term “covenant” is used in this commentary, it is a reference to the grace of God. This covenant between God and Israel is better understood through the ark of the covenant. The Chronicler preached about the ark of the covenant to people who no longer had it. They built another temple, yes. But the fact was that the entire structure of the Davidic dynasty had evaporated around them, and the ark had been hidden before the exile. Since there was no ark anymore, why then continue preaching about it? The answer was that they did not need the ark anymore—they needed the God of the ark and His grace. Grace is not bound to particular places, circumstances, or to its symbol, the ark of God. Grace is free to operate in the human heart at any time or place. For in the new covenant that God would make with His people, He would write His laws on their hearts and minds (Jer 31:31–33), namely, in their character.

History in Chronicles
Secular history has been described as a retelling of the past, based on written documents, explaining the causes and effects of events, and offering, thus, an interpretation. Chronicles is more than that. It adds to this definition divine involvement. God’s intervention is the decisive element of human history.
The theology of history in Chronicles leaves room for the freedom of human beings to act in choosing their own destiny—see the case of Saul (ch. 10). This history is not just a description of the past—it is the description of how God cared for His people throughout history. God guided, revealed Himself, and provided for the accomplishing of His purpose, yes. But it was not done in a fixed, predetermined way, where none could have freedom to choose. God’s activity, according to Chronicles, is in the history of Israel. Along with this description of God’s direct involvement in the national, historic sphere, we find God intervening in the lives of individuals as well:

1. “Now Er, Judah's firstborn, was evil in the sight of the LORD, and he put him to death” (2:3 ESV).
2. “And God granted what he asked” (4:10 ESV).
3. “And the LORD made Solomon very great … and bestowed on him such royal majesty” (29:25 ESV).
4. “And the LORD struck him down, and he died” (2 Chr 13:20 ESV).
5. “And Jehoshaphat cried out, and the LORD helped him” (2 Chr 18:31 ESV).

Therefore, Chronicles, in its theology of history, attempts to show that though God is guiding His people, humans ultimately have the responsibility to choose what is right because it is right. Thus, the free will of humanity might cause good or evil in history. God also reveals Himself through His acts in the history of His people. In the preexilic period, the Israelites abandoned the covenant God had made with their forefathers. This decisive separation from God brought its consequence—the Babylonian exile (9:1). Now the Chronicler is presenting a history of Israel to help them avoid the same problem they had before.
The Chronicler starts with a general genealogy, showing where Israel came from, and continues, through a linear genealogy, to indicate how Israel is related to others. Thus, Chronicles emphasizes Israel’s obligation to reveal God’s character to the world. None of God’s people can exist for long without participating in the common purpose of God’s community. Israel would only continue to be historically relevant if they would remain in covenantal relationship with God. This covenantal relationship implied self-awareness and self-identity. Otherwise, Israel would vanish as the northern tribes did.
For the Chronicler, God guided the past and provided for the future of His people. Nothing is fortuitous. Therefore, the postexilic community should look forward to the blessed hope without forgetting how, in the past, God cared for them. The history in Chronicles is an inspired one.

