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Old 07-01-2020, 09:59 AM   #1
FoolofaTook
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Red face DOES YOU"RE DAD HAVE A BGB???

(big greasy burek)


 
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Old 07-01-2020, 10:22 AM   #2
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my has low self of steam

 
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Old 07-01-2020, 10:41 AM   #3
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Tasty

 
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Old 07-01-2020, 10:51 AM   #4
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i'm planning on taking a nice big bite of your dad's BGB on his birthday, then two more on mine (just one day after)

 
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Old 07-01-2020, 10:55 AM   #5
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CLASSIC CHEESE BUREK:



MOST POPULAR BEEF BUREK:



HEAVENLY SPINACH BUREK:



FOOLOFATOOK PERSONAL FAV POTATO AND ONION BUREK:



THANK YOU OTTOMAN EMPIRE!!

 
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Old 07-01-2020, 11:26 AM   #6
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Old 07-01-2020, 11:36 AM   #7
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I only eat M & Ms. No thanks.

 
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Old 07-01-2020, 11:41 AM   #8
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YES BUREK AND KEBAB SCHWARMA IS VERY TASTY AND GOOD FOR MALE STAMINA










































































warning: may result in early apoplexy

 
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Old 07-01-2020, 11:47 AM   #9
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Old 07-01-2020, 02:07 PM   #10
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Missionary Moments in the Adriatic North Mission with Ketchup on Pizza


 
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Old 07-01-2020, 02:58 PM   #11
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Old 07-01-2020, 03:34 PM   #12
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Quote:
Originally Posted by MplsTaper View Post
Missionary Moments in the Adriatic North Mission with Ketchup on Pizza

Mmmmmhmmmm just looka these 2 plum-cheeked children of men slumming it over here from the blessed images thread

 
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Old 07-01-2020, 04:36 PM   #13
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if that isn't curry ketchup you can get fucked

 
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Old 07-01-2020, 05:15 PM   #14
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Talking

hey i like curry ketchup too ...
















































































... DRIPPING OFF YOUR DAD'S BIG DICK

 
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Old 07-01-2020, 05:15 PM   #15
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Old 07-01-2020, 07:25 PM   #16
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Old 07-02-2020, 03:26 AM   #17
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hi how are you

 
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Old 07-02-2020, 06:08 AM   #18
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My dad is dead and therefore does not have an rbg.