Messianic Expectation in Chronicles
Despite the absence of a direct reference to a messianic expectation in Chronicles, several features in the text indicate this expectation. Some of these are mentioned as follows:
a) The verb “to anoint” occurs five times in Chronicles, and the noun “messiah” only two times. The act of anointing a king is mentioned in reference to kings David, Solomon, Joash, and Jehu (2 Chr 22:7). The anointing procedure preserves the true lineage of King David, through which the Messiah would come.
b) The genealogies from Adam to the chosen line of David (chs. 1–9) are part of the next literary genre that supports the messianic view in Chronicles. This same principle of keeping the genealogical record is kept in the NT in Matthew and Luke, pointing to Jesus as the fulfillment of the OT prophetic expectation of the Messiah.
c) The lineage of David is constantly kept in view in Chronicles as the only legitimate line of kingship. God had promised to give the throne to him forever. Thus, the eternal Messiah is the ultimate fulfillment of this promise.
d) The rituals of the sanctuary pointed symbolically and typologically to Jesus as, in the words of John the Baptist, “the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world” (John 1:29).
e) The concept of Israel as the preserver of the faithful people is found in Chronicles—a people who keep the covenant with God through His grace. Even though Judah is not mentioned in Chronicles as the messianic tribe, the implications are nonetheless clear.
f) The temple and its rituals are indirect evidence of the messianic expectation.
g) According to Tiňo, four messianic prophecies have a close theological significance, as they are linked to Chronicles’ message of hope. These prophecies come from the time of the Babylonian exile and from the beginning of the Persian Empire.
The first prophecy, found in Jeremiah 33:14–26, is an exposition of the new covenant. The second is in Ezekiel 37:22–28, as a model for the exposition of the dynastic promise in Chronicles. The third is in Zechariah 9:9–10—the David-Moses typology in the prophecy of Zechariah. The first two prophecies share a common vision of the future of Israel—the age of salvation. The connection with Zechariah is the new David and the temple (Zech 9:10; 12:8). Both prophecies allude to the relationship between Moses and the new Davidic king. In Chronicles, David is seen as the second Moses, the builder of the new temple through the hands of his son Solomon.

1–2 CHRONICLES AND BIBLICAL THEOLOGY
Chronicles has a close relation to biblical theology as a whole. It is not simply a historical narrative but an inspired selection of events that would guide God’s people, in this case the returnees, and prepare them for the first coming of the Lord. It seems more a prophetic book written in a historical narrative style. Notice for instance that the most known verse of Chronicles is the one which links the entire book to God’s loving grace: “If My people who are called by My name will humble themselves, and pray and seek My face, and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin and heal their land” (2 Chr 7:14). In a nutshell, the message is: if God guided His covenantal people in the past, He will continue to guide them in the present and future.

Salvation History in Chronicles
If the self-identity of the postexilic community is similar to the one of God’s end-time covenant community (Rev 12:17), then one may conclude that the ultimate outcome should be similar to both as well. If the great controversy started through unfaithfulness to God’s covenant in heaven and in the garden of Eden (Gen 3; Ezek 28:13–15), then the restoration process will have faithfulness as one of its main characteristics. Thus, faithfulness is the outcome of God’s grace in the lives of men and women. Notice that the Babylonian exile was the consequence for Judah’s unfaithfulness (9:1).
This faithfulness includes the willingness to share the true message with others, thus welcoming them out of spiritual Babylon to join God’s people. In this manner, the final fulfillment of the Bible promises regarding the end of the great controversy between good and evil will take place.
The message of historical Israel through the ages was always God’s grace. This grace caused them to produce the fruit of faithfulness to the covenant of grace. Thus, it should be a vital characteristic of the eschatological church. Faithfulness is an essential component in the self-identity and self-awareness of God’s people. This self-identity includes all the doctrines of the Bible and the saving grace of God toward humankind. Therefore, Chronicles presents the continuation of the historical church, in this case the postexilic community that will ultimately become the eschatological remnant. It is written that “the work of restoration and reform carried on by the returned exiles, under the leadership of Zerubbabel, Ezra, and Nehemiah, presents a picture of a work of spiritual restoration that is to be wrought in the closing days of this earth’s history.”

Multiformity Between 1–2 Chronicles and 1–2 Kings/1–2 Samuel History: Why Do They Differ?
Some overlapping historical events are narrated in 1–2 Kings/1–2 Samuel that are retold in 1–2 Chronicles. The question is, Why do differences exist when the accounts are compared? The probable answer to that is found in the actual purpose for which the book was written. The Chronicler had in mind a particular purpose: to recount the history of Israel, in this case, Judah. However, he did not distort history to accomplish that. The author chose information taken from sources he had available to better achieve what he had in mind. As we read 1–2 Chronicles, it is apparent that for its author, the hope of Israel is in their religious institutions. On the other hand, in 1–2 Kings the emphasis seems to be on the Davidic monarchy. They had hope that it would last forever. Now, in Chronicles the hope was hanging on a different institution—the religious one. That can be perceived when, by the time of Ezra and Nehemiah and after, the solution for their adversities was not in the Davidic monarchy but in their faithfulness to the covenant God had established with them. Another reason for that was that they were under the Persian Empire; therefore, they could not have a king. Thus, the Torah, the priesthood, and the temple services received great emphasis.
The Chronicler had three points in view he needed to address. (a) The first was the tribe of Judah and its territory as the continuation of what David had accomplished. (b) The second was to set forth on what their identity as God’s people was founded. The answer to that was on the religious institutions, on the temple and its services, and on the Levites and priesthood. We can add to that the chosen city, Jerusalem. (c) The final point was the need for a political structure that would support and maintain the first two points. Having these in mind, one can see why the Chronicler is different in many aspects from the writer of 1–2 Kings. Thus, he had to choose carefully from the sources he had available so his case would be well-documented and have the historical evidence he needed to support Judah and Jerusalem as the place of God’s choosing. Thus, the Chronicler produced a commentary on the Scriptures. He selected material omitting the failures of the past, for example, the Bathsheba incident (2 Sam 11), the case of Adonijah (1 Kgs 1:5–2:24), and the apostasy of Solomon (1 Kings 11:9–13). The purpose was to trace the history of salvation from the beginning until the decree of Cyrus without being distracted.
Examples of the same events with different readings are listed as illustrations. Our purpose is not to explain each of them—that is not the goal of this section. For further explanation, see comments under each verse in this commentary:

“The sons of Zerah were Zimri, Ethan, Heman, Calcol, and Dara” (2:6).
“Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, Chalcol, and Dara, the sons of Mahol” (1 Kgs 4:31).

“Jesse begot Eliab his firstborn, Abinadab the second, Shimea the third, Nethanel the fourth, Raddai the fifth, Ozem the sixth, and David the seventh” (2:13–15).
“Thus Jesse made seven of his sons pass before Samuel. And Samuel said to Jesse, ‘The LORD has not chosen these’ ” (1 Sam 16:10; this implies that David was the eighth son).

“Jesse begot Eliab his firstborn … Now their sisters were Zeruiah and Abigail” (2:13–16).
“Abigail the daughter of Nahash, sister of Zeruiah” (2 Sam 17:25).

“Now these were the sons of David who were born to him in Hebron … the second, Daniel, by Abigail the Carmelite” (3:1).
“Sons were born to David in Hebron … his second, Chileab, by Abigail, the widow of Nabal the Carmelite” (2 Sam 3:2–3).

“Also there were Ibhar, Elishama, Eliphelet, Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama, Eliada, and Eliphelet—nine in all” (3:6–8).
“Ibhar, Elishua, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama, Eliada, and Eliphelet” (2 Sam 5:15–16).

“Ner begot Kish” (9:39).
“Kish the son of Abiel” (1 Sam 9:1).

Function of the Book Within the Canon
Chronicles fits perfectly at the end of the Hebrew Bible. It ends with an invitation and appeal to all exiles to go back up to Jerusalem (2 Chr 36:22–23). That would be a new beginning, a continuation of their identity as God’s people. In Chronicles, one can find all the theological components that build up the self-identity of God’s people throughout the ages. This is the special message to the returnees from historical Babylon and the continuing message to the chosen people coming out of spiritual Babylon under the new covenant established by Jesus Christ. Chronicles is a historical and prophetic book guiding God’s people to the new covenant (Jer 31:31–32; Heb 8:6–13). The temple and the genealogy of King David—indicating the lineage of the true Israel, the Word of God, and the Torah, which is authoritative to His people and the prophets inspired by the Holy Spirit as spiritual leaders—received a very important place in the theology of Chronicles.
All of these are present in the new covenant in the person of Jesus as the Messiah (see Dan 9:24–27 and the book of Hebrews as a whole). This is one of the reasons 1–2 Chronicles is not just a historical book; it is also prophetic in its historical message.
The Chronicler writes history with a single eye to the fulfillment of the preexilic prophecies concerning God’s people, and he also looks forward to the continuation of the true spiritual “Israel.” Chronicles has a sui generis style in presenting its historical content in order to convey its message.