 
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Old 07-02-2020, 07:58 AM   #19
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Raymond B. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, WBC 15 (Waco, Tex.: Word Books, 1987), 1-2.
Roddy L. Braun, “Solomon, the Chosen Temple Builder: The Significance of 1 Chronicles 22, 28, and 29 for the Theology of Chronicles,” JBL 95 (1976): 588-90.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 4-5.
Cf. David A. Dorsey, The Literary Structure of the Old Testament: A Commentary of Genesis ̶ Malachi (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Academic, 1999), 148; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 5-6.
H. G. M. Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, NCBC (Eugene, Oreg.: Wipf & Stock, 1982), 193; J. A. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, NAC 9 (Nashville, Tenn.: Broadman & Holman, 1994), 203; Ralph W. Klein, 2 Chronicles: A Commentary, Hermeneia (Minneapolis, Minn.: Fortress Press, 2012), 20.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 11.
PK, 30.
Yutaka Ikeda, “Solomon’s Trade in Horses and Chariots in Its International Setting,” in Studies in the Period of David and Solomon and Other Essays, ed. Tomoo Ishida (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1982), 215-38.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 207.
In 2 Chr 2, the verse numbers of the Hebrew Bible (MT) are one less than the modern versions so that 2:1 in the English versions is 1:18 in the Hebrew Bible.
Cf. Martin J. Selman, 2 Chronicles, TOTC 11 (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1994), 312. Also to be noted in this connection is Solomon’s acknowledgment in his prayer at the dedication of the Temple that Yahweh said, “My name shall be there” (1 Kgs 8:29).
Ibid., 313.
In the Hebrew Bible, there are a small number of differences between ‘what is written’ in the consonantal text, as preserved by scribal tradition, and ‘what is read’ in the pronunciation of the words in the MT (Tanakh). In such situation, ‘what is written’ is referred to technically as the Kethib (Aramaic “written”), and ‘what is read’ as the Qere (Aramaic “read, pronounced”).
1 Chr 6:15; 2 Chr 2:7; 11:14; 20:5, 15, 17, 18, 23, 27; 21:13; 24:6, 9, 18, 23; 28:10; 29:8; 32:12, 25, 33; 33:9; 34:3, 5, 29; 35:24; 36:4, 10.
Selman, 315; cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 19.
For love (’ahab, ’ahabah) as a typical covenant or treaty term, see William J. Moran, “The Ancient Near Eastern Background of the Love of God in Deuteronomy,” CBQ 25 (1963): 77-87. See also, e.g., Exod 20:6; 1 Sam 18:1, 3; 2 Sam 1:26.
For the detailed chiastic structure of 2 Chr 1-9, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 5-7.
For Yahweh as the Maker/Creator of heaven and earth, see 2 Kgs 19:15; Neh 9:6; Pss 115:15; 121:2; 124:8; 134:3; 146:6; Isa 37:16; Jer 51:15. See also Jonah 1:10; Acts 4:24; 14:15; 17:24; Rev 14:7.
For this use of the Hebrew word ’ab, see Gen 45:8; Judg 17:10; 2 Kgs 2:12; 13:14.
For more discussions, see Sara Japhet, I & II Chronicles: A Commentary, OTL (Louisville and London: Westminster John Knox Press, 1993), 544; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 20; Selman, 317.
Except those with the additionals (2 Chr 2:13; 4:16).
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 544. As for khuram ’abiw in 2 Chr 4:16, it is to be noted that the Chronicler was trying to keep “Huramabi” as if it were a compound noun. Thus it should not be considered as a textual corruption of khuram ’abi (“Huramabi”).
Rudolf Mosis, Untersuchungen zur Theologie des chronistischen Geschichtswerkes (Freiburg: Verlag Herder, 1973), 167. For Solomon and Huram-abi as the new Bezalel and Oholiab, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 4-5, 23. For Huram-abi as the new Oholiab, see ibid., 4-5, 20-21.
Selman, 317. For the ancestry of Samuel, see 1 Sam 1:1; 1 Chr 6:34.
PK, 63.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 545. See also H. J. Katzenstein, The History of Tyre (Jerusalem: Schocken Institute for Jewish Research, 1973), 65-67; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 20-21. For other suggestions, see ibid., 20.
E.g., Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 201.
For their actual relationship, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 21; Selman, 313.
See Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 22; Selman, 364.
Cf. Andrew E. Hill, 1 & 2 Chronicles, The NIV Application Commentary (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 2003), 384: “The reference to Mount Moriah awakens memories of the Lord’s appearance to Abraham . . . . The reminder of the Lord’s appearances at this site earlier in Israelite history may be the Chronicler’s attempt to encourage his own audience.”
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 27. Cf. Mark J. Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, Cornerstone Biblical Commentary 5a (Carol, Ill.: Tyndale House, 2010), 250 n. 3.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 551, where Japhet remarks as follows: “One may attribute this silence either to the author’s lack of interest in the subject, or to the problematic position of the site within the sacral traditions of Israel. The significance of this matter for the Chronicler is evident in the reference to the site from four different angles: 1. Geography, ‘In Jerusalem, on Mount Moriah’; 2. Theophany, ‘Where the Lord had appeared to David his father’; 3. Authority, ‘At the place that David had appointed’; and 4. Tradition, recalling the hieros logos of the Temple, connected with ‘the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite’.”
For the detailed study of the foundations of the temples in the ancient Near East and Israel, see Mark J. Boda and Jamie Novotny, eds., From the Foundations to the Crenellations: Essays on Temple Building in the Ancient Near East and Hebrew Bible, AOAT 366 (Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2010). Especially, the two articles in this book are useful for the study of Temple building of Solomon: Victor Avigdor Hurowits, “‘Solomon Built the Temple and Completed It’: Building the First Temple According to the Book of Kings” (pp. 281-302); Mark J. Boda, “Legitimizing the Temple: The Chronicler’s Temple Building Account” (pp. 303-18).
SDABC, 1:165.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 553.
Abraham Even-Shoshan, ed., A New Concordance of the Bible: Thesaurus of the Language of the Bible, Hebrew and Aramaic Roots, Words, Proper Names, Phrases and Synonyms (Jerusalem: “Kiryat Sefer” Publishing House, 1985), 203-204.
Michael Zohary, Plants of the Bible (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982), 106.
For a more detailed discussion, see Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 207-208; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 28-29.
Carol Meyers, “Cherubim,” ABD, 1:900.
W. A. L. Elmslie, “The First and Second Books of Chronicles,” IB, 3:449.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 27; Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 247.
Josephus Jewish War, 5:5.5.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 30.
E.g., “The NIV adds the word ‘together’ as an effort at harmonization. Another is that the Chronicler added to the eighteen cubits the circumference of the pillars (twelve cubits) and the height of the capital (five cubits) to make up thirty-five cubits. But nothing in the text suggests this. Another is that the letters representing the number eighteen were misread in the course of transmission” (Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 218). Cf. J. B. Payne, “The Validity of the Numbers in Chronicles: Part One,” BSac 136 (1979): 121-22; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 31.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 557.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 30.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 219.
Hill, 387.
Cf. C. F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, Commentary on the Old Testament in Ten Volumes (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1982), 3:2:320; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 564.
Payne, “The Validity of the Numbers in Chronicles,” 122.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 210-11; Hill, 387.
SDABC, 3:219.
Menaḥ. 98b.
Josephus Antiquities, 8:88-89.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 36.
Cf. Keil and Delitzsch, 3:2:322.
Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 250.
Cf. John W. Kleinig, Lord’s Song: The Basis, Function and Significance of Choral Music in Chronicles, JSOTSS 156 (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993), 157.
For the discussion of the addition or omission of the waw (ו), see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 576-77.
According to Brevard S. Childs, this formula, “to this day” (Heb. ‘ad hayyom hazzeh), occurs 84 times in the MT and he concludes that this formula “seldom has an etiological function of justifying an existing phenomenon, but in the great majority of cases is a formula of personal testimony added to, and confirming, a received tradition” (Brevard S. Childs, “A Study of the Formula ‘Until This Day’,” JBL 82 [1963]: 292).
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 580.
S. Zalewski, “Cultic Officials in the Book of Chronicles,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Melbourne, 1968), 308.
Kleinig, 36. He continues on the same page: “The singing of the LORD’s song to instrumental accompaniment was therefore regarded as an extension of the priestly mandate to sound the trumpets over the public sacrifices.”
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 79.
Thomas Willi, “Evokation und Bekenntnis: Art und Ort der chronistischen Vokal- und Instrumentalmusik,” in Sprachen-Bilder-Klänge: Dimensionen der Theologie im Alten Testament und in seinem Umfeld, ed. C. Karrer-Grube et al., AOAT 359 (Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2009), 356; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 80.
Kleinig, 166.
Selman, 340.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 591.
Cf. J. A. Thompson, “Joel’s Locusts in the Light of Near Eastern Parallels,” JNES 14 (1955): 52-55.
For the detailed analysis of the two texts, see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 602-603; Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 220-21.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 604-605. For more explanations, see A. Caquot, “‘Les Graces de David,’ à propos d’Isaie 55/3b,” Semitica 15 (1965): 45-59; H. G. M. Williamson, “‘The Sure Mercies of David’: Subjective or Objective Genitive?” JSS 23 (1978): 31-49.
Sara Japhet observes that “the details of v. 3 attest significant points in the Chronicler’s concept of religion” and regards it as “an important theological statement.” She reasons as follows: “In Lev 9:23-24 a similar experience is phrased in passive terms, as if to create a sense of distance: ‘the glory of the Lord appeared’ (literally ‘was seen’) and ‘fire came from before the Lord.’ Here the phrasing is in the active mood: ‘all the people were watching as the fire came down’ (NEB). . . . Here, however, in contrast to the Sinai theophany, the people are not driven by fright to shun the experience; rather their religious awe prompts them to bow down with their faces to the ground and praise God” (Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 610).
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 106.
Josephus Jewish War, 6:424-26.
John W. Wenham, “Large Numbers in the Old Testament,” TynB 18 (1967): 49. On the other hand, Otto Thenius calculated 262 oxen and 1,430 sheep per hour in a twelve-hour day during the seven-day festival, whereas Hugo Gressmann, who considered the numbers fantasy, put the number at 314 bulls per hour and 1,014 sheep in ten-hour days during the seven-day festival in Kings (Otto Thenius, Die Bücher der Könige, 2nd ed., Kurzgefasstes exegetisches Handbuch [Leipzig: Hirzel, 1873], 140; Hugo Gressmann, Die älteste Geshichtsschreibung und Prophetie Israels, 2nd ed., Die Schriften des Alten Testaments 2.1 [Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1921], 212). These quotations are cited from Klein, 2 Chronicles, 106.
“All Israel” occurs in 1 Chr 9:1; 11:1-4; 12:38-40; 13:1-8; 14:8; 15:3, 28; 16:1-3; 18:14; 19:17; 21:1-5; 22:17; 23:1-3; 28:1-8; 29:21-26; 2 Chr 1:1-3; 5:2-6; 6:3-13; 7:8-10; 9:30; 10:1-3, 16; 11:3, 13-17; 12:1; 13:4, 15; 18:16; 24:5; 28:23; 29:24; 30:1-13, 23-27; 31:6; 34:6-9, 33.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 57. See “The Chronicler’s Solomon (2 Chr 1-9)” (ibid., 1-7).
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 226.
For the discussion of the “apparent discrepancy” between Kings and Chronicles, see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 621-22; Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 227-29; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 62; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 238; John Mark Hicks, 1 & 2 Chronicles, The College Press NIV Commentary (Joplin, Mo.: College Press Publishing Company, 2001), 300; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 119-20.
Myers suggests a similar explanation. See Jacob M. Myers, II Chronicles: Introduction, Translation, and Notes, AB 13 (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1965), 47.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 622.
Ronald F. Youngblood, ed., Nelson’s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary, completely revised and updated edition (Nashville, Tenn.: Thomas Nelson, 1995), 535.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 64.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 121.
Josephus Antiquities, 8:152. For the identifications of Baalath, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 65; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 122.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 624.
Cf. Wenham, “Large Numbers in the Old Testament,” 49; D. W. Gooding, Relics of Ancient Exegesis: A Study of the Miscellanies in 3 Reigns 2, The Society for Old Testament Study Monograph Series 4 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976), 53-55.
The Targum specifies the name of the Pharaoh’s daughter as Bithyah, but this name comes from 1 Chr 4:18, where Mered married this daughter of Pharaoh (J. Stanley McIvor, The Targum of Chronicles, Aramaic Bible 19 [Collegeville, Minn.: Liturgical Press, 1994], 162; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 124 n. 40).
Hicks, 301.
Cf. William Johnstone, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 2 vols., JSOTSS 253 (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997), 1:365; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 124.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 65.
Selman, 365. Cf. Hicks, 301.
Johnstone, 1:366. Cf. Sara Japhet, “The Prohibition of the Habitation of Women: The Temple Scroll’s Attitude toward Sexual Impurity and Its Biblical Precedents,” JANES 22 (1993): 69-87.
Contrary to Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 239, who says, “Solomon himself sacrificed burnt offerings to the Lord on the altar he had built in front of the portico. This was not the altar within the holy place that was reserved for the priests.” But Japhet does not agree with Thompson (Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 627).
This term, “the man of God,” occurs fifty-five times in Kings, but only twenty times elsewhere in the OT. In Kings, this title is used for the anonymous man of God in Kgs 13 (sixteen times, plus 2 Kgs 23:16, 17), for Elijah (1 Kgs 17:18), for Elisha (2 Kgs 4:7, 21, 22, 25, 27, 42; 5:8, 14, 15, 20; 6:6, 9, 10, 15; 7:2, 17, 18; 8:2, 4, 7, 8, 11; 13:19), etc.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 630.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 66; Youngblood, 927.
Josephus Antiquities, 8:164.
William L. Holladay, ed., A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1971), 274.
Hill, 408.
Cf. Daegeuk Nam, The “Throne of God” Motif in the Hebrew Bible (Seoul: Sahmyook University Press, 1994), 153-63; Hicks, 305.
Edward Lewis Curtis and Albert Alonzo Madsen, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Chronicles, ICC (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1910), 357.
Alan R. Millard, “Does the Bible Exaggerate King Solomon’s Golden Wealth?” BAR 15/3 (1989): 31.
Holladay, 203. Cf. D. Dorsey, “Another Peculiar Term in the Book of Chronicles: מסלה, ‘Highway’?” JQR 75 (1984-85): 385-91.
Holladay, 204.
Selman, 373.
Holladay, 366.
J. A. Montgomery and H. S. Gehman, The Books of Kings, ICC (London: T&T Clark, 1951), 221-22; Myers, 58.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 73.
Myers, 54.
Victor P. Hamilton, Handbook on the Historical Books (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Academic, 2001), 490.
Holladay, 249.
Cf. A scholar dealt with this issue thoroughly in his dissertation: Yong Ho Jeon, Impeccable Solomon?: A Study of Solomon’s Faults in Chronicles (Eugene, Oreg.: Pickwick Publications, 2013).
Cf. Hill, 453.
H. G. M. Williamson, Israel in the Books of Chronicles (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977), 103; idem, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 238.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 156.
Ibid., 157.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 86 (italics supplied).
Cf. ibid.; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 652.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 250.
Hicks, 317.
Abraham Malamat, “Kingship and Council in Israel and Sumer: A Parallel,” JNES 22 (1963): 247-53; idem, “Organs of Statecraft in the Israelite Monarchy,” BA 28 (1965): 34-65. Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 158. Cf. the critique of his view by D. Geoffrey Evans, “Rehoboam’s Advisers at Shechem, and Political Institutions in Israel and Sumer,” JNES 25 (1966): 273-79. For the discussion of the two groups, see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 654-55.
E. Lipiński, “Le recit de 1 Rois xii 1-19 à la lumière de l’ancien usage de l’Hébreu et de nouveaux textes de Mari,” VT 24 (1974): 430-37; Selman, 380.
Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 158.
William J. Moran, “A Note on the Treaty Terminology of the Sefire Stelas,” JNES 22 (1963): 173-76; cf. Michael Fox, “Ṭôb as Covenant Terminology,” BASOR 209 (1973): 41-42.
So Kimḥi, in commenting on 1 Kgs 12:10, and Martin Noth, Könige, BKAT 9/1 (Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1968), 267. Klein believes that Noth’s interpretation is more likely (Klein, 2 Chronicles, 160). Dillard comments as follows: “It is at least possible that קטני, ‘my little thing,’ is euphemistic for the penis, a sense which would add rash vulgarity to the charge of foolishness against the young men” (Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 87).
HALOT, 2:1093.
Ibid., 2:828.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 160.
Hicks, 319.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 164.
Hill, 457.
Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 165; Hill, 458.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 95; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 253; Hill, 458.
Cf. Hicks, 321.
For the order and the detailed locations of these cities, see Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 241-43; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 169, 172-73.
E.g., Steven L. McKenzie, The Chronicler’s Use of the Deuteronomistic History, HSM 33 (Atlanta, Ga.: Scholars Press, 1985), 265.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 173. The Hebrew word nagid means all kinds of leader: from sovereign or prince (Ezek 28:2) to the chief of doorkeepers (1 Chr 9:20).
Ibid., 174. Contrary to Hobbs who interprets them as cities for internal control or taxation (T. R. Hobbs, “The ‘Fortresses of Rehoboam’: Another Look,” in Uncovering Ancient Stones: Essays in Memory of H. Neil Richardson, ed. L. M. Hopfe [Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1994], 41-64), and Hicks who argues that their function was “internal security” (Hicks, 322).
Hill, 458.
Holladay, 353.
Norman H. Snaith, “The Meaning of שׂעירים,” VT 25 (1975): 115-18; cf. HALOT, 2:1341.
William Gesenius, Gesenius’ Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures, trans. A. E. Cowley (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1910), 792.
Hill, 459.
“Mahalath” is the name of two women and a musical term in the OT. The first woman named Mahalath is a daughter of Ishmael and one of Esau’s wives (Gen 28:9), perhaps the same person as Basemath (36:3-4). The second woman called Mahalath is a daughter of Jerimoth in the present text, whom Rehoboam took as his wife. “Mahalath” is also used as a musical term in the superscripts of Pss 53 and 88.
For the detailed discussions on this, see Linda S. Schearing, “Maacah,” ABD, 4:429-30; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 670-71.
Josephus Antiquities, 8:249.
For the cases of polygamy and having many children, see Klein, 2 Chronicles, 177.
Hill, 460.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 98-99.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 178; Myers, 71.
Arnold B. Ehrlich, Randglossen zur hebräischen Bibel: Textkritisches, sprachliches und sachliches, 7 vols. (Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1908-1914; reprint, Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlag, 1968), 7:361. Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 672; Klein, 2 Chonicles, 168 no. 21; Kjell Hognesius, Text of 2 Chronicles 1-16, Coniectanea Biblica: OT Series 51 (Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 2003), 153.
Edwin R. Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, new rev. ed. (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1983), 10.
B. Mazar, “The Campaign of Pharaoh Shishak to Palestine,” in Volume du Congrès International pour l’étude de l’Ancien Testament, Strasbourg 1956, VTSup 4 (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1957), 57-66.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 99.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 677.
E.g., Kenneth A. Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt: 1100-650 B.C. (Warminster: Ais & Phillips, 1973), 294-300, 432-47.
Cf. Myers, 73; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 258.
Selman, 392.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 677-78.
The speeches found in First Chronicles are as follows: (1) 12:17, David to the leaders of Benjamin and Judah; (2) 13:2-3, David to all the assembly of Israel; (3) 15:2, 12-13, David to the leaders of the Levites; (4) 16:8-36, David to Asaph and his brethren; (5) 22:18-19, David’s call to the leaders of Israel; (6) 28:2-19, David to the leaders of Israel; (7) 28:20-21, David’s renewed charge to Solomon; and (8) 29:1-5, 20, David to all the assembly of Israel.
The speeches found in Second Chronicles are as follows: (1) 12:5-8, Shemaiah the prophet to Rehoboam and the leaders of Judah; (2) 13:4-12, Abijah king of Judah to Jeroboam and all Israel; (3) 14:7 (MT 14:6), King Asa to the people of Judah; (4) 15:2-7, Azariah the prophet to Asa and all Judah and Benjamin; (5) 19:2-3, Jehu the seer to Jehoshaphat; (6) 19:6-7, 9-11, Jehoshaphat to the judges; (7) 20:6-12, Jehoshaphat to the assembly of Judah and Jerusalem; (8) 20:15-17, Jahaziel the Levite to Jehoshaphat and the assembly of Judah and Jerusalem; (9) 20:20, Jehoshaphat to the assembly of Judah and Jerusalem; (10) 21:12-15, Elijah the prophet to Jehoram king of Judah (written speech); (11) 24:20, Zechariah the son of Jehoiada the priest to the people; (12) 28:9-11, Oded the prophet to the army, (13) 30:6-9, Hezekiah to the people of Israel and Judah (written speech); (14) 32:10-15, 17, Sennacherib to Hezekiah and the people of Judah in Jerusalem; (15) 34:21, King Josiah to Hilkiah, Ahikam, Abdon, Shaphan, and Asaiah; (16) 34:23-28, Huldah the prophetess to the five representatives; (17) 35:21, Necho king of Egypt to Josiah.
Gerhard von Rad, Die levitische Predigt in den Büchern der Chronik, first published as Festschrift for Otto Procksch (Leipzig: Deichert, 1934), and republished in Gesammelte Studien zum Alten Testament (München: C. Kaiser, 1958), 248-61. The English translation, “The Levitical Sermon in the Books of Chronicles,” by E. W. Trueman Dicken, appeared in Gerhard von Rad, The Problem of the Hexateuch and Other Essays (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966), 267-80.
Ibid., 277.
Rex Mason, Preaching the Tradition: Homily and Hermeneutics after the Exile (Cambridge: Cabridge University Press, 1990).
Cf. Gary N. Knoppers, “Rehoboam in Chronicles: Villain or Victim?” JBL 109 (1990): 423-40.
Hicks, 328.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 259.
Ibid.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 101; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 683-84.
See Ralph W. Klein, “Abijah’s Campaign against the North (II Chr 13) ̶ What Were the Chronicler’s Sources?” ZAW 95 (1983): 210-17; D. G. Deboys, “History and Theology in the Chronicler’s Portrayal of Abijah,” Bib 71 (1990): 48-62.
Four men are named “Michaiah” in the OT: (1) an officer of King Josiah (2 Kgs 22:12), also called Micah (2 Chr 34:20); (2) a leader sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the Law in the cities of Judah (2 Chr 17:7); (3) a priest who blew a trumpet during the celebration after Jerusalem’s walls were rebuilt (Neh 12:35, 41), also called Micah (1 Chr 9:15); and (4) a son of Gemariah (Jer 36:11, 13). Cf. Youngblood, 832; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 197 n. 20.
This expression is found elsewhere only in 1 Kgs 20:14.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 689.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 106-107. Japhet says, “The troops themselves are numbered typologically: four hundred thousand of Judah, eight hundred thousand of Israel, the two-to-one ratio obviously intended to illustrate that this is a confrontation between the ‘righteous few’ and the ‘hosts of evildoers’ ̶ a motif characterizing defensive rather than offensive wars” (Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 689). Thompson says, “There may be symbolism and hyperbole or the word translated ‘thousand’ may be otherwise understood” (Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 262). Cf. Wenham, “Large Numbers in the Old Testament,” 19-53; Payne, “The Validity of the Numbers in Chronicles,” 217.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 691.
K. Koch, “Zur Lage von Ṣemarajim,” ZDPV 78 (1962): 19-29.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 107.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 262.
W. Robertson Smith, Lectures on the Religion of the Semites, 3rd ed. (New York: Macmillan, 1927), 270; cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 107; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 200.
E.g., Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 252-53.
E.g., Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 692; cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 107-108.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 692.
Cf. Nam, The “Throne of God” Motif in the Hebrew Bible, 159-63.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 695.
See Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 117-18.
S. Wagner, “דרשׁ, dārash,” TDOT, 3:301. In his study of Asa’s revival, Walter Kaiser presents the three results of seeking the Lord: a time of peace (14:2-7), God’s presence again (15:2-7), and prevailing against enemies (14:9-15; 16:1-10). See Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., Quest for Revival: Personal Revival in the Old Testament (Chicago: Moody Press, 1986), 77-88.
Cf. Wilhelm Rudolph, Chronikbücher, Handbuch zum Alten Testament 21 (Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1955), 240.
See Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 709-10; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 119; Selman, 407.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 710.
E.g., Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 267.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 710-11.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 712.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 114.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 717.
Ibid.
Ibid., 718.
Cf. Myers, 86, translates: “He will let himself be found by you.”
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 718; cf. Simon J. De Vries, 1 and 2 Chronicles, FOTL 11 (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1989), 300-301.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 718. Selman, 410, mentions, “It is worth noting that the text summarizes God’s message about the purpose of the temple (2 Chr 7:13-22).”
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 120.
Cf. Gerhard von Rad, “The Levitical Sermon in the Old Testament,” in Gerhar von Rad, The Problem of the Hexateuch and Other Essays (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966), 267-80; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 116, 120; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 715-16, 718.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 719; Selman, 411.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 720.
For a detailed description of the Near Eastern situation during the period of Judges, see SDABC, 2:27-29, 32-34, 48-50, 55-57; 3:248.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 718-21.
See Deut 31:6-7, 23; Josh 1:6-7, 9, 18; 10:25; 1 Chr 22:13; 28:10, 20; 2 Chr 32:7; Hag 2:4; Zech 8:9, 13; cf. Deut 11:8; Ezra 9:12.
E.g., Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 715 and Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 114.
Selman, 412.
Edwin R. Thiele, A Chronology of the Hebrew Kings (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1977), 31, 33-34, 75.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 722.
Ibid., 723; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 121; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 270.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 723-24.
Ibid., 724.
Ibid., 723. Selman, 412, rightly noted: “Chronicles constantly highlights the opportunities for reunification (cf. 11:13-17; 30:[5,] 11; 34:6 [, 21, 33]), which always arose in the context of worship rather than as a result of military force (cf. 11:1-4; 13:8, 13-14). Unity was possible only when God was worshipped in the way that he had ordained.”
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 724. Cf. Sara Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles and Its Place in Biblical Thought (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbraus, 2009), 231 n. 124; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 121.
Cf. Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 231 n. 124.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 121.
Cf. ibid.; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 724.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 271. Contrary to Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 724-725. Japhet mentioned that the Hebrew name of the Feast of Weeks may be seen as derived from shebu‘ah (oath) rather than shabua‘ (week), i.e., “the Feast of Oaths.” However, it is to be noted in the biblical passage concerning the feast that shabbat (Sabbath) occurs with sheba‘, “seven” and shebi‘i, “seventh” (Lev 23:15-16) or that shabu‘ot (weeks) occurs with shib‘ah, “seven” (Deut 16:9). The reason is that apart from shebu‘ah (oath) all these words are associated with the basic symbolic numeral “seven.”
Cf. De Vries, 299, 301. For the discussion on the chronology of the events during Asa’s reign, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 119, 121-22, 124; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 725.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 121.
Ibid., 122.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 725: “The very general terminology, and the absence of specific terms like ‘burnt offerings’, serve to underline the role of the sacrifice as thanksgiving offerings.”
Cf. Selman, 404, 412.
Ibid., 413.
For a full discussion on the meaning of the covenant during the reign of Asa in particular and that of the covenants during the monarchial period in general, see Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 76-91; idem, I & II Chronicles, 726. Compare Selman, 412-13.
Cf. Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 87.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 726-27.
Ibid., 727.
For the discussion on the role and position of the queen mother, see Niels-Erik A. Andreasen, “The Role of the Queen Mother in Israelite Society,” CBQ 45 (1983): 179-94.
Heb. mipletset. This word occurs 4 times (only here and in 1 Kgs 15:13) in the OT.
Cf. 2 Kgs 23:6, Josiah’s disposal of the image of Asherah in his religious reformation.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 118; cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 721-22. See 2 Chr 15:8; 17:2.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 728.
Cf. ibid. According to BDB, 1023, the Hebrew expression lebab shalem ‘im Yahweh literally means “a mind at peace with Yahweh,” keeping covenant relation, and thus it means “complete, perfect [with Yahweh].” See 1 Kgs 8:61; 11:4; 15:3, 14; 2 Chr 16:9. In 1 Kgs 15:14 such a Hebrew expression occurs, whereas in 2 Chr 15:18 lebab shalem appears without ‘im Yahweh.
Cf. David’s good example (1 Chr 18:11; 22:3, 14; 26:26-27; 29:2-5).
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 729.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 122.
For a discussion on this chronological problem, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 122-25; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 703-705.
Cf. SDABC, 3:250, following Edwin R. Thiele’s ingenious approach (Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 84), which many have adopted. For succinct summaries of the debates on this chronological problem, see Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 255-58; Raymond B. Dillard, “The Reign of Asa (2 Chr 14-16): An Example of the Chronicler’s Theological Method,” JETS 23 (1980): 207-18; idem, 2 Chronicles, 123-25; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 704-705, 732; Selman, 414-15; De Vries, 296; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 273.
Japhet, 729.
J. A. Thompson, “Ramah,” IBD, 3:1318.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 732.
Ibid.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 125: “Its location was well suited for Baasha’s objective: Ramah was on the major north-south ridge route by-passing Jerusalem (Judg 18:11-13) and within sufficient proximity to threaten any east-west traffic in the central Benjamin plateau using the important Beth Horon ridge.”
Cf. Kenneth A. Kitchen, “Ben-Hadad,” IBD, 1:184.
Ibid.
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 274. Not in the same vein with others, Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 733, contended that all reference to treaty “is just diplomatic language representing the present situation of Aram’s non-involvement.”
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 125.
For a chiastic structure of 14:2 [MT 14:1]-16:14, though incomplete, with the two covenants in the center, see Selman, 404. As Selman rightly observed, “the whole structure shows how Asa’s last years represented a complete volte-face from his previous achievements” (ibid.). Selman’s chiastic structure may be slightly modified as follows: A 14:2-7 [MT 14:1-6] Prosperity through seeking God/ B 14:8-15 [MT 14:7-14] Victory through trust in God/ C 15:1-8 Obedience to prophetic word/ D 15:9-19 Covenant with God// D΄ 16:1-6 Covenant with man (and temporary victory)/ C΄ 16:7-10 Rejection of prophetic word (and lack of trust)/ B΄ [missing]/ A΄ 16:11-14 Incurable disease, death, and burial through not seeking God.
Cf. D. W. Baker, “Ijon,” IBD, 2:682.
F. F. Bruce, “Dan,” IBD, 1:358.
D. W. Baker, “Abel of Beth-Maachah, IBD, 1:3.
Ibid.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 734.
J. A. Thompson, “Mizpah, Mizpeh,” IBD, 2:1013.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 126; cf. Thompson, “Mizpah,” 1013.
M. A. McLeod, “Geba,” IBD, 1:544-45.
Ibid., 1:545.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 125.
Selman, 418.
Cf. ibid., 419.
G. P. F. Broekman, R. J. Demarée, and Olaf E. Kaper, eds., The Libyan Period in Egypt: Historical and Cultural Studies into the 21st-24th Dynasties: Proceedings of a Conference at Leiden University, 25-27 October 2007, Egyptologische Uitgaven 23 (Leuven: Peeters Publishers, 2009).
Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, 467, par. 268, n. 372; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 99-100, 119, 126.
Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 153.
Ibid.
Ibid., 153-54. For the concept of the divine test in Chronicles, see ibid., 149-55.
Cf. ibid., 201. The words of 2 Chr 16 signify not only God’s omniscience but also His providence (ibid., 201 n. 188).
Selman, 419. Just as Asa did not “rely” (Heb. sha‘an) on God when threatened by Israel (2 Chr 16:7), so Ahaz did not “believe” (Heb. ’aman) in God when threatened by Israel and Syria (Isa 7:9). Just as the word “rely” also occurs as a faith term in Isaiah (10:20 [2x]; 30:12; 31:1; 50:10), so the word “believe” also occurs as a faith term in Chronicles (2 Chr 9:6; 20:20 [2x]; 32:15). It is so interesting for Jehoshaphat not to employ the word “believe” but the word “rely” in his exhortation to his people for the war when threatened by Moab and Ammon: “Believe in the LORD your God, and you shall be established; believe His prophets, and you shall prosper” (2 Chr 20:20). He must have consciously done so, recollecting the non-reliance of Asa his father on God.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 735; cf. Saul’s confession of his sins to David, “I have acted foolishly [Heb. hiskalti]”(1 Sam 26:21).
David’s confession to God of his sin concerning a census.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 735-36.
Ibid., 736.
Unlike Rehoboam, who “humbled himself” (Heb. sha‘an, “be humbled”; 2 Chr 12:6, 7 [2x], 12) for his sin when hearing God’s message from Shemaiah the man of God.
“Prison” here is literally “house of stocks” (Heb. bet hammahpeket), which occurs only once in the OT, while the word mahpeket (stocks) is used three times in connection with Jeremiah (Jer 20:2, 3; 29:26).
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 737. For the Chronicler, disease is one form of divine judgment (cf. 2 Chr 21:15, 18-19; 26:16-21; contrast 32:24).
Thiele, A Chronology of the Hebrew Kings, 27, 35-36, 75, 77; cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 126.
Cf. Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 200-201.
It seems that Japhet did not notice the significant theological import of the Hebrew term darash (seek) here (cf.14:4, 7; 15:12, 15), when he said not only that “this is the only categorical statement in the Bible warning against eliciting human medical advice in case of illness” (Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 738), but also that “this is the only time in the Bible that consulting physicians is considered a sin” (Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 200 n. 186). In regard to this, Selman, 420, is regrettably in line with Japhet, even though he observed the significant import of darash (397, 409, 412-13). Especially to be noted is the significant usage of darash in the Chronicles (1 Chr 16:11; 22:19; 28:9b; 2 Chr 12:14; 14:4 [MT 14:3], 8 [MT 7] [2x]; 15:2, 12, 13; 16:12; 17:3, 4; 19:3; 20:3; 22:9; 25:15, 20; 26:5 [2x]; 30:19; 31:21). See also the parallel usage of darash and its nearest synonym baqash (1 Chr 16:10-11; 2 Chr 15:2-4, 12-15; 20:3-4) and their chiastic placement (1 Chr 16:10-11).
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 738-39.
Ibid.
See also Hezekiah’s funeral (2 Chr 32:33).
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 276.
Selman, 420 (cf. 417); cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 738. See also 2 Chr 20:32; 21:12.
Cf. Selman, 421; for the Chronicler’s Jehoshaphat, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 129-30.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 132.
Ibid., 129-30.
Ibid., 133.
Ibid., 117-18, 133-34.
PK, 191.
Myers, 98.
George E. Mendenhall, “The Census Lists of Numbers 1 and 26,” JBL 77 (1958): 52-66.
Cf. Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 263; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 253-54; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 135. For the large numbers in the OT, see John W. Wenham, “The Large Numbers in the Bible,” JBQ 21 (1993): 16-20; idem, “Large Numbers in the Old Testament,” 19-53; Payne, “The Validity of Numbers in Chronicles,” 109-28, 206-20.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 284.
Ibid., 284-85; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 141.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 141; J. Crenshaw, Prophetic Conflict (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1971), 24-36. Cf. Comfort, 318.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 141; cf. R. Halevi, “Micha ben Jimla, The Ideal Prophet,” BM 12 (1966-67): 102-106.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 760.
Ibid., 762.
Cf. Patrick Miller, “The Divine Council and the Prophetic Call to War,” VT 18 (1968): 100-107.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 142.
Cf. Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 320.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 145. Cf. Nam, The “Throne of God” Motif, 153-159, esp., 158.
Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 320.
Cf. Roland de Vaux, Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions, trans. John McHugh (London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1961), 119-20; John Gray, I and II Kings, OTL (London: SCM, 1964), 453-54.
Curtis and Madsen, 398-99; cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 142.
Cf. E. Ball, “A Note on 1 Kings XXII:28,” JTS 28 (1977): 90-94.
L. C. Allen, 1, 2 Chronicles, Communicator’s Commentary 10 (Waco, Tex.: Word Books, 1987), 298.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 288; cf. idem, “Israel’s ‘Haters’,” VT 29 (1979): 200-205.
Knoppers observes that this is a favorite expression of the Chronicler but is not unique to his writing. Cf. Gary N. Knoppers, “Jehoshaphat’s Judiciary and ‘the Scroll of YHWH’s Torah,’” JBL 113 (1994): 70.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 769.
Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 251-52.
PK, 197.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 775.
PK, 197.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 146 n. 8.a; J. Heller, “Textkritisches zu 2 Chr 19:8,” VT 24 (1974): 371-73.
SDABC, 3:261; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 150. Contrary to Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 778-79.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 155; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 293. For a debate on the ethnic and geographical identification of the Meunites, see Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 293-94; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 786.
Cf. Selman, 443.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 156.
Cf. ibid.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 785. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 293, mentions: “The location of Hazazon Tamar is uncertain, but it may be el-Hasasa between En Gedi and Bethlehem.”
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 787.
Selman, 443.
Cf. ibid..
Ibid.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 156.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 787. Selman observes: “The people gathered in an assembly (vv. 5, 14, 26; cf. ‘assembled’, v. 4). The repetition of all Judah (vv. 3, 13, 15, 18; cf. vv. 20, 27), and reference to every town in Judah (v. 4) and the women and children (v. 13) shows how strong this idea of a gathered community was (cf. also e.g. Ezra 10:7-15; Neh 8:2-12; 13:1-3)” (Selman, 443, italics original).
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 787
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 156.
Cf. Bernhard W. Anderson, Out of the Depths: The Psalms Speak for Us Today, 3rd ed. (Philadelphia, Penn.: Westminster, 2000), 49-76; Hill, 489.
See also, e.g., Ps 47:2 [MT 47:3], 7-8 [MT 8-9]; Dan 4:17 [MT 4:14], 25 [MT 22], 32 [MT 29].
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 789.
Ibid., 790. “With a clear change of tone, indicated by ‘and now’, Jehoshaphat now moves from the declaratory statement of vv. 6-9 to the present, with its impending calamity” (p. 791).
Selman, 444 (italics original).
Cf. BDB, 168.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 791.
Here in 2 Chr 20:11, just as in 1 Chr 17:21, garash is used, whereas in Exod 34:24 yarash is used. In 2 Chr 20, however, previously in verse 7, just as in Exod 34:24, yarash is employed for the expulsion of nations. Even though there are other similar verbs for the expulsion of nations (cf. shalakh [Lev 18:24; 20:23], hadap [Deut 6:19; 9:4], and nashal [Deut 7:1]), yarash is predominant (Exod 34:24; Deut 9:4; 1 Kgs 14:24; 21:26; 2 Kgs 16:3; 17:8; 21:2; 2 Chr 20:7; 28:3; 33:2; Ps 44:2 [MT 44:3]), and then garash (1 Chr 17:21; 2 Chr 20:11; Ps 78:55; 80:8 [MT 80:9]).
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 791.
Ibid.
Ibid., 788.
Ibid., 792.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Cf. ibid., 792-93: “The whole attitude of Jehoshaphat’s prayer summarizes one of the interesting paradoxes of the Chronicler’s thought. . . . the Chronicler’s historiography attributes military power and activity to righteous kings. Jehoshaphat himself was earlier described as equipping and manning the fortified cities (17:2, 12, 19) and recruiting an army of over a million warriors (17:14-19). At the same time, the pious king is expected not only to possess military strength but to forego its use and to rely only on God for protection. This paradox may illustrate the comprehensiveness of the religious element in the Chronicler’s historical philosophy.”
Ibid., 793.
For Asaph, see 1 Chr 16:4-5, 7, 37; 25:1-2, 6.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 793.
Cf. ibid., 794.
Cf. Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 297-99; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 154-55; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 793.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 793.
Cf. Geoffrey Wigoder, ed., The Illustrated Dictionary and Concordance of the Bible, new rev. ed. (New York: Sterling Publishing, 2005), 1015; D. F. Payne, “Ziz,” IBD, 3:1684.
J. D. Douglas, “Jeruel,” IBD, 2:752.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 794.
Cf. ibid., 795.
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 294.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 795.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 294.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 796-97.
Cf. J. A. Thompson, “Tekoa,” IBD, 3:1521.
Ibid., 3:1522.
Cf. Selman, 447; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 158.
Selman, 447.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 797.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 158.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 796-97.
Selman, 447.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 797.
Ibid.
For the content of this song of praise, see Ps 136:1, the Chronicler’s favorite psalm (cf. 1 Chr 16:34; 2 Chr 5:13; 7:3).
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 797.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 300.
Selman, 447.
For the history of exegesis on the “ambushers” here, see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 797-798; idem, Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 130 and n. 373; Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 300.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 797-798; idem, Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 103.
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 295; R. J. Way, “Beracah,” IBD, 1:186.
SDABC, 3:265.
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 295.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 799.
Because of this alliance Jehoshaphat was rebuked and warned by Jehu the son of Hanani the seer (2 Chr 19:2).
Interestingly but unfortunately, the fatal wound and consequential death of Ahab as well as the wound of Joram the grandson of Ahab is related to battles at Ramoth-gilead.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 802.
Ibid.
J. P. U. Lilley, “Mareshah,” IBD, 2:945.
Ibid.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 164. Jehoshaphat made the fortified cities key administrative, economic, military, and juridical centers (cf. 2 Chr 17:2; 19:5), and the placement of his sons there as governors, representing the royal interest, is part of the same policy.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 808 (italics original).
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 165.
Thiele, A Chronology of the Hebrew Kings, 36-38, 75, 77.
Ibid., 37: “When a king termed the year commencing with the new year’s day after his accession of the first official year of his reign, he termed the portion of the year in which he came to the throne his accession year. This is called accession-year reckoning, or postdating. But if he termed the year in which he ascended the throne his first official year, that may be termed nonaccession-year dating, or antedating.” “In Israel the nonaccession-year was employed from Jeroboam to Jehoahaz inclusive,” whereas “in Judah the accession-year system was employed from Rehoboam to Jehoshaphat inclusive, then the nonaccession-year system was employed from Jehoram to Joash; and with the next ruler, Amaziah, Judah went back to accession-year dating and employed that system to the end of its history.”
Those who belong to the “bad kings” are as follows: Nadab (1 Kgs 15:26), Baasha (15:34; 16:7), Zimri (16:19), Omri (16:25), Ahab (16:30; 21:20, 25), Ahaziah of Israel (22:52), Jehoram of Israel (2 Kgs 3:2), Jehoram of Judah (2 Kgs 8:18; 2 Chr 21:6), Ahaziah of Judah (2 Kgs 8:27; 2 Chr 22:4), Jehoahaz of Israel (2 Kgs 13:2), Jehoash (13:11), Jeroboam II (14:24), Zechariah (15:9), Menahem (15:18), Pekahiah (15:24), Pekah (15:28), Hoshea (17:2), Manasseh (21:2, 6, 16; 2 Chr 33:2, 6), Amon (2 Kgs 21:20; 2 Chr 33:22), Jehoahaz of Judah (2 Kgs 23:32), Jehoiakim (2 Kgs 23:37; 2 Chr 36:5), Jehoiachin (2 Kgs 24:9; 2 Chr 36:9), and Zedekiah (2 Chr 36:12; Jer 52:2). Cf. Lester L. Grabbe, ed. Good Kings and Bad Kings, Library of Hebrew Bible/OT Studies 393 (London: T&T Clark, 2005).
Cf. Selman, 452-53.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 809.
Cf. Paul D. Hanson, “The Song of Heshbon and David’s Nir,” HTR 61 (1968): 297-320.
Selman, 453.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 298. Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 809-10: “The explicit interpretative clause of 1 Kgs 15:4 makes it clear that here, too, this metaphor means ‘to set up his son after him,’ establishing a continuous, unbroken Davidic dynastic line.”
This theological aspect is not mentioned in the parallel passage (2 Kgs 8:22).
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 305.
For a textual discussion on 2 Chr 21:9 and 2 Kgs 8:21, see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 810; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 305.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 166.
Cf. J. P. U. Lilley, “Libnah,” IBD, 2:900.
Zecharia Kallai, Historical Geography of the Bible: The Tribal Territories of Israel (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1986), 379-382; Denis Baly, Geography of the Bible (Guildford: Lutterworth Press, 1974), 139, 142; cf. Selman, 454 n. 61; Lilley, “Libnah,” IBD, 2:900.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 811.
Selman, 454. For a discussion on high places, see J. T. Whitney, “High Place,” IBD, 2:648-50.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 811.
Ibid.
Ibid.; cf. HALOT, 1:275.
BDB, 275.
Cf. ibid., 276; HALOT, 1:275-76; 4:1715-16.
Cf. Japhet, 811. For the usage of zanah, see Hos 1:2; 2:7; 3:3; 4:10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18; 5:3; 9:1; Jer 2:20; 3:1, 6, 8; Ezek 6:9 [2x]; 16:15, 16, 17, 26, 28 [2x], 34; 20:30; 23:3 [2x], 5, 19, 30, 43. For the usage of znunim, see Hos 1:2 [2x]; 2:4, 6; 4:12; 5:4; Ezek 23:11, 29. For the usage of znut, see Hos 4:11; 6:10; Jer 3:2, 9; 13:27; Ezek 23:27; 43:7, 9. For the usage of taznut, see Ezek 16:15, 16, 22, 25, 26, 29, 33, 34, 36; 23:7, 8 [2x], 11, 14, 17, 18, 19, 29, 35, 43.
Selman, 455.
BDB, 623.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 811-812. See also Deut 4:19; 2 Kgs 17:21.
Cf. ibid., 811.
SDABC, 2:38-41; 3:267; cf. PK 212.
Ibid.
Cf. 2 Kgs 8:16, which can be reconciled with 2 Kgs 1:17 by positing a coregency between Jehoshaphat and Jehoram (cf. on 2 Chr 21:5). The second year of Jehoram in 2 Kgs 1:17 would refer to the second year of his coregency, whereas his accession in the fifth year of Joram (2 Kgs 8:16) would be the first year of his sole reign. For a possible political situation for Jehoshaphat to appoint Jehoram as coregent, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 165.
Ibid., 167.
Cf. Selman, 455; PK 213: “The prophet Elijah . . . sent to Jehoram of Judah a written communication.”
Selman, 455.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 814.
Ibid.
Cf. ibid., 814.
Note the chiasm: v. 11: “the inhabitants of Jerusalem” (a) / “Judah” (b) // v. 13: “Judah” (b’)/ “the inhabitants of Jerusalem” (a’).
Note the incomplete chiasm: v. 4 (a)/v. 6 (b)/v. 11 (c)//v. 13 (b’/c’/a’).
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 814.
Ibid.
Cf. BDB, 619-20.
Cf. Selman, 455-56.
BDB, 619.
There are only two other occurrences of maggepah modified by gadol in the OT (1 Sam 4:17; 2 Sam 18:7).
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 814, was “inclined to see in ‘ammeka a reference not to ‘your people,’ since they have no part in Jehoram’s downfall (cf. v. 17), but to ‘your family’” (cf. HALOT, 2:837), and argued: “The predicted punishment, like the sin, is described in family, personal terms: your sons, your wives, your possessions.” Thus she concluded: “The crimes committed by the king against his ‘house’ are punished by injuries to his body, his possessions and his near kin. Of all retributions recorded in Chronicles, this passage has the most personal, almost limited to the king himself” (ibid.). Cf. NKJV renders, “Behold, the LORD will strike your people with a serious affliction ̶ your children, your wives, and all your possessions.”
The causative of the Hebrew verb ‘ur, “wake up, be excited.” Cf. BDB, 734; HALOT, 2:802-803.
BDB, 940. Especially as booty (Gen 14:11, 12, 16 [2x], 21; 2 Chr 20:25; 21:14, 17; Dan 11:24, 28).