 
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Footnotes:

. m. Yoma 1:6.
. For instance, the ten virgins fell asleep before the coming of the bridegroom. Matt 25:1–13.
. Neusner states that in that period the emphasis was upon “the Temple, its offerings, its priests, and the relationship of Israel to God through the Temple … So, land and Temple go together: lose the one, lose the other.” Jacob Neusner, Torah Through the Ages: A Short History of Judaism (Philadelphia, PA: SCM, 1990), 26.
. The final editorial notes are technically called Masorah Finalis: it is found at the end of each book of the OT. Specialized copyists of the scrolls called Masoretes prepared it. It contained important information about a specific book and was part of the whole Masora.
. Masora was any short comment on the pointing and spellings of words of the text made by the so-called Masoretes. It was placed at the margin or at the end of a Hebrew manuscript.
. The “royal annals” were the written official archives of the kings; on them were registered all major events that marked the reign of a specific king. None of these annals have been found so far. 1–2 Chr, together with 1–2 Kgs, are the most important evidence for the existence of these documents.
. Gary N. Knoppers and Paul B. Harvey Jr., “Omitted and Remaining Matters: On the Names Given to the Book of Chronicles in Antiquity,” JBL 121, no. 2 (2002): 227–43.
. Howard writes that “50 percent, of I & II Chronicles is the same material found in I & II Samuel and I & II Kings.” David M. Howard Jr., An Introduction to the Old Testament Historical Books (Chicago, IL: Moody, 1993), 231.
. See b. B. Bat. 14b–15a.
. b. B. Bat. 15a.
. For a complete catalogue of linguistic differences between them, see David Talshir, “A Reinvestigation of the Linguistic Relationship Between Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah,” VT 38, no. 2 (1988): 193. He writes, “In the light of the results of the present research it would appear that the onus probandi has reverted once more to advocating separate authors for Ezra-Neh and Chr.” See also Sara Japhet, “The Supposed Common Authorship of Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah Investigated Anew,” VT 18, no. 3 (1968): 330–71.
. Rodney K. Duke, “A Rhetorical Approach to Appreciating the Books of Chronicles,” in The Chronicles as Author: Studies in Text and Texture, ed. M. Patrick Graham and Steven L. McKenzie, JSOTSup 263 (Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic, 1999), 103. He presents two questions that the rhetorical approach to Chronicles would ask: (a) What are the communicative goals of Chronicles? (b) How did the Chronicler achieve these goals?
. James M. Street, The Significance of the Ark Narrative: Literary Formation and Artistry in the Book of Chronicles, StBibLit 129 (New York: Peter Lang, 2009), 142. Street mentions that “the Chronicler … is making a prophetic interpretation of the historical record, giving special attention to the moral and spiritual levels of causality that helped to shape that history and explain its tragic outcome … The Chronicler assigns a crucial role to the ministry of the prophets, seers, and men of God.”
. Karel Van der Toorn, Scribal Culture and the Making of the Hebrew Bible (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 2007), 104. According to Van der Toorn, “The scribes were the new prophets; by virtue of their professional training they were the repositories of the Word of God.”
. This list is based on the one compiled by Myers, with few modifications. See Jacob M. Myers, I Chronicles, AB 12 (New York: Doubleday, 1965), xlv–xlviii. The genealogies were taken from the text of Chronicles. It is not mentioned in the text if the genealogies were originally from the same source. Therefore, for didactical reasons, we are listing them as separate sources.
. Scott W. Hahn, The Kingdom of God as Liturgical Empire: A Theological Commentary on 1–2 Chronicles (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2012), 41. According to Hahn, “The first Christian commentators, beginning in the New Testament, believed that the Chronicler’s divine history reached its zenith in Christ and the church. Perhaps that is why Matthew chose to begin his Gospel as the Chronicler began his work—with a genealogy. And perhaps this is one reason why the early editor of the New Testament chose to start the Christian canon with Matthew—so that the first book of the Christian canon would begin as the final book of the rabbinic canon did—all the better to emphasize the continuity between the Old and New Testaments and the unity of the economy of salvation from Adam to Jesus.”