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 300.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 814.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 168; cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 814: “The phrasing of 22:1 makes it clear . . . that this was not a major military campaign, but a raid of smaller bands, invading Judah with the intention of looting and taking captives, as described in v. 17.”
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 301: “Jehoram’s youngest son [Ahaziah], with his mother, as chap. 22 makes clear, remained with the king in Jerusalem.”
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 168.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 815-16: “This is one more example of the flexibility in the structuring of theophoric names, with the theophoric element placed either before or after the verbal phrase. Another well-known example is that of Jeconiah/Jehoiachin (cf. 1 Chr 3:16-17; 2 Chr 36:8-9).”
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 816.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 168. For various suggestions, see ibid., 169.
Cf. KJV, RSV, NEB, NIV, NASB, NRSV.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 816.
Ibid.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 301.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 817: “The first assertion is sometimes also missing [in the standard formulas found] in . . . Kings, when a monarch comes to a violent end (cf. 2 Kgs 12:20-21; 14:19[-20]; 21:23[-24]; 23:29-30, for Joash, Amaziah, Amon and Josiah). To these the Chronicler adds the case of Jehoram, probably intending that the fatal suffering brought on by his disease cannot be considered a natural death.” Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 310.
The expression “his fathers” might be omitted in the case of Amon (2 Chr 33:24-25) because of the contrast made with Manasseh his father in v. 23. But it could be included in the cases of Joash (2 Kgs 12:21), Amaziah (2 Kgs 14:19-20; 2 Chr 25:27-28), and Josiah (2 Chr 35:24), where no such contrast is made. Its omission in the case of Joash in 2 Chronicles 24:25 may be due to the many oracles of Yahweh, the God of ‘their fathers’ against his forsaking Yahweh and then ultimately to the killing of Zechariah the son of Jehoiada the priest (v. 27; cf. vv. 2, 18-22), since, for the case of his subject, Jehoiada the priest, “they buried him in the city of David among the kings” (v. 16). How could the Chronicler record that Joash, the killer of Zechariah, shared such a same fortune with Jehoiada, the father of Zechariah?
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 169.
Selman, 456.
Myers, 125.
E. Puech, “L’ivoire inscrit d’Arslan-Tash et les Rois de Damas,” RB 88 (1981): 544-62.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 823; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 303.
SDABC, 2:908 (on 2 Kgs 9:27).
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 305.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 179-80.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 829.
Richard D. Patterson and Hermann J. Austel, “1, 2 Kings,” EBC, 4:217.
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 307 n. 58.
Cf. Patterson and Austel, 217.
Alfred Edersheim, Bible History: Old Testament, 7 vols. (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1979), 7:18.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 834.
HALOT, 1:123 (בַּיִן), 129 (II בַּיִת).
On the other hand, Dillard states that “The ‘Horse Gate’ should be distinguished from the gate of the same name in the city wall (Jer 31:40; Neh 3:28), though both could have been oriented in the same direction” (Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 183). But this argument could hardly be proved.
Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 217.
Patterson and Austel, “1, 2 Kings,” EBC, 4:222.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 191. Japhet suggests two reasons for the differences as follows: “While the Kings narrative gives the impression of economic dearth, the Chronicler’s version emphasizes that ‘they . . . collected money in abundance’ (v. 11), so much so that when the building was completed, money remained for other purposes. More importantly, according to the Chronicler’s view, the replacement of the cultic vessels was imperative, since the Temple had been broken into and defiled by Athaliah. If the prohibition of 2 Kings 12:13 were followed, no ritual would be possible! The end of v. 14 confirms this view: after the restoration was completed and the new vessels provided, ‘they offered burnt offerings in the house of the Lord, regularly’ (RSV ‘continually’)” (Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 846).
De Vries, 345.
Cf. A. Malamat, “Longevity: Biblical Concepts and Some Ancient Near Eastern Parallels,” Archiv für Orientforschung, Beihefte 19 (1982): 215-24.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 76-81 (“Reward and Punishment in Chronicles: The Theology of Immediate Retribution [2 Chron 10-36]”).
Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 346: The question of the dating of the closing of the OT is still debated, at least in respect to the Writings (Kethubim), and in Codex Leningradensis Chronicles is the first instead of the last book of the Kethubim. Isaac Kalimi counters that this word of Jesus represents knowledge of a first-century collection of Hebrew Scripture without indicating the precise contents of the third sectionof this collection (Isaac Kalimi, The Retelling of Chronicles in Jewish Tradition and Literature [Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2009], 48-49).
For alternative interpretations of Matt 23:35, see Craig L. Blomberg, Matthew (Nashville, Tenn.: Broadman Press, 1992), 349; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 346 and n. 75.
Michael Wilcock, The Message of Chronicles, The Bible Speaks Today (Downers Grove, Ill: InterVarsity Press, 1987), 215.
HALOT, 3:1784.
See SDABC, 3:270 (on 2 Chr 22:8).
Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 357.
Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 63-64.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 356.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 861.
E. M. Cook, “Weights and Measures,” ISBE, 4:1053.
William G. Dever, “Weights and Measures,” Harper’s Bible Dictionary, ed. Paul J. Achtemeier (San Francisco, Calif.: Harper & Row, 1985), 1127.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 199. According to the Chronicler, alliances with the Northern Kingdom, such as Jehoshaphat’s with Ahab (2 Chr 18//1 Kgs 22) are sinful (cf. Isaac Kalimi, The Reshaping of Ancient Israelite History in Chronicles [Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2005], 118 n. 48; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 357 n. 19).
Regarding the difficulty of translating this verse, see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 864.
For the attempts to identify Sela, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 200; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 358.
A. F. Rainey, “Sela (Edom),” The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, Supplement, 800.
Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 359.
Rudolf, 278-79.
Keil and Delitzsch, vol. 3, section 2, pp. 423-24.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 322.
Regarding the custom of spoliating a vanquished people’s gods in the ancient Near East, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 201; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 322 n. 79.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 201-202; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 324.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 870; cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 362.
Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 113-20.
Ibid., 115.
However, this description “the city of Judah” occurs in some extrabiblical sources such as the Chronicles of the Neo-Babylonian Kings. Cf. D. J. Wiseman, Chronicles of the Chaldaean Kings (626-556 B.C.) in the British Museum (London: British Museum, 1956), 73; Myers, 144.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 203.
Cf. A. M. Honeyman, “The Evidence for Regnal Names among the Hebrews,” JBL 67 (1948): 20-22; Myers, 149.
Cf. Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 116-18.
Trisha M. Wheelock, “Jecoliah,” NIDB, 3:204.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 370.
Ibid., 371.
Cf. ibid., 367 no. 3.
Ibid., 371.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 208; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 328.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 372.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 335.
Cf. Rudolph, 282; Curtis, 451-52; Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 335; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 206; Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 366; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 372; Randall W. Younker, “Gurbaal,” ABD, 2:1100.
Ernst Axel Knauf, “Meunim” [Meunites], ABD, 4:801.
Sara Japhet, “The Wall of Jerusalem from a Double Perspective: Kings versus Chronicles,” in Essays on Ancient Israel in Its Near Eastern Context: A Tribute to Nadav Na’aman, ed. Yairah Amit, Ehud Ben Zvi, Israel Finkelstein, and Oded Lipschits (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2006), 212.
Peter Welten, Geschichte und Geshichtsdarstellung in den Chronikbüchern, Wissenschaftliche Monographien zum Alten und Neuen Testament 42 (Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1973), 24-27.
W. Harold Mare, “Angle, The,” ABD, 1:255.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 209. For the bibliography of more archaeological finds, see Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 336-37; Myers, 152-53.
J. N. Graham, “‘Vinedressers and Plowmen’: 2 Kings 25:12 and Jeremiah 52:16,” BA 47 (1984): 56.
Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 142 n. 7.
HALOT, 1:361.
Welten, 113.
Cf. Y. Sukenik [Yadin], “Engines Invented by Cunning Men,” Bulletin of the Jewish Palestine Exploration Society 13 (1946-47): 19-24; Yigael Yadin, The Art of Warfare in Biblical Lands (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1963), 325-27.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 207.
E. V. Hulse, “The Nature of Biblical ‘Leprosy’ and the Use of Alternative Medical Terms in Modern Translations of the Bible,” PEQ 107 (1975): 87-105.
Cf. S. G. Browne, Leprosy in the Bible (London: Christian Medical Society, 1970); John J. Pilch, “Leprosy,” NIDB, 3:635-37.
Josephus Antiquities, 9:227.
Cf. G. Ernest Wright, “A Gravestone of Uzziah, King of Judah,” BA 1 (1938): 8-9.
S. Yeivin, “The Sepulchers of the Kings of the House of David,” JNES 7 (1948): 31-32.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 214; Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 371.
“Jerushah” (yerushah/יְרוּשָׁה) in this text is spelled “Jerusha” (yerusha’/יְרוּשָׁא) in 2 Kgs 15:33.
Josephus Jewish War, ii. 17. 9; v. 4. 1-2; v. 6. 1; vi. 6. 3.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 215.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 334.
Hicks, 438.
Cf. Curtis and Madwen, 457; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 898.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 220.
Selman, 499.
Richard D. Nelson, Deuteronomy: A Commentary, OTL (Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox, 2002), 161 n. 20, 233. M. Weinfeld also argued that passing one’s children through the fire meant dedicating them to the sacred authority (M. Weinfeld, “The Worship of Molech and of the Queen of Heaven and Its Background,” UF 4 [1972]: 144-49). Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 396 n. 17.
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 336; B. Oded, “The Historical Background of the Syro-Ephraimite War Reconsidered,” CBQ 34 (1971): 153-65.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 219.
Y. Shiloh, “The Population of Iron Age Palestine in the Light of a Sample Analysis of Urban Plans, Areas, and Population Density,” BASOR 239 (1980): 25-35.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 337.
E.g., Wilcock, 240-41; S. Spenser, “2 Chronicles 28:5-15 and the Parable of the Good Samaritan,” WTJ 46 (1984): 317-49; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 223; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 338.
This chiastic structure was discerned by Mary Katherine Yem Hing Hom, “Chiasmus in Chronicles: Investigating the Structures of 2 Chronicles 28:16-21; 33:1-20; and 31:20-32:33,” AUSS 47 (2009): 164.
See the apparatus of BHS at 2 Kgs 16:6, where the Kethib is ’aromim, and the Qere is ’adomim.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 339.
Cf. SDABC, 2:55, 155.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 907.
PK 330.
Hill, 578.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 340.
Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 413.
See the introductory article by Dillard, “The Chronicler’s Hezekiah” (Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 227-229), and Klein, 2 Chronicles, 413.
J. G. McConville, I & II Chronicles, The Daily Bible Study Series (Philadelphia, Pa.: Westminster John Knox, 1984), 231.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 918.
The son of Uzziel, Elizaphan was the head of the Kohathites who camped south of the tabernacle in the wilderness of Sinai (Num 3:30). In Exodus his name appears as Elzaphan (6:22). Together with his brother Mishael he took away the bodies of Nadab and Abihu after they had been smitten by the fire of Yahweh in the tabernacle (Lev 10:4).
Peter R. Ackroyd, “The Temple Vessels ̶ A Continuity Theme,” in Studies in the Religion of Ancient Israel, ed. P. de Boer, VTSup 23 (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1972), 166-81.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 235.
Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 385.
Kleinig, 82. Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 422 n. 71.
Kleinig, 86.
Thirteen times in all: 2 Chr 29:23, 28, 31, 32; 30:2, 4, 13, 17, 23, 24 (twice), 25; 31:18.
Cf. Kleinig, 122.
Reference is made to “the commandment of David” (v. 25), “the instruments of David” (vv. 26, 27), and “the words of David” (v. 30) (Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 928).
Cf. Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 359; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 929.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 350.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 931.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 425.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 240-43; Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 360-365; Myers, 176-178; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 934-36.
Curtis and Madsen, 471.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 937.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 243-44.
Regarding the arguments about this question, see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 940-41; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 434.
Selman’s observation on the use of the Hebrew verb shub (return, turn) in our text is astute and interesting: “An appeal was made for the people to return to the LORD (vv. 6, 9), . . . The whole message is a play on the word ‘turn’ (Heb. šûb), which also sounds very [much] like the word for ‘captors’ (Heb. šôbîm). ‘Turn’ is used with several different nuances. When Israel returns to God in repentance (vv. 6, 9), their exiles will physically return (come back) to the Promised Land (v. 9). God will then turn his face from them no longer (v. 9) but turn away instead his fierce anger (v. 8), as he returns to them in compassion (v. 6; cf. v. 8)” (Selman, 518, italics original).
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 353.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 244.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 945.
5T 488; cf. 5T 30, 535.
In the NT, Matt 26:17 and Mark 14:12 refer to the first day of Unleavened Bread when the Passover lamb was sacrificed, while Luke 22:1 says, “Now the Feast of Unleavened Bread, which is called the Passover, was approaching” (NASB).
According to Exod 12:2-6, preparations for Passover began on the 10th day of the first month, which is four days before the sacrifice itself.
E.g., Moses Buttenwieser, “לַיהוָֽה לֵי־עֹ֖זבִּכְ 2 Chronicles 30:21: A Perfect Text,” JBL 45 (1926): 156-58; I. L. Seeligmann, “Researches into the Criticism of the Masoretic Text of the Bible,” Tarbiz 25 (1955/6): 137.
Cf. H. H. Rowley, “Zadok and Nehushtan,” JBL 58 (1949): 113-141; Karen Randolph Joines, “The Bronze Serpent in the Israelite Cult,” JBL 87 (1968): 245-56.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 373; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 447.
The likeness of Hezekiah to David and Solomon is further illustrated by Hezekiah’s oversight of the cultic personnel (1 Chr 23-26; cf. 2 Chr 8:14) and his care in following the “Law of Yahweh” (1 Chr 16:40; 22:12; 30:16; 31:4, 21; cf. 2 Chr 12:1; 17:9; 19:8; 23:18; 34:14-15; 35:26) (Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 357; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 249; Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 396).
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 358; cf. Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 374.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 450.
For the discussion of the name “Azariah,” see ibid. n. 30.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 251; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 359.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 169 (on 1 Chr 23:3-6a).
Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 177, 203.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 256.
“Babylonian and Assyrian Historical Texts,” trans. A. Leo Oppenheim, ANET, 288.
Several scholarly studies have been presented regarding Jerusalem’s water supply and the exact identity of the springs referred to in our text. Cf. Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 380-81; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 256-57; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 361; Hershel Shanks, The City of David (Washington, D.C.: Biblical Archaeological Society, 1975); D. Cole, “How Water Tunnels Worked,” BAR 6/2 (1980): 8-29; Y. Shiloh, “Jerusalem’s Water Supply during Siege—The Recovery of Warren’s Shaft,” BAR 7/4 (1981): 24-39.
Cf. Hill, 601-605 (“Hezekiah the Encourager”).
Ibid., 594.
Selman, 533 (italics original).
Dillard, 258.
Ibid.
Cf. Daegeuk Nam, “The Biblical Meanings of Heaven,” in To Understand the Scriptures: Essays in Honor of William H. Shea (ed. David Merling; Berrien Springs, Mich.: Institute of Archaeology, Andrews University, 1997), 296.
Hill, 595.
Donald J. Wiseman, 1 and 2 Kings, TOTC 9 (Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 2008), 285; cf. “Babylonian and Assyrian Historical Texts,” trans. A. Leo Oppenheim, ANET, 288-89.
ANET, 288-89.
This is the tunnel which was cut through the rock and directs water from Gihon Spring, otherwise called St. Mary’s Spring, to Pool of Siloam (cf. Neh 3:15; Isa 8:6; John 9:7) which was inside the city of Jerusalem at that time. This tunnel is about 540 m. long, 3-4 m. high, and 1 m. wide.
The inscription was discovered in 1880 by a youth (Jacob Eliahu, later Jacob Spafford) wading up Hezekiah’s tunnel, and was surreptitiously cut from the wall of the tunnel in 1891 and broken into fragments which were recovered through the efforts of the British Consul in Jerusalem and placed in the Istanbul Archaeology Museum. It is 38 cm. high and 72 cm. wide, and describes how the great engineering project was done. There are six lines written in Hebrew using the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet (cf. “The Siloam Inscription,” trans. W. F. Albright, ANET, 321; Simon Sebag Montefiore, Jerusalem, the Biography [New York: Vintage Books, 2011], 37).
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 260.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1001. Cf. Hom, 167.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 390. Regarding the reason for this omission, the different ideas have been presented among the scholars (cf. John W. McKay, Religion in Judah under the Assyrians [Naperville, Ill.: Alec R. Allenson, 1973], 23-25; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1004; Hill, 613).
Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 173-74; cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 266.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 390; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 369.
Cf. Daegeuk Nam, Reading the Pentateuch in the Light of the Cultural Background (Seoul: Sahmyook University Press, 2011), 267-73.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1006.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1009; Hill, 614-15; Selman, 542-43.
Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 178; “Babylonian and Assyrian Historical Texts,” trans. A. Leo Oppenheim,” ANET, 291, 294.
Hill, 615.
Selman, 543.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 483 n. 77.
Similar reforms were undertaken by Asa (14:3-5 [MT 14:2-4]; 15:8, 16), Jehoshaphat (17:6; 19:3-4), Joash (23:16-20; 24:4-14), Hezekiah (29:3-31:21); and Josiah (34:3-17, 31-33; 35:1-19).
R. K. Harrison, “Manasseh, Prayer of,” ISBE, 3:235-36.
Cf. McKay, 24-25; Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 395.
Heather R. McMurray, “Amon,” NIDB, 1:133; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 486 n. 95.
Cf. A. Malamat, “The Historical Background of the Assassination of Amon, King of Judah,” IEJ 3 (1953): 26-29; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 487 n. 98; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 269-70.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 270.
John Tracy Thames, Jr., “A New Discussion of the Meaning of the Phrase ‘ām hā’āreṣ in the Hebrew Bible,” JBL 130 (2011): 109-25.
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 374; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 277.
Nadav Na’aman, “Josiah and the Kingdom of Judah,” in Good Kings and Bad Kings, ed. Lester L. Grabbe, Library of Hebrew Bible/OT Studies 393 (London: T&T Clark, 2005), 189.
See n. 13 above.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1025.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 501.
Rudolph, 323.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1030; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 502. For the arguments for and against this idea, see Otto Eissfeldt, The Old Testament: An Introduction, trans. Peter R. Ackroyd (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1965), 171-76.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 280, 281. The seven elements are as follows: (1) The centralization of worship in the one place chosen by God, i.e., the temple in Jerusalem (Deut 12); (2) the destruction of the high places and all rival cultic installations (Deut 12); (3) an extended section on curses (34:24; Deut 27:9-26; 28:15-68), including the threat of exile; (4) the character of the Passover observance (Deut 16); (5) a prophet consulted to know the will of God (34:22-28; Deut 18:9-22); (6) the Deuteronomic flavor of the Book of Kings; and (7) the covenant nature of Deuteronomy in view of the designation “the Book of the Covenant” in 34:30//2 Kgs 23:2. Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 377.
Gerhard von Rad, Das Geschichtsbild des chronistischen Werkes, BWANT 54 (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1930), 14; Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 401.
Cf. John Priest, “Huldah’s Oracle,” VT 30 (1980): 366-68.
For the discussion of this problem, see Priest, 366-68.
Selman, 555.
Cf. von Rad, Das Geschichtsbild des chronistischen Werkes, 114.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 379.
Cf. John Day, “Whatever Happened to the Ark of the Covenant?” in Temple and Worship in Biblical Israel, Library of Hebrew Bible/OT Studies 422, ed. John Day (London: T&T Clark International, 2005), 250-70.
Menahem Haran, Temples and Temple-Service in Ancient Israel: An Inquiry into Biblical Cult Phenomena and the Historical Setting of the Priestly School (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979), 276-88.
E.g., according to an apocryphal book, Jeremiah the prophet took the ark from the Temple and hid it in one of the caves “in the mountain where Moses climbed up” just before the Temple was destroyed by the Babylonians (2 Macc 2:4-5).
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 290.
Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 520-21.
Kalimi, 156-57.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 290.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1051.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 407.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 523.
It is interesting that 1 Esdras, an ancient Greek version of the biblical Book of Ezra, regarded as canonical in the churches of the East, but apocryphal in the West, inserts two more verses after 2 Chr 35:19, which praise the good deeds of Joaiah (1 Esdras 1:21-22). Regarding the relation between this work and 2 Chr 35, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 286-87. The LXX adds a translation of 2 Kgs 23:24-27 after 2 Chr 35:19. These four verses praise the pious activities of Josiah, but also state that Yahweh’s wrath remained strong against Judah because of Manasseh’s sins. For the discussion of this issue, see Klein, 2 Chronicles, 513. But these are not included in the MT.
Cf. Myers, 215-16.
Ibid., 216; cf. Wiseman, Chronicles of Chaldaean Kings, 19.
C. T. Begg, “The Death of Josiah in Chronicles: Another View,” VT 37 (1987): 1-8.
Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 421.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1061.
Cf. Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 412.
For more similar cases, see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1059.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 298.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1064.
Cf. Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 182; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 299.
Mark K. Mercer, “Daniel 1:1 and Jehoiakim’s Three Years of Servitude,” AUSS 27 (1989): 179-92.
Cf. F. B. Huey, Jeremiah, Lamentations, NAC 16 (Nashville, Tenn.: Broadman & Holman, 1993), 207.
Cf. Alberto R. Green, “The Fate of Jehoiakim,” AUSS 20 (1982): 105.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1068.
Roddy L. Braun, 1 Chronicles, WBC 14 (Waco, Tex.: Word Books, 1986), 51-52; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 539.
Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 544-45.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 418.
Ibid.; Curtis and Madsen, 524.
An ancient clay cylinder, on which is written a declaration in Akkadian cuneiform script in the name of Persia’s king Cyrus the Great. It dates from the 6th century B.C. and was discovered in the ruins of Babylon in 1879.
“Babylonian and Assyrian Historical Texts,” trans. A. Leo Oppenheim, ANET, 315-16 (from the text of the Cyrus Cylinder).
Cf. Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 25-26.
Mark J. Boda, “Identity and Empire, Reality and Hope in the Chronicler’s Perspective,” in Community Identity in Judean Historiography: Biblical and Comparative Perspectives, ed. Gary N. Knoppers and Kenneth A. Ristau (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2009), 255-56 n. 21.

 
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Old 07-02-2020, 08:30 AM   #20
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Raymond B. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, WBC 15 (Waco, Tex.: Word Books, 1987), 1-2.
Roddy L. Braun, “Solomon, the Chosen Temple Builder: The Significance of 1 Chronicles 22, 28, and 29 for the Theology of Chronicles,” JBL 95 (1976): 588-90.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 4-5.
Cf. David A. Dorsey, The Literary Structure of the Old Testament: A Commentary of Genesis ̶ Malachi (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Academic, 1999), 148; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 5-6.
H. G. M. Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, NCBC (Eugene, Oreg.: Wipf & Stock, 1982), 193; J. A. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, NAC 9 (Nashville, Tenn.: Broadman & Holman, 1994), 203; Ralph W. Klein, 2 Chronicles: A Commentary, Hermeneia (Minneapolis, Minn.: Fortress Press, 2012), 20.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 11.
PK, 30.
Yutaka Ikeda, “Solomon’s Trade in Horses and Chariots in Its International Setting,” in Studies in the Period of David and Solomon and Other Essays, ed. Tomoo Ishida (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1982), 215-38.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 207.
In 2 Chr 2, the verse numbers of the Hebrew Bible (MT) are one less than the modern versions so that 2:1 in the English versions is 1:18 in the Hebrew Bible.
Cf. Martin J. Selman, 2 Chronicles, TOTC 11 (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1994), 312. Also to be noted in this connection is Solomon’s acknowledgment in his prayer at the dedication of the Temple that Yahweh said, “My name shall be there” (1 Kgs 8:29).
Ibid., 313.
In the Hebrew Bible, there are a small number of differences between ‘what is written’ in the consonantal text, as preserved by scribal tradition, and ‘what is read’ in the pronunciation of the words in the MT (Tanakh). In such situation, ‘what is written’ is referred to technically as the Kethib (Aramaic “written”), and ‘what is read’ as the Qere (Aramaic “read, pronounced”).
1 Chr 6:15; 2 Chr 2:7; 11:14; 20:5, 15, 17, 18, 23, 27; 21:13; 24:6, 9, 18, 23; 28:10; 29:8; 32:12, 25, 33; 33:9; 34:3, 5, 29; 35:24; 36:4, 10.
Selman, 315; cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 19.
For love (’ahab, ’ahabah) as a typical covenant or treaty term, see William J. Moran, “The Ancient Near Eastern Background of the Love of God in Deuteronomy,” CBQ 25 (1963): 77-87. See also, e.g., Exod 20:6; 1 Sam 18:1, 3; 2 Sam 1:26.
For the detailed chiastic structure of 2 Chr 1-9, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 5-7.
For Yahweh as the Maker/Creator of heaven and earth, see 2 Kgs 19:15; Neh 9:6; Pss 115:15; 121:2; 124:8; 134:3; 146:6; Isa 37:16; Jer 51:15. See also Jonah 1:10; Acts 4:24; 14:15; 17:24; Rev 14:7.
For this use of the Hebrew word ’ab, see Gen 45:8; Judg 17:10; 2 Kgs 2:12; 13:14.
For more discussions, see Sara Japhet, I & II Chronicles: A Commentary, OTL (Louisville and London: Westminster John Knox Press, 1993), 544; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 20; Selman, 317.
Except those with the additionals (2 Chr 2:13; 4:16).
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 544. As for khuram ’abiw in 2 Chr 4:16, it is to be noted that the Chronicler was trying to keep “Huramabi” as if it were a compound noun. Thus it should not be considered as a textual corruption of khuram ’abi (“Huramabi”).
Rudolf Mosis, Untersuchungen zur Theologie des chronistischen Geschichtswerkes (Freiburg: Verlag Herder, 1973), 167. For Solomon and Huram-abi as the new Bezalel and Oholiab, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 4-5, 23. For Huram-abi as the new Oholiab, see ibid., 4-5, 20-21.
Selman, 317. For the ancestry of Samuel, see 1 Sam 1:1; 1 Chr 6:34.
PK, 63.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 545. See also H. J. Katzenstein, The History of Tyre (Jerusalem: Schocken Institute for Jewish Research, 1973), 65-67; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 20-21. For other suggestions, see ibid., 20.
E.g., Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 201.
For their actual relationship, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 21; Selman, 313.
See Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 22; Selman, 364.
Cf. Andrew E. Hill, 1 & 2 Chronicles, The NIV Application Commentary (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 2003), 384: “The reference to Mount Moriah awakens memories of the Lord’s appearance to Abraham . . . . The reminder of the Lord’s appearances at this site earlier in Israelite history may be the Chronicler’s attempt to encourage his own audience.”
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 27. Cf. Mark J. Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, Cornerstone Biblical Commentary 5a (Carol, Ill.: Tyndale House, 2010), 250 n. 3.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 551, where Japhet remarks as follows: “One may attribute this silence either to the author’s lack of interest in the subject, or to the problematic position of the site within the sacral traditions of Israel. The significance of this matter for the Chronicler is evident in the reference to the site from four different angles: 1. Geography, ‘In Jerusalem, on Mount Moriah’; 2. Theophany, ‘Where the Lord had appeared to David his father’; 3. Authority, ‘At the place that David had appointed’; and 4. Tradition, recalling the hieros logos of the Temple, connected with ‘the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite’.”
For the detailed study of the foundations of the temples in the ancient Near East and Israel, see Mark J. Boda and Jamie Novotny, eds., From the Foundations to the Crenellations: Essays on Temple Building in the Ancient Near East and Hebrew Bible, AOAT 366 (Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2010). Especially, the two articles in this book are useful for the study of Temple building of Solomon: Victor Avigdor Hurowits, “‘Solomon Built the Temple and Completed It’: Building the First Temple According to the Book of Kings” (pp. 281-302); Mark J. Boda, “Legitimizing the Temple: The Chronicler’s Temple Building Account” (pp. 303-18).
SDABC, 1:165.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 553.
Abraham Even-Shoshan, ed., A New Concordance of the Bible: Thesaurus of the Language of the Bible, Hebrew and Aramaic Roots, Words, Proper Names, Phrases and Synonyms (Jerusalem: “Kiryat Sefer” Publishing House, 1985), 203-204.
Michael Zohary, Plants of the Bible (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982), 106.
For a more detailed discussion, see Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 207-208; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 28-29.
Carol Meyers, “Cherubim,” ABD, 1:900.
W. A. L. Elmslie, “The First and Second Books of Chronicles,” IB, 3:449.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 27; Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 247.
Josephus Jewish War, 5:5.5.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 30.
E.g., “The NIV adds the word ‘together’ as an effort at harmonization. Another is that the Chronicler added to the eighteen cubits the circumference of the pillars (twelve cubits) and the height of the capital (five cubits) to make up thirty-five cubits. But nothing in the text suggests this. Another is that the letters representing the number eighteen were misread in the course of transmission” (Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 218). Cf. J. B. Payne, “The Validity of the Numbers in Chronicles: Part One,” BSac 136 (1979): 121-22; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 31.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 557.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 30.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 219.
Hill, 387.
Cf. C. F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, Commentary on the Old Testament in Ten Volumes (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1982), 3:2:320; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 564.
Payne, “The Validity of the Numbers in Chronicles,” 122.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 210-11; Hill, 387.
SDABC, 3:219.
Menaḥ. 98b.
Josephus Antiquities, 8:88-89.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 36.
Cf. Keil and Delitzsch, 3:2:322.
Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 250.
Cf. John W. Kleinig, Lord’s Song: The Basis, Function and Significance of Choral Music in Chronicles, JSOTSS 156 (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993), 157.
For the discussion of the addition or omission of the waw (ו), see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 576-77.
According to Brevard S. Childs, this formula, “to this day” (Heb. ‘ad hayyom hazzeh), occurs 84 times in the MT and he concludes that this formula “seldom has an etiological function of justifying an existing phenomenon, but in the great majority of cases is a formula of personal testimony added to, and confirming, a received tradition” (Brevard S. Childs, “A Study of the Formula ‘Until This Day’,” JBL 82 [1963]: 292).
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 580.
S. Zalewski, “Cultic Officials in the Book of Chronicles,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Melbourne, 1968), 308.
Kleinig, 36. He continues on the same page: “The singing of the LORD’s song to instrumental accompaniment was therefore regarded as an extension of the priestly mandate to sound the trumpets over the public sacrifices.”
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 79.
Thomas Willi, “Evokation und Bekenntnis: Art und Ort der chronistischen Vokal- und Instrumentalmusik,” in Sprachen-Bilder-Klänge: Dimensionen der Theologie im Alten Testament und in seinem Umfeld, ed. C. Karrer-Grube et al., AOAT 359 (Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2009), 356; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 80.
Kleinig, 166.
Selman, 340.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 591.
Cf. J. A. Thompson, “Joel’s Locusts in the Light of Near Eastern Parallels,” JNES 14 (1955): 52-55.
For the detailed analysis of the two texts, see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 602-603; Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 220-21.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 604-605. For more explanations, see A. Caquot, “‘Les Graces de David,’ à propos d’Isaie 55/3b,” Semitica 15 (1965): 45-59; H. G. M. Williamson, “‘The Sure Mercies of David’: Subjective or Objective Genitive?” JSS 23 (1978): 31-49.
Sara Japhet observes that “the details of v. 3 attest significant points in the Chronicler’s concept of religion” and regards it as “an important theological statement.” She reasons as follows: “In Lev 9:23-24 a similar experience is phrased in passive terms, as if to create a sense of distance: ‘the glory of the Lord appeared’ (literally ‘was seen’) and ‘fire came from before the Lord.’ Here the phrasing is in the active mood: ‘all the people were watching as the fire came down’ (NEB). . . . Here, however, in contrast to the Sinai theophany, the people are not driven by fright to shun the experience; rather their religious awe prompts them to bow down with their faces to the ground and praise God” (Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 610).
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 106.
Josephus Jewish War, 6:424-26.
John W. Wenham, “Large Numbers in the Old Testament,” TynB 18 (1967): 49. On the other hand, Otto Thenius calculated 262 oxen and 1,430 sheep per hour in a twelve-hour day during the seven-day festival, whereas Hugo Gressmann, who considered the numbers fantasy, put the number at 314 bulls per hour and 1,014 sheep in ten-hour days during the seven-day festival in Kings (Otto Thenius, Die Bücher der Könige, 2nd ed., Kurzgefasstes exegetisches Handbuch [Leipzig: Hirzel, 1873], 140; Hugo Gressmann, Die älteste Geshichtsschreibung und Prophetie Israels, 2nd ed., Die Schriften des Alten Testaments 2.1 [Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1921], 212). These quotations are cited from Klein, 2 Chronicles, 106.
“All Israel” occurs in 1 Chr 9:1; 11:1-4; 12:38-40; 13:1-8; 14:8; 15:3, 28; 16:1-3; 18:14; 19:17; 21:1-5; 22:17; 23:1-3; 28:1-8; 29:21-26; 2 Chr 1:1-3; 5:2-6; 6:3-13; 7:8-10; 9:30; 10:1-3, 16; 11:3, 13-17; 12:1; 13:4, 15; 18:16; 24:5; 28:23; 29:24; 30:1-13, 23-27; 31:6; 34:6-9, 33.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 57. See “The Chronicler’s Solomon (2 Chr 1-9)” (ibid., 1-7).
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 226.
For the discussion of the “apparent discrepancy” between Kings and Chronicles, see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 621-22; Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 227-29; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 62; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 238; John Mark Hicks, 1 & 2 Chronicles, The College Press NIV Commentary (Joplin, Mo.: College Press Publishing Company, 2001), 300; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 119-20.
Myers suggests a similar explanation. See Jacob M. Myers, II Chronicles: Introduction, Translation, and Notes, AB 13 (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1965), 47.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 622.
Ronald F. Youngblood, ed., Nelson’s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary, completely revised and updated edition (Nashville, Tenn.: Thomas Nelson, 1995), 535.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 64.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 121.
Josephus Antiquities, 8:152. For the identifications of Baalath, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 65; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 122.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 624.
Cf. Wenham, “Large Numbers in the Old Testament,” 49; D. W. Gooding, Relics of Ancient Exegesis: A Study of the Miscellanies in 3 Reigns 2, The Society for Old Testament Study Monograph Series 4 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976), 53-55.
The Targum specifies the name of the Pharaoh’s daughter as Bithyah, but this name comes from 1 Chr 4:18, where Mered married this daughter of Pharaoh (J. Stanley McIvor, The Targum of Chronicles, Aramaic Bible 19 [Collegeville, Minn.: Liturgical Press, 1994], 162; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 124 n. 40).
Hicks, 301.
Cf. William Johnstone, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 2 vols., JSOTSS 253 (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997), 1:365; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 124.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 65.
Selman, 365. Cf. Hicks, 301.
Johnstone, 1:366. Cf. Sara Japhet, “The Prohibition of the Habitation of Women: The Temple Scroll’s Attitude toward Sexual Impurity and Its Biblical Precedents,” JANES 22 (1993): 69-87.
Contrary to Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 239, who says, “Solomon himself sacrificed burnt offerings to the Lord on the altar he had built in front of the portico. This was not the altar within the holy place that was reserved for the priests.” But Japhet does not agree with Thompson (Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 627).
This term, “the man of God,” occurs fifty-five times in Kings, but only twenty times elsewhere in the OT. In Kings, this title is used for the anonymous man of God in Kgs 13 (sixteen times, plus 2 Kgs 23:16, 17), for Elijah (1 Kgs 17:18), for Elisha (2 Kgs 4:7, 21, 22, 25, 27, 42; 5:8, 14, 15, 20; 6:6, 9, 10, 15; 7:2, 17, 18; 8:2, 4, 7, 8, 11; 13:19), etc.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 630.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 66; Youngblood, 927.
Josephus Antiquities, 8:164.
William L. Holladay, ed., A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1971), 274.
Hill, 408.
Cf. Daegeuk Nam, The “Throne of God” Motif in the Hebrew Bible (Seoul: Sahmyook University Press, 1994), 153-63; Hicks, 305.
Edward Lewis Curtis and Albert Alonzo Madsen, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Chronicles, ICC (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1910), 357.
Alan R. Millard, “Does the Bible Exaggerate King Solomon’s Golden Wealth?” BAR 15/3 (1989): 31.
Holladay, 203. Cf. D. Dorsey, “Another Peculiar Term in the Book of Chronicles: מסלה, ‘Highway’?” JQR 75 (1984-85): 385-91.
Holladay, 204.
Selman, 373.
Holladay, 366.
J. A. Montgomery and H. S. Gehman, The Books of Kings, ICC (London: T&T Clark, 1951), 221-22; Myers, 58.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 73.
Myers, 54.
Victor P. Hamilton, Handbook on the Historical Books (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Academic, 2001), 490.
Holladay, 249.
Cf. A scholar dealt with this issue thoroughly in his dissertation: Yong Ho Jeon, Impeccable Solomon?: A Study of Solomon’s Faults in Chronicles (Eugene, Oreg.: Pickwick Publications, 2013).
Cf. Hill, 453.
H. G. M. Williamson, Israel in the Books of Chronicles (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977), 103; idem, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 238.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 156.
Ibid., 157.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 86 (italics supplied).
Cf. ibid.; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 652.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 250.
Hicks, 317.
Abraham Malamat, “Kingship and Council in Israel and Sumer: A Parallel,” JNES 22 (1963): 247-53; idem, “Organs of Statecraft in the Israelite Monarchy,” BA 28 (1965): 34-65. Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 158. Cf. the critique of his view by D. Geoffrey Evans, “Rehoboam’s Advisers at Shechem, and Political Institutions in Israel and Sumer,” JNES 25 (1966): 273-79. For the discussion of the two groups, see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 654-55.
E. Lipiński, “Le recit de 1 Rois xii 1-19 à la lumière de l’ancien usage de l’Hébreu et de nouveaux textes de Mari,” VT 24 (1974): 430-37; Selman, 380.
Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 158.
William J. Moran, “A Note on the Treaty Terminology of the Sefire Stelas,” JNES 22 (1963): 173-76; cf. Michael Fox, “Ṭôb as Covenant Terminology,” BASOR 209 (1973): 41-42.
So Kimḥi, in commenting on 1 Kgs 12:10, and Martin Noth, Könige, BKAT 9/1 (Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1968), 267. Klein believes that Noth’s interpretation is more likely (Klein, 2 Chronicles, 160). Dillard comments as follows: “It is at least possible that קטני, ‘my little thing,’ is euphemistic for the penis, a sense which would add rash vulgarity to the charge of foolishness against the young men” (Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 87).
HALOT, 2:1093.
Ibid., 2:828.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 160.
Hicks, 319.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 164.
Hill, 457.
Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 165; Hill, 458.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 95; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 253; Hill, 458.
Cf. Hicks, 321.
For the order and the detailed locations of these cities, see Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 241-43; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 169, 172-73.
E.g., Steven L. McKenzie, The Chronicler’s Use of the Deuteronomistic History, HSM 33 (Atlanta, Ga.: Scholars Press, 1985), 265.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 173. The Hebrew word nagid means all kinds of leader: from sovereign or prince (Ezek 28:2) to the chief of doorkeepers (1 Chr 9:20).
Ibid., 174. Contrary to Hobbs who interprets them as cities for internal control or taxation (T. R. Hobbs, “The ‘Fortresses of Rehoboam’: Another Look,” in Uncovering Ancient Stones: Essays in Memory of H. Neil Richardson, ed. L. M. Hopfe [Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1994], 41-64), and Hicks who argues that their function was “internal security” (Hicks, 322).
Hill, 458.
Holladay, 353.
Norman H. Snaith, “The Meaning of שׂעירים,” VT 25 (1975): 115-18; cf. HALOT, 2:1341.
William Gesenius, Gesenius’ Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures, trans. A. E. Cowley (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1910), 792.
Hill, 459.
“Mahalath” is the name of two women and a musical term in the OT. The first woman named Mahalath is a daughter of Ishmael and one of Esau’s wives (Gen 28:9), perhaps the same person as Basemath (36:3-4). The second woman called Mahalath is a daughter of Jerimoth in the present text, whom Rehoboam took as his wife. “Mahalath” is also used as a musical term in the superscripts of Pss 53 and 88.
For the detailed discussions on this, see Linda S. Schearing, “Maacah,” ABD, 4:429-30; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 670-71.
Josephus Antiquities, 8:249.
For the cases of polygamy and having many children, see Klein, 2 Chronicles, 177.
Hill, 460.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 98-99.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 178; Myers, 71.
Arnold B. Ehrlich, Randglossen zur hebräischen Bibel: Textkritisches, sprachliches und sachliches, 7 vols. (Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1908-1914; reprint, Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlag, 1968), 7:361. Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 672; Klein, 2 Chonicles, 168 no. 21; Kjell Hognesius, Text of 2 Chronicles 1-16, Coniectanea Biblica: OT Series 51 (Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 2003), 153.
Edwin R. Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, new rev. ed. (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1983), 10.
B. Mazar, “The Campaign of Pharaoh Shishak to Palestine,” in Volume du Congrès International pour l’étude de l’Ancien Testament, Strasbourg 1956, VTSup 4 (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1957), 57-66.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 99.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 677.
E.g., Kenneth A. Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt: 1100-650 B.C. (Warminster: Ais & Phillips, 1973), 294-300, 432-47.
Cf. Myers, 73; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 258.
Selman, 392.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 677-78.
The speeches found in First Chronicles are as follows: (1) 12:17, David to the leaders of Benjamin and Judah; (2) 13:2-3, David to all the assembly of Israel; (3) 15:2, 12-13, David to the leaders of the Levites; (4) 16:8-36, David to Asaph and his brethren; (5) 22:18-19, David’s call to the leaders of Israel; (6) 28:2-19, David to the leaders of Israel; (7) 28:20-21, David’s renewed charge to Solomon; and (8) 29:1-5, 20, David to all the assembly of Israel.