. Yigal Levin, “Who Was the Chronicler’s Audience? A Hint from His Genealogies,” JBL 122, no. 2 (2003): 245.
. If the Artaxerxes mentioned in Ezra 7:1 was Artaxerxes I Longimanus, Ezra arrived at Jerusalem in 457 BC. Ezra started his ministry in Judah twelve years before Nehemiah (445/444 BC). Gleanson L. Archer, A Survey of Old Testament Introduction (Chicago, IL: Moody, 1994), 457.
. Jozef Tiňo, King and Temple in Chronicles: A Contextual Approach to their Relations (Gottingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 2010), 120. Tiňo writes that “the messianic expectation … does not cease after the complete annihilation of the monarchy. In the neo-Babylonian and Persian periods those hopes are expressed in the form of appended redactional texts, which complement the vision of the age of salvation and unification of Israel through the rule of the Davidic king.”
. For a detailed discussion on the dates, see Japhet, I and II Chronicles: A Commentary (Louisville, KY: John Knox, 1993), 27–28. She concludes, “I would place it at the end of the Persian or, more probably, the beginning of the Hellenistic period, at the end of the fourth century BCE.”
. Steven James Schweitzer, Reading Utopia in Chronicles (New York: T&T Clark, 2007), 4–5.
. Robert L. Hubbard Jr., “Chronicles and the Chronicler: A Response to I. Kalimi, an Ancient Israelite Historian: Studies in the Chronicler, His Time, Place, and Writing,” JHebS 6 (2006): 16.
. Isaac Kalimi, “The Date of the Book of Chronicles,” in God’s Word for Our World 1, ed. J. Harold Ellens, Deborah L. Ellens, Rolf P. Knierim, and Isaac Kalimi (New York: T&T Clark, 2004), 370. Kalimi states that there is no Greek word in Chronicles nor any anachronism with the Hellenistic period; thus, this book should have been written before the Hellenistic Era. For him, Chronicles is dated between 539 and 332 BC.
. Kalimi, The Reshaping of Ancient Israelite History in Chronicles (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2005), 407. Regarding his studies in Chronicles, Kalimi states that “the conclusion of this study may support scholars who hold that Chronicles is indeed the product of a single writer.”
. “So to Israel, whom He desired to make His dwelling place, He revealed His glorious ideal of character … But the people were slow to learn the lesson. Accustomed as they had been in Egypt to material representations of the Deity, and these of the most degrading nature, it was difficult for them to conceive of the existence or the character of the Unseen One. In pity for their weakness, God gave them a symbol of His presence. ‘Let them make Me a sanctuary,’ He said; ‘that I may dwell among them.’ Exodus 25:8 … The pattern was shown them in the mount when the law was given from Sinai and when God passed by before Moses and proclaimed, ‘The Lord, The Lord God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth.’ Exodus 34:6 … But this ideal they were, in themselves, powerless to attain. The revelation at Sinai could only impress them with their need and helplessness. Another lesson the tabernacle, through its service of sacrifice, was to teach—the lesson of pardon of sin, and power through the Saviour for obedience unto life.” Ellen G. White, Ed 36–37.
. Kalimi, An Ancient Israelite Historian: Studies in the Chronicler, His Time, Place and Writing, SSN 46 (Assen, Netherlands: Van Gorcum, 2005), 153–55.
. Ezekiel sees the vision of the glory of the Lord (Ezek 10:1–3). The presence of God was invisible to the people; the ark, however, was the visible representation of His presence. Ezekiel saw the glory of the Lord departing from the temple (Ezek 10:18–22). This probably foreshadowed the ark’s fate. Jeremiah, a contemporary of Ezekiel, stated that “ ‘then it shall come to pass, when you are multiplied and increased in the land in those days,’ says the LORD, ‘that they will say no more, “The ark of the covenant of the LORD.” It shall not come to mind, nor shall they remember it, nor shall they visit it, nor shall it be made anymore’ ” (Jer 3:16). Therefore, this text states that in the future the ark itself would not have the central function it had served, and no one would rebuild it again. This is because God Himself would