The speeches found in Second Chronicles are as follows: (1) 12:5-8, Shemaiah the prophet to Rehoboam and the leaders of Judah; (2) 13:4-12, Abijah king of Judah to Jeroboam and all Israel; (3) 14:7 (MT 14:6), King Asa to the people of Judah; (4) 15:2-7, Azariah the prophet to Asa and all Judah and Benjamin; (5) 19:2-3, Jehu the seer to Jehoshaphat; (6) 19:6-7, 9-11, Jehoshaphat to the judges; (7) 20:6-12, Jehoshaphat to the assembly of Judah and Jerusalem; (8) 20:15-17, Jahaziel the Levite to Jehoshaphat and the assembly of Judah and Jerusalem; (9) 20:20, Jehoshaphat to the assembly of Judah and Jerusalem; (10) 21:12-15, Elijah the prophet to Jehoram king of Judah (written speech); (11) 24:20, Zechariah the son of Jehoiada the priest to the people; (12) 28:9-11, Oded the prophet to the army, (13) 30:6-9, Hezekiah to the people of Israel and Judah (written speech); (14) 32:10-15, 17, Sennacherib to Hezekiah and the people of Judah in Jerusalem; (15) 34:21, King Josiah to Hilkiah, Ahikam, Abdon, Shaphan, and Asaiah; (16) 34:23-28, Huldah the prophetess to the five representatives; (17) 35:21, Necho king of Egypt to Josiah.
Gerhard von Rad, Die levitische Predigt in den Büchern der Chronik, first published as Festschrift for Otto Procksch (Leipzig: Deichert, 1934), and republished in Gesammelte Studien zum Alten Testament (München: C. Kaiser, 1958), 248-61. The English translation, “The Levitical Sermon in the Books of Chronicles,” by E. W. Trueman Dicken, appeared in Gerhard von Rad, The Problem of the Hexateuch and Other Essays (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966), 267-80.
Ibid., 277.
Rex Mason, Preaching the Tradition: Homily and Hermeneutics after the Exile (Cambridge: Cabridge University Press, 1990).
Cf. Gary N. Knoppers, “Rehoboam in Chronicles: Villain or Victim?” JBL 109 (1990): 423-40.
Hicks, 328.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 259.
Ibid.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 101; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 683-84.
See Ralph W. Klein, “Abijah’s Campaign against the North (II Chr 13) ̶ What Were the Chronicler’s Sources?” ZAW 95 (1983): 210-17; D. G. Deboys, “History and Theology in the Chronicler’s Portrayal of Abijah,” Bib 71 (1990): 48-62.
Four men are named “Michaiah” in the OT: (1) an officer of King Josiah (2 Kgs 22:12), also called Micah (2 Chr 34:20); (2) a leader sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the Law in the cities of Judah (2 Chr 17:7); (3) a priest who blew a trumpet during the celebration after Jerusalem’s walls were rebuilt (Neh 12:35, 41), also called Micah (1 Chr 9:15); and (4) a son of Gemariah (Jer 36:11, 13). Cf. Youngblood, 832; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 197 n. 20.
This expression is found elsewhere only in 1 Kgs 20:14.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 689.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 106-107. Japhet says, “The troops themselves are numbered typologically: four hundred thousand of Judah, eight hundred thousand of Israel, the two-to-one ratio obviously intended to illustrate that this is a confrontation between the ‘righteous few’ and the ‘hosts of evildoers’ ̶ a motif characterizing defensive rather than offensive wars” (Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 689). Thompson says, “There may be symbolism and hyperbole or the word translated ‘thousand’ may be otherwise understood” (Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 262). Cf. Wenham, “Large Numbers in the Old Testament,” 19-53; Payne, “The Validity of the Numbers in Chronicles,” 217.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 691.
K. Koch, “Zur Lage von Ṣemarajim,” ZDPV 78 (1962): 19-29.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 107.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 262.
W. Robertson Smith, Lectures on the Religion of the Semites, 3rd ed. (New York: Macmillan, 1927), 270; cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 107; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 200.
E.g., Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 252-53.
E.g., Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 692; cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 107-108.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 692.
Cf. Nam, The “Throne of God” Motif in the Hebrew Bible, 159-63.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 695.
See Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 117-18.
S. Wagner, “דרשׁ, dārash,” TDOT, 3:301. In his study of Asa’s revival, Walter Kaiser presents the three results of seeking the Lord: a time of peace (14:2-7), God’s presence again (15:2-7), and prevailing against enemies (14:9-15; 16:1-10). See Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., Quest for Revival: Personal Revival in the Old Testament (Chicago: Moody Press, 1986), 77-88.
Cf. Wilhelm Rudolph, Chronikbücher, Handbuch zum Alten Testament 21 (Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1955), 240.
See Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 709-10; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 119; Selman, 407.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 710.
E.g., Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 267.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 710-11.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 712.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 114.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 717.
Ibid.
Ibid., 718.
Cf. Myers, 86, translates: “He will let himself be found by you.”
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 718; cf. Simon J. De Vries, 1 and 2 Chronicles, FOTL 11 (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1989), 300-301.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 718. Selman, 410, mentions, “It is worth noting that the text summarizes God’s message about the purpose of the temple (2 Chr 7:13-22).”
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 120.
Cf. Gerhard von Rad, “The Levitical Sermon in the Old Testament,” in Gerhar von Rad, The Problem of the Hexateuch and Other Essays (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966), 267-80; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 116, 120; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 715-16, 718.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 719; Selman, 411.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 720.
For a detailed description of the Near Eastern situation during the period of Judges, see SDABC, 2:27-29, 32-34, 48-50, 55-57; 3:248.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 718-21.
See Deut 31:6-7, 23; Josh 1:6-7, 9, 18; 10:25; 1 Chr 22:13; 28:10, 20; 2 Chr 32:7; Hag 2:4; Zech 8:9, 13; cf. Deut 11:8; Ezra 9:12.
E.g., Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 715 and Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 114.
Selman, 412.
Edwin R. Thiele, A Chronology of the Hebrew Kings (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1977), 31, 33-34, 75.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 722.
Ibid., 723; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 121; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 270.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 723-24.
Ibid., 724.
Ibid., 723. Selman, 412, rightly noted: “Chronicles constantly highlights the opportunities for reunification (cf. 11:13-17; 30:[5,] 11; 34:6 [, 21, 33]), which always arose in the context of worship rather than as a result of military force (cf. 11:1-4; 13:8, 13-14). Unity was possible only when God was worshipped in the way that he had ordained.”
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 724. Cf. Sara Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles and Its Place in Biblical Thought (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbraus, 2009), 231 n. 124; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 121.
Cf. Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 231 n. 124.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 121.
Cf. ibid.; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 724.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 271. Contrary to Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 724-725. Japhet mentioned that the Hebrew name of the Feast of Weeks may be seen as derived from shebu‘ah (oath) rather than shabua‘ (week), i.e., “the Feast of Oaths.” However, it is to be noted in the biblical passage concerning the feast that shabbat (Sabbath) occurs with sheba‘, “seven” and shebi‘i, “seventh” (Lev 23:15-16) or that shabu‘ot (weeks) occurs with shib‘ah, “seven” (Deut 16:9). The reason is that apart from shebu‘ah (oath) all these words are associated with the basic symbolic numeral “seven.”
Cf. De Vries, 299, 301. For the discussion on the chronology of the events during Asa’s reign, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 119, 121-22, 124; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 725.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 121.
Ibid., 122.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 725: “The very general terminology, and the absence of specific terms like ‘burnt offerings’, serve to underline the role of the sacrifice as thanksgiving offerings.”
Cf. Selman, 404, 412.
Ibid., 413.
For a full discussion on the meaning of the covenant during the reign of Asa in particular and that of the covenants during the monarchial period in general, see Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 76-91; idem, I & II Chronicles, 726. Compare Selman, 412-13.
Cf. Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 87.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 726-27.
Ibid., 727.
For the discussion on the role and position of the queen mother, see Niels-Erik A. Andreasen, “The Role of the Queen Mother in Israelite Society,” CBQ 45 (1983): 179-94.
Heb. mipletset. This word occurs 4 times (only here and in 1 Kgs 15:13) in the OT.
Cf. 2 Kgs 23:6, Josiah’s disposal of the image of Asherah in his religious reformation.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 118; cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 721-22. See 2 Chr 15:8; 17:2.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 728.
Cf. ibid. According to BDB, 1023, the Hebrew expression lebab shalem ‘im Yahweh literally means “a mind at peace with Yahweh,” keeping covenant relation, and thus it means “complete, perfect [with Yahweh].” See 1 Kgs 8:61; 11:4; 15:3, 14; 2 Chr 16:9. In 1 Kgs 15:14 such a Hebrew expression occurs, whereas in 2 Chr 15:18 lebab shalem appears without ‘im Yahweh.
Cf. David’s good example (1 Chr 18:11; 22:3, 14; 26:26-27; 29:2-5).
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 729.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 122.
For a discussion on this chronological problem, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 122-25; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 703-705.
Cf. SDABC, 3:250, following Edwin R. Thiele’s ingenious approach (Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 84), which many have adopted. For succinct summaries of the debates on this chronological problem, see Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 255-58; Raymond B. Dillard, “The Reign of Asa (2 Chr 14-16): An Example of the Chronicler’s Theological Method,” JETS 23 (1980): 207-18; idem, 2 Chronicles, 123-25; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 704-705, 732; Selman, 414-15; De Vries, 296; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 273.
Japhet, 729.
J. A. Thompson, “Ramah,” IBD, 3:1318.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 732.
Ibid.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 125: “Its location was well suited for Baasha’s objective: Ramah was on the major north-south ridge route by-passing Jerusalem (Judg 18:11-13) and within sufficient proximity to threaten any east-west traffic in the central Benjamin plateau using the important Beth Horon ridge.”
Cf. Kenneth A. Kitchen, “Ben-Hadad,” IBD, 1:184.
Ibid.
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 274. Not in the same vein with others, Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 733, contended that all reference to treaty “is just diplomatic language representing the present situation of Aram’s non-involvement.”
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 125.
For a chiastic structure of 14:2 [MT 14:1]-16:14, though incomplete, with the two covenants in the center, see Selman, 404. As Selman rightly observed, “the whole structure shows how Asa’s last years represented a complete volte-face from his previous achievements” (ibid.). Selman’s chiastic structure may be slightly modified as follows: A 14:2-7 [MT 14:1-6] Prosperity through seeking God/ B 14:8-15 [MT 14:7-14] Victory through trust in God/ C 15:1-8 Obedience to prophetic word/ D 15:9-19 Covenant with God// D΄ 16:1-6 Covenant with man (and temporary victory)/ C΄ 16:7-10 Rejection of prophetic word (and lack of trust)/ B΄ [missing]/ A΄ 16:11-14 Incurable disease, death, and burial through not seeking God.
Cf. D. W. Baker, “Ijon,” IBD, 2:682.
F. F. Bruce, “Dan,” IBD, 1:358.
D. W. Baker, “Abel of Beth-Maachah, IBD, 1:3.
Ibid.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 734.
J. A. Thompson, “Mizpah, Mizpeh,” IBD, 2:1013.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 126; cf. Thompson, “Mizpah,” 1013.
M. A. McLeod, “Geba,” IBD, 1:544-45.
Ibid., 1:545.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 125.
Selman, 418.
Cf. ibid., 419.
G. P. F. Broekman, R. J. Demarée, and Olaf E. Kaper, eds., The Libyan Period in Egypt: Historical and Cultural Studies into the 21st-24th Dynasties: Proceedings of a Conference at Leiden University, 25-27 October 2007, Egyptologische Uitgaven 23 (Leuven: Peeters Publishers, 2009).
Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, 467, par. 268, n. 372; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 99-100, 119, 126.
Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 153.
Ibid.
Ibid., 153-54. For the concept of the divine test in Chronicles, see ibid., 149-55.
Cf. ibid., 201. The words of 2 Chr 16 signify not only God’s omniscience but also His providence (ibid., 201 n. 188).
Selman, 419. Just as Asa did not “rely” (Heb. sha‘an) on God when threatened by Israel (2 Chr 16:7), so Ahaz did not “believe” (Heb. ’aman) in God when threatened by Israel and Syria (Isa 7:9). Just as the word “rely” also occurs as a faith term in Isaiah (10:20 [2x]; 30:12; 31:1; 50:10), so the word “believe” also occurs as a faith term in Chronicles (2 Chr 9:6; 20:20 [2x]; 32:15). It is so interesting for Jehoshaphat not to employ the word “believe” but the word “rely” in his exhortation to his people for the war when threatened by Moab and Ammon: “Believe in the LORD your God, and you shall be established; believe His prophets, and you shall prosper” (2 Chr 20:20). He must have consciously done so, recollecting the non-reliance of Asa his father on God.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 735; cf. Saul’s confession of his sins to David, “I have acted foolishly [Heb. hiskalti]”(1 Sam 26:21).
David’s confession to God of his sin concerning a census.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 735-36.
Ibid., 736.
Unlike Rehoboam, who “humbled himself” (Heb. sha‘an, “be humbled”; 2 Chr 12:6, 7 [2x], 12) for his sin when hearing God’s message from Shemaiah the man of God.
“Prison” here is literally “house of stocks” (Heb. bet hammahpeket), which occurs only once in the OT, while the word mahpeket (stocks) is used three times in connection with Jeremiah (Jer 20:2, 3; 29:26).
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 737. For the Chronicler, disease is one form of divine judgment (cf. 2 Chr 21:15, 18-19; 26:16-21; contrast 32:24).
Thiele, A Chronology of the Hebrew Kings, 27, 35-36, 75, 77; cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 126.
Cf. Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 200-201.
It seems that Japhet did not notice the significant theological import of the Hebrew term darash (seek) here (cf.14:4, 7; 15:12, 15), when he said not only that “this is the only categorical statement in the Bible warning against eliciting human medical advice in case of illness” (Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 738), but also that “this is the only time in the Bible that consulting physicians is considered a sin” (Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 200 n. 186). In regard to this, Selman, 420, is regrettably in line with Japhet, even though he observed the significant import of darash (397, 409, 412-13). Especially to be noted is the significant usage of darash in the Chronicles (1 Chr 16:11; 22:19; 28:9b; 2 Chr 12:14; 14:4 [MT 14:3], 8 [MT 7] [2x]; 15:2, 12, 13; 16:12; 17:3, 4; 19:3; 20:3; 22:9; 25:15, 20; 26:5 [2x]; 30:19; 31:21). See also the parallel usage of darash and its nearest synonym baqash (1 Chr 16:10-11; 2 Chr 15:2-4, 12-15; 20:3-4) and their chiastic placement (1 Chr 16:10-11).
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 738-39.
Ibid.
See also Hezekiah’s funeral (2 Chr 32:33).
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 276.
Selman, 420 (cf. 417); cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 738. See also 2 Chr 20:32; 21:12.
Cf. Selman, 421; for the Chronicler’s Jehoshaphat, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 129-30.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 132.
Ibid., 129-30.
Ibid., 133.
Ibid., 117-18, 133-34.
PK, 191.
Myers, 98.
George E. Mendenhall, “The Census Lists of Numbers 1 and 26,” JBL 77 (1958): 52-66.
Cf. Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 263; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 253-54; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 135. For the large numbers in the OT, see John W. Wenham, “The Large Numbers in the Bible,” JBQ 21 (1993): 16-20; idem, “Large Numbers in the Old Testament,” 19-53; Payne, “The Validity of Numbers in Chronicles,” 109-28, 206-20.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 284.
Ibid., 284-85; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 141.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 141; J. Crenshaw, Prophetic Conflict (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1971), 24-36. Cf. Comfort, 318.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 141; cf. R. Halevi, “Micha ben Jimla, The Ideal Prophet,” BM 12 (1966-67): 102-106.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 760.
Ibid., 762.
Cf. Patrick Miller, “The Divine Council and the Prophetic Call to War,” VT 18 (1968): 100-107.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 142.
Cf. Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 320.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 145. Cf. Nam, The “Throne of God” Motif, 153-159, esp., 158.
Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 320.
Cf. Roland de Vaux, Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions, trans. John McHugh (London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1961), 119-20; John Gray, I and II Kings, OTL (London: SCM, 1964), 453-54.
Curtis and Madsen, 398-99; cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 142.
Cf. E. Ball, “A Note on 1 Kings XXII:28,” JTS 28 (1977): 90-94.
L. C. Allen, 1, 2 Chronicles, Communicator’s Commentary 10 (Waco, Tex.: Word Books, 1987), 298.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 288; cf. idem, “Israel’s ‘Haters’,” VT 29 (1979): 200-205.
Knoppers observes that this is a favorite expression of the Chronicler but is not unique to his writing. Cf. Gary N. Knoppers, “Jehoshaphat’s Judiciary and ‘the Scroll of YHWH’s Torah,’” JBL 113 (1994): 70.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 769.
Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 251-52.
PK, 197.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 775.
PK, 197.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 146 n. 8.a; J. Heller, “Textkritisches zu 2 Chr 19:8,” VT 24 (1974): 371-73.
SDABC, 3:261; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 150. Contrary to Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 778-79.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 155; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 293. For a debate on the ethnic and geographical identification of the Meunites, see Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 293-94; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 786.
Cf. Selman, 443.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 156.
Cf. ibid.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 785. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 293, mentions: “The location of Hazazon Tamar is uncertain, but it may be el-Hasasa between En Gedi and Bethlehem.”
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 787.
Selman, 443.
Cf. ibid..
Ibid.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 156.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 787. Selman observes: “The people gathered in an assembly (vv. 5, 14, 26; cf. ‘assembled’, v. 4). The repetition of all Judah (vv. 3, 13, 15, 18; cf. vv. 20, 27), and reference to every town in Judah (v. 4) and the women and children (v. 13) shows how strong this idea of a gathered community was (cf. also e.g. Ezra 10:7-15; Neh 8:2-12; 13:1-3)” (Selman, 443, italics original).
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 787
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 156.
Cf. Bernhard W. Anderson, Out of the Depths: The Psalms Speak for Us Today, 3rd ed. (Philadelphia, Penn.: Westminster, 2000), 49-76; Hill, 489.
See also, e.g., Ps 47:2 [MT 47:3], 7-8 [MT 8-9]; Dan 4:17 [MT 4:14], 25 [MT 22], 32 [MT 29].
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 789.
Ibid., 790. “With a clear change of tone, indicated by ‘and now’, Jehoshaphat now moves from the declaratory statement of vv. 6-9 to the present, with its impending calamity” (p. 791).
Selman, 444 (italics original).
Cf. BDB, 168.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 791.
Here in 2 Chr 20:11, just as in 1 Chr 17:21, garash is used, whereas in Exod 34:24 yarash is used. In 2 Chr 20, however, previously in verse 7, just as in Exod 34:24, yarash is employed for the expulsion of nations. Even though there are other similar verbs for the expulsion of nations (cf. shalakh [Lev 18:24; 20:23], hadap [Deut 6:19; 9:4], and nashal [Deut 7:1]), yarash is predominant (Exod 34:24; Deut 9:4; 1 Kgs 14:24; 21:26; 2 Kgs 16:3; 17:8; 21:2; 2 Chr 20:7; 28:3; 33:2; Ps 44:2 [MT 44:3]), and then garash (1 Chr 17:21; 2 Chr 20:11; Ps 78:55; 80:8 [MT 80:9]).
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 791.
Ibid.
Ibid., 788.
Ibid., 792.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Cf. ibid., 792-93: “The whole attitude of Jehoshaphat’s prayer summarizes one of the interesting paradoxes of the Chronicler’s thought. . . . the Chronicler’s historiography attributes military power and activity to righteous kings. Jehoshaphat himself was earlier described as equipping and manning the fortified cities (17:2, 12, 19) and recruiting an army of over a million warriors (17:14-19). At the same time, the pious king is expected not only to possess military strength but to forego its use and to rely only on God for protection. This paradox may illustrate the comprehensiveness of the religious element in the Chronicler’s historical philosophy.”
Ibid., 793.
For Asaph, see 1 Chr 16:4-5, 7, 37; 25:1-2, 6.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 793.
Cf. ibid., 794.
Cf. Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 297-99; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 154-55; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 793.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 793.
Cf. Geoffrey Wigoder, ed., The Illustrated Dictionary and Concordance of the Bible, new rev. ed. (New York: Sterling Publishing, 2005), 1015; D. F. Payne, “Ziz,” IBD, 3:1684.
J. D. Douglas, “Jeruel,” IBD, 2:752.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 794.
Cf. ibid., 795.
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 294.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 795.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 294.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 796-97.
Cf. J. A. Thompson, “Tekoa,” IBD, 3:1521.
Ibid., 3:1522.
Cf. Selman, 447; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 158.
Selman, 447.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 797.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 158.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 796-97.
Selman, 447.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 797.
Ibid.
For the content of this song of praise, see Ps 136:1, the Chronicler’s favorite psalm (cf. 1 Chr 16:34; 2 Chr 5:13; 7:3).
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 797.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 300.
Selman, 447.
For the history of exegesis on the “ambushers” here, see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 797-798; idem, Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 130 and n. 373; Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 300.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 797-798; idem, Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 103.
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 295; R. J. Way, “Beracah,” IBD, 1:186.
SDABC, 3:265.
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 295.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 799.
Because of this alliance Jehoshaphat was rebuked and warned by Jehu the son of Hanani the seer (2 Chr 19:2).
Interestingly but unfortunately, the fatal wound and consequential death of Ahab as well as the wound of Joram the grandson of Ahab is related to battles at Ramoth-gilead.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 802.
Ibid.
J. P. U. Lilley, “Mareshah,” IBD, 2:945.
Ibid.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 164. Jehoshaphat made the fortified cities key administrative, economic, military, and juridical centers (cf. 2 Chr 17:2; 19:5), and the placement of his sons there as governors, representing the royal interest, is part of the same policy.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 808 (italics original).
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 165.
Thiele, A Chronology of the Hebrew Kings, 36-38, 75, 77.
Ibid., 37: “When a king termed the year commencing with the new year’s day after his accession of the first official year of his reign, he termed the portion of the year in which he came to the throne his accession year. This is called accession-year reckoning, or postdating. But if he termed the year in which he ascended the throne his first official year, that may be termed nonaccession-year dating, or antedating.” “In Israel the nonaccession-year was employed from Jeroboam to Jehoahaz inclusive,” whereas “in Judah the accession-year system was employed from Rehoboam to Jehoshaphat inclusive, then the nonaccession-year system was employed from Jehoram to Joash; and with the next ruler, Amaziah, Judah went back to accession-year dating and employed that system to the end of its history.”
Those who belong to the “bad kings” are as follows: Nadab (1 Kgs 15:26), Baasha (15:34; 16:7), Zimri (16:19), Omri (16:25), Ahab (16:30; 21:20, 25), Ahaziah of Israel (22:52), Jehoram of Israel (2 Kgs 3:2), Jehoram of Judah (2 Kgs 8:18; 2 Chr 21:6), Ahaziah of Judah (2 Kgs 8:27; 2 Chr 22:4), Jehoahaz of Israel (2 Kgs 13:2), Jehoash (13:11), Jeroboam II (14:24), Zechariah (15:9), Menahem (15:18), Pekahiah (15:24), Pekah (15:28), Hoshea (17:2), Manasseh (21:2, 6, 16; 2 Chr 33:2, 6), Amon (2 Kgs 21:20; 2 Chr 33:22), Jehoahaz of Judah (2 Kgs 23:32), Jehoiakim (2 Kgs 23:37; 2 Chr 36:5), Jehoiachin (2 Kgs 24:9; 2 Chr 36:9), and Zedekiah (2 Chr 36:12; Jer 52:2). Cf. Lester L. Grabbe, ed. Good Kings and Bad Kings, Library of Hebrew Bible/OT Studies 393 (London: T&T Clark, 2005).
Cf. Selman, 452-53.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 809.
Cf. Paul D. Hanson, “The Song of Heshbon and David’s Nir,” HTR 61 (1968): 297-320.
Selman, 453.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 298. Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 809-10: “The explicit interpretative clause of 1 Kgs 15:4 makes it clear that here, too, this metaphor means ‘to set up his son after him,’ establishing a continuous, unbroken Davidic dynastic line.”
This theological aspect is not mentioned in the parallel passage (2 Kgs 8:22).
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 305.
For a textual discussion on 2 Chr 21:9 and 2 Kgs 8:21, see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 810; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 305.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 166.
Cf. J. P. U. Lilley, “Libnah,” IBD, 2:900.
Zecharia Kallai, Historical Geography of the Bible: The Tribal Territories of Israel (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1986), 379-382; Denis Baly, Geography of the Bible (Guildford: Lutterworth Press, 1974), 139, 142; cf. Selman, 454 n. 61; Lilley, “Libnah,” IBD, 2:900.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 811.
Selman, 454. For a discussion on high places, see J. T. Whitney, “High Place,” IBD, 2:648-50.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 811.
Ibid.
Ibid.; cf. HALOT, 1:275.
BDB, 275.
Cf. ibid., 276; HALOT, 1:275-76; 4:1715-16.
Cf. Japhet, 811. For the usage of zanah, see Hos 1:2; 2:7; 3:3; 4:10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18; 5:3; 9:1; Jer 2:20; 3:1, 6, 8; Ezek 6:9 [2x]; 16:15, 16, 17, 26, 28 [2x], 34; 20:30; 23:3 [2x], 5, 19, 30, 43. For the usage of znunim, see Hos 1:2 [2x]; 2:4, 6; 4:12; 5:4; Ezek 23:11, 29. For the usage of znut, see Hos 4:11; 6:10; Jer 3:2, 9; 13:27; Ezek 23:27; 43:7, 9. For the usage of taznut, see Ezek 16:15, 16, 22, 25, 26, 29, 33, 34, 36; 23:7, 8 [2x], 11, 14, 17, 18, 19, 29, 35, 43.
Selman, 455.
BDB, 623.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 811-812. See also Deut 4:19; 2 Kgs 17:21.
Cf. ibid., 811.
SDABC, 2:38-41; 3:267; cf. PK 212.
Ibid.
Cf. 2 Kgs 8:16, which can be reconciled with 2 Kgs 1:17 by positing a coregency between Jehoshaphat and Jehoram (cf. on 2 Chr 21:5). The second year of Jehoram in 2 Kgs 1:17 would refer to the second year of his coregency, whereas his accession in the fifth year of Joram (2 Kgs 8:16) would be the first year of his sole reign. For a possible political situation for Jehoshaphat to appoint Jehoram as coregent, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 165.
Ibid., 167.
Cf. Selman, 455; PK 213: “The prophet Elijah . . . sent to Jehoram of Judah a written communication.”
Selman, 455.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 814.
Ibid.
Cf. ibid., 814.
Note the chiasm: v. 11: “the inhabitants of Jerusalem” (a) / “Judah” (b) // v. 13: “Judah” (b’)/ “the inhabitants of Jerusalem” (a’).
Note the incomplete chiasm: v. 4 (a)/v. 6 (b)/v. 11 (c)//v. 13 (b’/c’/a’).
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 814.
Ibid.
Cf. BDB, 619-20.
Cf. Selman, 455-56.
BDB, 619.
There are only two other occurrences of maggepah modified by gadol in the OT (1 Sam 4:17; 2 Sam 18:7).
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 814, was “inclined to see in ‘ammeka a reference not to ‘your people,’ since they have no part in Jehoram’s downfall (cf. v. 17), but to ‘your family’” (cf. HALOT, 2:837), and argued: “The predicted punishment, like the sin, is described in family, personal terms: your sons, your wives, your possessions.” Thus she concluded: “The crimes committed by the king against his ‘house’ are punished by injuries to his body, his possessions and his near kin. Of all retributions recorded in Chronicles, this passage has the most personal, almost limited to the king himself” (ibid.). Cf. NKJV renders, “Behold, the LORD will strike your people with a serious affliction ̶ your children, your wives, and all your possessions.”
The causative of the Hebrew verb ‘ur, “wake up, be excited.” Cf. BDB, 734; HALOT, 2:802-803.
BDB, 940. Especially as booty (Gen 14:11, 12, 16 [2x], 21; 2 Chr 20:25; 21:14, 17; Dan 11:24, 28).
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 300.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 814.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 168; cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 814: “The phrasing of 22:1 makes it clear . . . that this was not a major military campaign, but a raid of smaller bands, invading Judah with the intention of looting and taking captives, as described in v. 17.”
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 301: “Jehoram’s youngest son [Ahaziah], with his mother, as chap. 22 makes clear, remained with the king in Jerusalem.”
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 168.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 815-16: “This is one more example of the flexibility in the structuring of theophoric names, with the theophoric element placed either before or after the verbal phrase. Another well-known example is that of Jeconiah/Jehoiachin (cf. 1 Chr 3:16-17; 2 Chr 36:8-9).”
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 816.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 168. For various suggestions, see ibid., 169.
Cf. KJV, RSV, NEB, NIV, NASB, NRSV.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 816.
Ibid.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 301.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 817: “The first assertion is sometimes also missing [in the standard formulas found] in . . . Kings, when a monarch comes to a violent end (cf. 2 Kgs 12:20-21; 14:19[-20]; 21:23[-24]; 23:29-30, for Joash, Amaziah, Amon and Josiah). To these the Chronicler adds the case of Jehoram, probably intending that the fatal suffering brought on by his disease cannot be considered a natural death.” Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 310.
The expression “his fathers” might be omitted in the case of Amon (2 Chr 33:24-25) because of the contrast made with Manasseh his father in v. 23. But it could be included in the cases of Joash (2 Kgs 12:21), Amaziah (2 Kgs 14:19-20; 2 Chr 25:27-28), and Josiah (2 Chr 35:24), where no such contrast is made. Its omission in the case of Joash in 2 Chronicles 24:25 may be due to the many oracles of Yahweh, the God of ‘their fathers’ against his forsaking Yahweh and then ultimately to the killing of Zechariah the son of Jehoiada the priest (v. 27; cf. vv. 2, 18-22), since, for the case of his subject, Jehoiada the priest, “they buried him in the city of David among the kings” (v. 16). How could the Chronicler record that Joash, the killer of Zechariah, shared such a same fortune with Jehoiada, the father of Zechariah?
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 169.
Selman, 456.
Myers, 125.
E. Puech, “L’ivoire inscrit d’Arslan-Tash et les Rois de Damas,” RB 88 (1981): 544-62.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 823; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 303.
SDABC, 2:908 (on 2 Kgs 9:27).
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 305.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 179-80.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 829.
Richard D. Patterson and Hermann J. Austel, “1, 2 Kings,” EBC, 4:217.
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 307 n. 58.
Cf. Patterson and Austel, 217.
Alfred Edersheim, Bible History: Old Testament, 7 vols. (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1979), 7:18.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 834.
HALOT, 1:123 (בַּיִן), 129 (II בַּיִת).
On the other hand, Dillard states that “The ‘Horse Gate’ should be distinguished from the gate of the same name in the city wall (Jer 31:40; Neh 3:28), though both could have been oriented in the same direction” (Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 183). But this argument could hardly be proved.
Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 217.
Patterson and Austel, “1, 2 Kings,” EBC, 4:222.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 191. Japhet suggests two reasons for the differences as follows: “While the Kings narrative gives the impression of economic dearth, the Chronicler’s version emphasizes that ‘they . . . collected money in abundance’ (v. 11), so much so that when the building was completed, money remained for other purposes. More importantly, according to the Chronicler’s view, the replacement of the cultic vessels was imperative, since the Temple had been broken into and defiled by Athaliah. If the prohibition of 2 Kings 12:13 were followed, no ritual would be possible! The end of v. 14 confirms this view: after the restoration was completed and the new vessels provided, ‘they offered burnt offerings in the house of the Lord, regularly’ (RSV ‘continually’)” (Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 846).
De Vries, 345.
Cf. A. Malamat, “Longevity: Biblical Concepts and Some Ancient Near Eastern Parallels,” Archiv für Orientforschung, Beihefte 19 (1982): 215-24.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 76-81 (“Reward and Punishment in Chronicles: The Theology of Immediate Retribution [2 Chron 10-36]”).
Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 346: The question of the dating of the closing of the OT is still debated, at least in respect to the Writings (Kethubim), and in Codex Leningradensis Chronicles is the first instead of the last book of the Kethubim. Isaac Kalimi counters that this word of Jesus represents knowledge of a first-century collection of Hebrew Scripture without indicating the precise contents of the third sectionof this collection (Isaac Kalimi, The Retelling of Chronicles in Jewish Tradition and Literature [Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2009], 48-49).
For alternative interpretations of Matt 23:35, see Craig L. Blomberg, Matthew (Nashville, Tenn.: Broadman Press, 1992), 349; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 346 and n. 75.
Michael Wilcock, The Message of Chronicles, The Bible Speaks Today (Downers Grove, Ill: InterVarsity Press, 1987), 215.
HALOT, 3:1784.
See SDABC, 3:270 (on 2 Chr 22:8).
Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 357.
Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 63-64.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 356.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 861.
E. M. Cook, “Weights and Measures,” ISBE, 4:1053.
William G. Dever, “Weights and Measures,” Harper’s Bible Dictionary, ed. Paul J. Achtemeier (San Francisco, Calif.: Harper & Row, 1985), 1127.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 199. According to the Chronicler, alliances with the Northern Kingdom, such as Jehoshaphat’s with Ahab (2 Chr 18//1 Kgs 22) are sinful (cf. Isaac Kalimi, The Reshaping of Ancient Israelite History in Chronicles [Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2005], 118 n. 48; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 357 n. 19).
Regarding the difficulty of translating this verse, see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 864.
For the attempts to identify Sela, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 200; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 358.
A. F. Rainey, “Sela (Edom),” The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, Supplement, 800.
Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 359.
Rudolf, 278-79.
Keil and Delitzsch, vol. 3, section 2, pp. 423-24.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 322.
Regarding the custom of spoliating a vanquished people’s gods in the ancient Near East, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 201; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 322 n. 79.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 201-202; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 324.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 870; cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 362.
Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 113-20.
Ibid., 115.
However, this description “the city of Judah” occurs in some extrabiblical sources such as the Chronicles of the Neo-Babylonian Kings. Cf. D. J. Wiseman, Chronicles of the Chaldaean Kings (626-556 B.C.) in the British Museum (London: British Museum, 1956), 73; Myers, 144.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 203.
Cf. A. M. Honeyman, “The Evidence for Regnal Names among the Hebrews,” JBL 67 (1948): 20-22; Myers, 149.
Cf. Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 116-18.
Trisha M. Wheelock, “Jecoliah,” NIDB, 3:204.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 370.
Ibid., 371.
Cf. ibid., 367 no. 3.
Ibid., 371.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 208; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 328.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 372.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 335.
Cf. Rudolph, 282; Curtis, 451-52; Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 335; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 206; Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 366; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 372; Randall W. Younker, “Gurbaal,” ABD, 2:1100.
Ernst Axel Knauf, “Meunim” [Meunites], ABD, 4:801.
Sara Japhet, “The Wall of Jerusalem from a Double Perspective: Kings versus Chronicles,” in Essays on Ancient Israel in Its Near Eastern Context: A Tribute to Nadav Na’aman, ed. Yairah Amit, Ehud Ben Zvi, Israel Finkelstein, and Oded Lipschits (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2006), 212.
Peter Welten, Geschichte und Geshichtsdarstellung in den Chronikbüchern, Wissenschaftliche Monographien zum Alten und Neuen Testament 42 (Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1973), 24-27.
W. Harold Mare, “Angle, The,” ABD, 1:255.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 209. For the bibliography of more archaeological finds, see Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 336-37; Myers, 152-53.
J. N. Graham, “‘Vinedressers and Plowmen’: 2 Kings 25:12 and Jeremiah 52:16,” BA 47 (1984): 56.
Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 142 n. 7.
HALOT, 1:361.
Welten, 113.
Cf. Y. Sukenik [Yadin], “Engines Invented by Cunning Men,” Bulletin of the Jewish Palestine Exploration Society 13 (1946-47): 19-24; Yigael Yadin, The Art of Warfare in Biblical Lands (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1963), 325-27.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 207.
E. V. Hulse, “The Nature of Biblical ‘Leprosy’ and the Use of Alternative Medical Terms in Modern Translations of the Bible,” PEQ 107 (1975): 87-105.
Cf. S. G. Browne, Leprosy in the Bible (London: Christian Medical Society, 1970); John J. Pilch, “Leprosy,” NIDB, 3:635-37.
Josephus Antiquities, 9:227.
Cf. G. Ernest Wright, “A Gravestone of Uzziah, King of Judah,” BA 1 (1938): 8-9.
S. Yeivin, “The Sepulchers of the Kings of the House of David,” JNES 7 (1948): 31-32.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 214; Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 371.
“Jerushah” (yerushah/יְרוּשָׁה) in this text is spelled “Jerusha” (yerusha’/יְרוּשָׁא) in 2 Kgs 15:33.
Josephus Jewish War, ii. 17. 9; v. 4. 1-2; v. 6. 1; vi. 6. 3.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 215.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 334.
Hicks, 438.
Cf. Curtis and Madwen, 457; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 898.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 220.
Selman, 499.
Richard D. Nelson, Deuteronomy: A Commentary, OTL (Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox, 2002), 161 n. 20, 233. M. Weinfeld also argued that passing one’s children through the fire meant dedicating them to the sacred authority (M. Weinfeld, “The Worship of Molech and of the Queen of Heaven and Its Background,” UF 4 [1972]: 144-49). Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 396 n. 17.
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 336; B. Oded, “The Historical Background of the Syro-Ephraimite War Reconsidered,” CBQ 34 (1971): 153-65.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 219.
Y. Shiloh, “The Population of Iron Age Palestine in the Light of a Sample Analysis of Urban Plans, Areas, and Population Density,” BASOR 239 (1980): 25-35.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 337.
E.g., Wilcock, 240-41; S. Spenser, “2 Chronicles 28:5-15 and the Parable of the Good Samaritan,” WTJ 46 (1984): 317-49; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 223; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 338.
This chiastic structure was discerned by Mary Katherine Yem Hing Hom, “Chiasmus in Chronicles: Investigating the Structures of 2 Chronicles 28:16-21; 33:1-20; and 31:20-32:33,” AUSS 47 (2009): 164.
See the apparatus of BHS at 2 Kgs 16:6, where the Kethib is ’aromim, and the Qere is ’adomim.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 339.
Cf. SDABC, 2:55, 155.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 907.
PK 330.
Hill, 578.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 340.
Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 413.
See the introductory article by Dillard, “The Chronicler’s Hezekiah” (Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 227-229), and Klein, 2 Chronicles, 413.
J. G. McConville, I & II Chronicles, The Daily Bible Study Series (Philadelphia, Pa.: Westminster John Knox, 1984), 231.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 918.
The son of Uzziel, Elizaphan was the head of the Kohathites who camped south of the tabernacle in the wilderness of Sinai (Num 3:30). In Exodus his name appears as Elzaphan (6:22). Together with his brother Mishael he took away the bodies of Nadab and Abihu after they had been smitten by the fire of Yahweh in the tabernacle (Lev 10:4).