be there with His people. In Ps 132:8, God is present within the ark, the symbol of His omnipotent presence (Exod 25:8). The tabernacle was constructed so that the Lord would be among His people: “And let them make me a sanctuary, that I may dwell among them” (Exod 25:8). But in an even more specific way, the ark served as the place of the presence of God. “And there I will meet with you, and I will speak with you from above the mercy seat” (Exod 25:22). When the ark was captured by the Philistines, Phinehas’s wife said that “the glory has departed from Israel” (1 Sam 4:21). The ark represented, for Israel, God’s presence in their midst. Thus, one may conclude that there is a possibility that the ark of the covenant was hidden somewhere before the Babylonian invasion as a sign of the departure of the glory of the Lord, as described by the prophet Ezekiel. Ellen White states that “before the temple was destroyed, God made known to a few of His faithful servants the fate of the temple, which was the pride of Israel, and which they regarded with idolatry, while they were sinning against God. He also revealed to them the captivity of Israel. These righteous men, just before the destruction of the temple, removed the sacred ark containing the tables of stone, and with mourning and sadness, secreted it in a cave where it was to be hid from the people of Israel, because of their sins, and was to be no more restored to them. That sacred ark is yet hid. It has never been disturbed since it was secreted.” Ellen G. White, 4SG 114–15; 1SP 414; SR 195.
. Fernando Canale, “On Being the Remnant,” JATS 24, no. 1 (2013): 127–74.
. Jonathan E. Dyck, The Theocratic Ideology of the Chronicler, BibInt (Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 1998), 204.
. For further study on the remnant motif in the postexilic books, see Tarsee Li, “The Remnant in the Old Testament,” in Toward a Theology of the Remnant, ed. Angel M. Rodriguez (Silver Spring, MD: Biblical Research Institute, 2009), 23-41.
. Neusner, Torah Through the Ages, 26.
. Jon L. Berquist, “Constructions of Identity in Postcolonial Yehud,” in Judah and the Judeans in the Persian Period, ed. Oded Lipschits and Manfred Oeming (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2006), 64.
. That does not mean that God’s inspiration completely blocked human creativity. One can see that by comparing David’s psalms to Asaph’s psalms. Each had his own style and vocabulary.
. The Hebrew text reads as follows in a literal way, “Instruments of the music of the Lord.” The first and second words are in a construct state, and “God” is in the absolute. In this case the second construct state can be taken as having a closer relationship to the term “God.” If so, one could translate “God” as “divine,” giving an attributive characteristic to the term “song”; then, “divine song.” The term “song” can be a collective noun implying the plural form “songs.” See Bill T. Arnold and John H. Choi, A Guide to Biblical Hebrew Syntax (New York: Cambridge University, 2003), 10.
. For further study on music in Chronicles, see John W. Kleinig, The Lord’s Song: The Basis, Function and Significance of Choral Music in Chronicles, JSOTSup 156 (Sheffield, UK: JSOT, 1993); and Robin A. Leaver, ed., J. S. Bach and Scripture: Glosses from the Calov Bible Commentary (St. Louis: Concordia, 1985).
. Ellen G. White, PP 324.
. m. Tamid 7:3; cf. Diagram B.
. See the following link for the plan of the temple according to the Talmud: http://www.jewishencyclopedia .com/articles/14308-temple-in-rabbinical-literature.
. b. Sukkah 51a; see also 2 Chr 29:27
. Ellen G. White, PP 711.
. Ellen G. White, DA 448.
. Abraham Z. Idelsohn, Jewish Music: Its Historical Development (New York: Schocken Books, 1975), 7.
. Idelsohn, Jewish Music, 4–5.
. Quoted in Idelsohn, Jewish Music, 6.
. Josephus, Ant. 7:12.3.
. Joachim Braun, Music in Ancient Israel/Palestine: Archaeological, Written, and Comparative Sources (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2002), 109.
. Braun, Music in Ancient Israel/Palestine, 107)
. See b. Rosh Hashana 16a.
. b. Arakhin 10b; b. Sukkah 5:6.
. m. Sukkah 5:1; b. Sukkah 50b.
. b. Arkakhin 2:3–4.
. m. Sukkah 5:4; cf. Ellen G. White, DA 448.
. Ellen G. White, PP 707.
. Cf. André Neher, Prophetic Existence (New York: A. S. Barnes, 1969), 201–5.
. Adapted from Lilianne Doukhan, In Tune with God (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald, 2010).

. William Riley, King and Cultus in Chronicles: Worship and the Reinterpretation of History, JSOTSup 160 (Sheffield, UK: JSOT, 1993), 63.
. See Riley, King and Cultus in Chronicles, 37–155. Riley has an entire chapter describing how David was considered a “cultic king,” meaning a king preoccupied with the correct worship of God in Jerusalem.
. Hahn states: “What the cross is for the apostolic writers, the Davidic covenant is for Chronicles—the summit toward which all history was set in motion, the peak from which the meaning of the past is to be grasped, and the way forward into the future made clear. Since Christ’s death and resurrection form a single salvation-historical event, when we talk of the Davidic covenant in Chronicles, we are talking not only about the dynastic oracle given to David, but also of the temple at Zion and the promise that the throne of David’s seed shall be established forever.” Hahn, The Kingdom of God, 81.
. The covenant is also made with David’s descendants. This is mentioned four times during the reigns of Asa (2 Chr 15:12–15); Jehoash (2 Kgs 11:17); Hezekiah (2 Chr 29:10); and Josiah (2 Kgs 23:2–3; 2 Chr 34:29–33).
. Wilcock writes that “the ark, the symbol of God’s changeless grace in changing circumstances, is the subject of chapters 13, 15, and 16.” Michael Wilcock, The Message of Chronicles, BST 14, ed. J. A. Motyer (Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity, 1987), 64.
. Street writes that “the Chronicler is not presenting a bare record of historical facts; instead he is making a prophetic interpretation of the historical record, giving special attention to the moral and spiritual levels of causality that helped to shape that history and explain its tragic outcome. In recounting the years after Solomon and the division of the kingdom, the Chronicler assigns a crucial role to the ministry of the prophets, seers, and men of God. He virtually ignores the prophets who appear in other biblical accounts of this period, such as the miracle-workers Elijah and Elisha and the so-called literary prophets Isaiah and Jeremiah.” James M. Street, The Significance of the Ark Narrative: Literary Formation and Artistry in the Book of Chronicles, StBibLit 129 (New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2009), 142.
. Tiňo devotes an entire chapter to developing the exilic and postexilic messianic prophecy related to the theology of Chronicles. Tiňo, King and Temple in Chronicles, 120–46.
. The expression “great controversy” means the cosmic war between Christ and Satan. It started in heaven and continues on earth (Rev 12). Jesus, on the cross, defeated His archenemy forever, but the final end of sin will be at Jesus’s second coming. Lockyer agrees with this definition by writing that “sin did not commence when Eve took the forbidden fruit in Eden, but in a past eternity when, as Lucifer, lifted up with pride, he challenged God (1 Tim 3:6) … Before his fall, he covered God’s throne or guarded it. But, not satisfied with covering it, he coveted it, and so fell. He wanted to be, not an emissary of God, but equal with God, or even above God.” Thus, the great controversy started. See Hebert Lockyer, Satan: His Person and Power (Waco, TX: Word Books, 1980), 15. If there was a rebellion, a breaking off from a relationship, that means that there was a covenant between two parties. Thus, Satan before his rebellion had to have a special (covenant) relationship with God in order to break away from it.
. Ellen G. White, PK 677.
. See Literary Sources for Chronicles for the various sources the Chronicler had available.
. Person Jr. compiled these examples. I have listed them here as illustrations. For a possible explanation on these differences, see each verse under its own commentary section. Raymond F. Person Jr., The Deuteronomic History and the Book of Chronicles: Scribal Works in an Oral World, AIL 6 (Atlanta, GA: SBL, 2010), 82–83.
. The place of 1–2 Chronicles in the Christian Bible was based on the historical chronology of the events described in the narratives of these books. Therefore, it follows 1–2 Kings. Malachi was added later at the end of the list. Malachi also fits as the final book of the OT, but it was only recognized as such after the events of the gospels were written down.

 
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