Peter R. Ackroyd, “The Temple Vessels ̶ A Continuity Theme,” in Studies in the Religion of Ancient Israel, ed. P. de Boer, VTSup 23 (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1972), 166-81.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 235.
Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 385.
Kleinig, 82. Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 422 n. 71.
Kleinig, 86.
Thirteen times in all: 2 Chr 29:23, 28, 31, 32; 30:2, 4, 13, 17, 23, 24 (twice), 25; 31:18.
Cf. Kleinig, 122.
Reference is made to “the commandment of David” (v. 25), “the instruments of David” (vv. 26, 27), and “the words of David” (v. 30) (Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 928).
Cf. Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 359; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 929.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 350.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 931.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 425.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 240-43; Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 360-365; Myers, 176-178; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 934-36.
Curtis and Madsen, 471.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 937.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 243-44.
Regarding the arguments about this question, see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 940-41; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 434.
Selman’s observation on the use of the Hebrew verb shub (return, turn) in our text is astute and interesting: “An appeal was made for the people to return to the LORD (vv. 6, 9), . . . The whole message is a play on the word ‘turn’ (Heb. šûb), which also sounds very [much] like the word for ‘captors’ (Heb. šôbîm). ‘Turn’ is used with several different nuances. When Israel returns to God in repentance (vv. 6, 9), their exiles will physically return (come back) to the Promised Land (v. 9). God will then turn his face from them no longer (v. 9) but turn away instead his fierce anger (v. 8), as he returns to them in compassion (v. 6; cf. v. 8)” (Selman, 518, italics original).
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 353.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 244.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 945.
5T 488; cf. 5T 30, 535.
In the NT, Matt 26:17 and Mark 14:12 refer to the first day of Unleavened Bread when the Passover lamb was sacrificed, while Luke 22:1 says, “Now the Feast of Unleavened Bread, which is called the Passover, was approaching” (NASB).
According to Exod 12:2-6, preparations for Passover began on the 10th day of the first month, which is four days before the sacrifice itself.
E.g., Moses Buttenwieser, “לַיהוָֽה לֵי־עֹ֖זבִּכְ 2 Chronicles 30:21: A Perfect Text,” JBL 45 (1926): 156-58; I. L. Seeligmann, “Researches into the Criticism of the Masoretic Text of the Bible,” Tarbiz 25 (1955/6): 137.
Cf. H. H. Rowley, “Zadok and Nehushtan,” JBL 58 (1949): 113-141; Karen Randolph Joines, “The Bronze Serpent in the Israelite Cult,” JBL 87 (1968): 245-56.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 373; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 447.
The likeness of Hezekiah to David and Solomon is further illustrated by Hezekiah’s oversight of the cultic personnel (1 Chr 23-26; cf. 2 Chr 8:14) and his care in following the “Law of Yahweh” (1 Chr 16:40; 22:12; 30:16; 31:4, 21; cf. 2 Chr 12:1; 17:9; 19:8; 23:18; 34:14-15; 35:26) (Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 357; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 249; Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 396).
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 358; cf. Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 374.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 450.
For the discussion of the name “Azariah,” see ibid. n. 30.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 251; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 359.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 169 (on 1 Chr 23:3-6a).
Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 177, 203.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 256.
“Babylonian and Assyrian Historical Texts,” trans. A. Leo Oppenheim, ANET, 288.
Several scholarly studies have been presented regarding Jerusalem’s water supply and the exact identity of the springs referred to in our text. Cf. Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 380-81; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 256-57; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 361; Hershel Shanks, The City of David (Washington, D.C.: Biblical Archaeological Society, 1975); D. Cole, “How Water Tunnels Worked,” BAR 6/2 (1980): 8-29; Y. Shiloh, “Jerusalem’s Water Supply during Siege—The Recovery of Warren’s Shaft,” BAR 7/4 (1981): 24-39.
Cf. Hill, 601-605 (“Hezekiah the Encourager”).
Ibid., 594.
Selman, 533 (italics original).
Dillard, 258.
Ibid.
Cf. Daegeuk Nam, “The Biblical Meanings of Heaven,” in To Understand the Scriptures: Essays in Honor of William H. Shea (ed. David Merling; Berrien Springs, Mich.: Institute of Archaeology, Andrews University, 1997), 296.
Hill, 595.
Donald J. Wiseman, 1 and 2 Kings, TOTC 9 (Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 2008), 285; cf. “Babylonian and Assyrian Historical Texts,” trans. A. Leo Oppenheim, ANET, 288-89.
ANET, 288-89.
This is the tunnel which was cut through the rock and directs water from Gihon Spring, otherwise called St. Mary’s Spring, to Pool of Siloam (cf. Neh 3:15; Isa 8:6; John 9:7) which was inside the city of Jerusalem at that time. This tunnel is about 540 m. long, 3-4 m. high, and 1 m. wide.
The inscription was discovered in 1880 by a youth (Jacob Eliahu, later Jacob Spafford) wading up Hezekiah’s tunnel, and was surreptitiously cut from the wall of the tunnel in 1891 and broken into fragments which were recovered through the efforts of the British Consul in Jerusalem and placed in the Istanbul Archaeology Museum. It is 38 cm. high and 72 cm. wide, and describes how the great engineering project was done. There are six lines written in Hebrew using the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet (cf. “The Siloam Inscription,” trans. W. F. Albright, ANET, 321; Simon Sebag Montefiore, Jerusalem, the Biography [New York: Vintage Books, 2011], 37).
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 260.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1001. Cf. Hom, 167.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 390. Regarding the reason for this omission, the different ideas have been presented among the scholars (cf. John W. McKay, Religion in Judah under the Assyrians [Naperville, Ill.: Alec R. Allenson, 1973], 23-25; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1004; Hill, 613).
Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 173-74; cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 266.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 390; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 369.
Cf. Daegeuk Nam, Reading the Pentateuch in the Light of the Cultural Background (Seoul: Sahmyook University Press, 2011), 267-73.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1006.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1009; Hill, 614-15; Selman, 542-43.
Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 178; “Babylonian and Assyrian Historical Texts,” trans. A. Leo Oppenheim,” ANET, 291, 294.
Hill, 615.
Selman, 543.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 483 n. 77.
Similar reforms were undertaken by Asa (14:3-5 [MT 14:2-4]; 15:8, 16), Jehoshaphat (17:6; 19:3-4), Joash (23:16-20; 24:4-14), Hezekiah (29:3-31:21); and Josiah (34:3-17, 31-33; 35:1-19).
R. K. Harrison, “Manasseh, Prayer of,” ISBE, 3:235-36.
Cf. McKay, 24-25; Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 395.
Heather R. McMurray, “Amon,” NIDB, 1:133; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 486 n. 95.
Cf. A. Malamat, “The Historical Background of the Assassination of Amon, King of Judah,” IEJ 3 (1953): 26-29; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 487 n. 98; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 269-70.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 270.
John Tracy Thames, Jr., “A New Discussion of the Meaning of the Phrase ‘ām hā’āreṣ in the Hebrew Bible,” JBL 130 (2011): 109-25.
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 374; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 277.
Nadav Na’aman, “Josiah and the Kingdom of Judah,” in Good Kings and Bad Kings, ed. Lester L. Grabbe, Library of Hebrew Bible/OT Studies 393 (London: T&T Clark, 2005), 189.
See n. 13 above.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1025.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 501.
Rudolph, 323.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1030; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 502. For the arguments for and against this idea, see Otto Eissfeldt, The Old Testament: An Introduction, trans. Peter R. Ackroyd (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1965), 171-76.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 280, 281. The seven elements are as follows: (1) The centralization of worship in the one place chosen by God, i.e., the temple in Jerusalem (Deut 12); (2) the destruction of the high places and all rival cultic installations (Deut 12); (3) an extended section on curses (34:24; Deut 27:9-26; 28:15-68), including the threat of exile; (4) the character of the Passover observance (Deut 16); (5) a prophet consulted to know the will of God (34:22-28; Deut 18:9-22); (6) the Deuteronomic flavor of the Book of Kings; and (7) the covenant nature of Deuteronomy in view of the designation “the Book of the Covenant” in 34:30//2 Kgs 23:2. Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 377.
Gerhard von Rad, Das Geschichtsbild des chronistischen Werkes, BWANT 54 (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1930), 14; Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 401.
Cf. John Priest, “Huldah’s Oracle,” VT 30 (1980): 366-68.
For the discussion of this problem, see Priest, 366-68.
Selman, 555.
Cf. von Rad, Das Geschichtsbild des chronistischen Werkes, 114.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 379.
Cf. John Day, “Whatever Happened to the Ark of the Covenant?” in Temple and Worship in Biblical Israel, Library of Hebrew Bible/OT Studies 422, ed. John Day (London: T&T Clark International, 2005), 250-70.
Menahem Haran, Temples and Temple-Service in Ancient Israel: An Inquiry into Biblical Cult Phenomena and the Historical Setting of the Priestly School (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979), 276-88.
E.g., according to an apocryphal book, Jeremiah the prophet took the ark from the Temple and hid it in one of the caves “in the mountain where Moses climbed up” just before the Temple was destroyed by the Babylonians (2 Macc 2:4-5).
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 290.
Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 520-21.
Kalimi, 156-57.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 290.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1051.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 407.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 523.
It is interesting that 1 Esdras, an ancient Greek version of the biblical Book of Ezra, regarded as canonical in the churches of the East, but apocryphal in the West, inserts two more verses after 2 Chr 35:19, which praise the good deeds of Joaiah (1 Esdras 1:21-22). Regarding the relation between this work and 2 Chr 35, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 286-87. The LXX adds a translation of 2 Kgs 23:24-27 after 2 Chr 35:19. These four verses praise the pious activities of Josiah, but also state that Yahweh’s wrath remained strong against Judah because of Manasseh’s sins. For the discussion of this issue, see Klein, 2 Chronicles, 513. But these are not included in the MT.
Cf. Myers, 215-16.
Ibid., 216; cf. Wiseman, Chronicles of Chaldaean Kings, 19.
C. T. Begg, “The Death of Josiah in Chronicles: Another View,” VT 37 (1987): 1-8.
Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 421.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1061.
Cf. Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 412.
For more similar cases, see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1059.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 298.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1064.
Cf. Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 182; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 299.
Mark K. Mercer, “Daniel 1:1 and Jehoiakim’s Three Years of Servitude,” AUSS 27 (1989): 179-92.
Cf. F. B. Huey, Jeremiah, Lamentations, NAC 16 (Nashville, Tenn.: Broadman & Holman, 1993), 207.
Cf. Alberto R. Green, “The Fate of Jehoiakim,” AUSS 20 (1982): 105.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1068.
Roddy L. Braun, 1 Chronicles, WBC 14 (Waco, Tex.: Word Books, 1986), 51-52; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 539.
Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 544-45.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 418.
Ibid.; Curtis and Madsen, 524.
An ancient clay cylinder, on which is written a declaration in Akkadian cuneiform script in the name of Persia’s king Cyrus the Great. It dates from the 6th century B.C. and was discovered in the ruins of Babylon in 1879.
“Babylonian and Assyrian Historical Texts,” trans. A. Leo Oppenheim, ANET, 315-16 (from the text of the Cyrus Cylinder).
Cf. Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 25-26.
Mark J. Boda, “Identity and Empire, Reality and Hope in the Chronicler’s Perspective,” in Community Identity in Judean Historiography: Biblical and Comparative Perspectives, ed. Gary N. Knoppers and Kenneth A. Ristau (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2009), 255-56 n. 21.
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Old 07-02-2020, 10:36 AM   #22
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Old 07-02-2020, 10:38 AM   #23
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Raymond B. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, WBC 15 (Waco, Tex.: Word Books, 1987), 1-2.
Roddy L. Braun, “Solomon, the Chosen Temple Builder: The Significance of 1 Chronicles 22, 28, and 29 for the Theology of Chronicles,” JBL 95 (1976): 588-90.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 4-5.
Cf. David A. Dorsey, The Literary Structure of the Old Testament: A Commentary of Genesis ̶ Malachi (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Academic, 1999), 148; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 5-6.
H. G. M. Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, NCBC (Eugene, Oreg.: Wipf & Stock, 1982), 193; J. A. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, NAC 9 (Nashville, Tenn.: Broadman & Holman, 1994), 203; Ralph W. Klein, 2 Chronicles: A Commentary, Hermeneia (Minneapolis, Minn.: Fortress Press, 2012), 20.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 11.
PK, 30.
Yutaka Ikeda, “Solomon’s Trade in Horses and Chariots in Its International Setting,” in Studies in the Period of David and Solomon and Other Essays, ed. Tomoo Ishida (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1982), 215-38.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 207.
In 2 Chr 2, the verse numbers of the Hebrew Bible (MT) are one less than the modern versions so that 2:1 in the English versions is 1:18 in the Hebrew Bible.
Cf. Martin J. Selman, 2 Chronicles, TOTC 11 (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1994), 312. Also to be noted in this connection is Solomon’s acknowledgment in his prayer at the dedication of the Temple that Yahweh said, “My name shall be there” (1 Kgs 8:29).
Ibid., 313.
In the Hebrew Bible, there are a small number of differences between ‘what is written’ in the consonantal text, as preserved by scribal tradition, and ‘what is read’ in the pronunciation of the words in the MT (Tanakh). In such situation, ‘what is written’ is referred to technically as the Kethib (Aramaic “written”), and ‘what is read’ as the Qere (Aramaic “read, pronounced”).
1 Chr 6:15; 2 Chr 2:7; 11:14; 20:5, 15, 17, 18, 23, 27; 21:13; 24:6, 9, 18, 23; 28:10; 29:8; 32:12, 25, 33; 33:9; 34:3, 5, 29; 35:24; 36:4, 10.
Selman, 315; cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 19.
For love (’ahab, ’ahabah) as a typical covenant or treaty term, see William J. Moran, “The Ancient Near Eastern Background of the Love of God in Deuteronomy,” CBQ 25 (1963): 77-87. See also, e.g., Exod 20:6; 1 Sam 18:1, 3; 2 Sam 1:26.
For the detailed chiastic structure of 2 Chr 1-9, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 5-7.
For Yahweh as the Maker/Creator of heaven and earth, see 2 Kgs 19:15; Neh 9:6; Pss 115:15; 121:2; 124:8; 134:3; 146:6; Isa 37:16; Jer 51:15. See also Jonah 1:10; Acts 4:24; 14:15; 17:24; Rev 14:7.
For this use of the Hebrew word ’ab, see Gen 45:8; Judg 17:10; 2 Kgs 2:12; 13:14.
For more discussions, see Sara Japhet, I & II Chronicles: A Commentary, OTL (Louisville and London: Westminster John Knox Press, 1993), 544; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 20; Selman, 317.
Except those with the additionals (2 Chr 2:13; 4:16).
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 544. As for khuram ’abiw in 2 Chr 4:16, it is to be noted that the Chronicler was trying to keep “Huramabi” as if it were a compound noun. Thus it should not be considered as a textual corruption of khuram ’abi (“Huramabi”).
Rudolf Mosis, Untersuchungen zur Theologie des chronistischen Geschichtswerkes (Freiburg: Verlag Herder, 1973), 167. For Solomon and Huram-abi as the new Bezalel and Oholiab, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 4-5, 23. For Huram-abi as the new Oholiab, see ibid., 4-5, 20-21.
Selman, 317. For the ancestry of Samuel, see 1 Sam 1:1; 1 Chr 6:34.
PK, 63.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 545. See also H. J. Katzenstein, The History of Tyre (Jerusalem: Schocken Institute for Jewish Research, 1973), 65-67; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 20-21. For other suggestions, see ibid., 20.
E.g., Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 201.
For their actual relationship, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 21; Selman, 313.
See Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 22; Selman, 364.
Cf. Andrew E. Hill, 1 & 2 Chronicles, The NIV Application Commentary (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 2003), 384: “The reference to Mount Moriah awakens memories of the Lord’s appearance to Abraham . . . . The reminder of the Lord’s appearances at this site earlier in Israelite history may be the Chronicler’s attempt to encourage his own audience.”
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 27. Cf. Mark J. Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, Cornerstone Biblical Commentary 5a (Carol, Ill.: Tyndale House, 2010), 250 n. 3.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 551, where Japhet remarks as follows: “One may attribute this silence either to the author’s lack of interest in the subject, or to the problematic position of the site within the sacral traditions of Israel. The significance of this matter for the Chronicler is evident in the reference to the site from four different angles: 1. Geography, ‘In Jerusalem, on Mount Moriah’; 2. Theophany, ‘Where the Lord had appeared to David his father’; 3. Authority, ‘At the place that David had appointed’; and 4. Tradition, recalling the hieros logos of the Temple, connected with ‘the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite’.”
For the detailed study of the foundations of the temples in the ancient Near East and Israel, see Mark J. Boda and Jamie Novotny, eds., From the Foundations to the Crenellations: Essays on Temple Building in the Ancient Near East and Hebrew Bible, AOAT 366 (Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2010). Especially, the two articles in this book are useful for the study of Temple building of Solomon: Victor Avigdor Hurowits, “‘Solomon Built the Temple and Completed It’: Building the First Temple According to the Book of Kings” (pp. 281-302); Mark J. Boda, “Legitimizing the Temple: The Chronicler’s Temple Building Account” (pp. 303-18).
SDABC, 1:165.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 553.
Abraham Even-Shoshan, ed., A New Concordance of the Bible: Thesaurus of the Language of the Bible, Hebrew and Aramaic Roots, Words, Proper Names, Phrases and Synonyms (Jerusalem: “Kiryat Sefer” Publishing House, 1985), 203-204.
Michael Zohary, Plants of the Bible (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982), 106.
For a more detailed discussion, see Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 207-208; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 28-29.
Carol Meyers, “Cherubim,” ABD, 1:900.
W. A. L. Elmslie, “The First and Second Books of Chronicles,” IB, 3:449.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 27; Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 247.
Josephus Jewish War, 5:5.5.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 30.
E.g., “The NIV adds the word ‘together’ as an effort at harmonization. Another is that the Chronicler added to the eighteen cubits the circumference of the pillars (twelve cubits) and the height of the capital (five cubits) to make up thirty-five cubits. But nothing in the text suggests this. Another is that the letters representing the number eighteen were misread in the course of transmission” (Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 218). Cf. J. B. Payne, “The Validity of the Numbers in Chronicles: Part One,” BSac 136 (1979): 121-22; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 31.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 557.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 30.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 219.
Hill, 387.
Cf. C. F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, Commentary on the Old Testament in Ten Volumes (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1982), 3:2:320; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 564.
Payne, “The Validity of the Numbers in Chronicles,” 122.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 210-11; Hill, 387.
SDABC, 3:219.
Menaḥ. 98b.
Josephus Antiquities, 8:88-89.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 36.
Cf. Keil and Delitzsch, 3:2:322.
Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 250.
Cf. John W. Kleinig, Lord’s Song: The Basis, Function and Significance of Choral Music in Chronicles, JSOTSS 156 (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993), 157.
For the discussion of the addition or omission of the waw (ו), see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 576-77.
According to Brevard S. Childs, this formula, “to this day” (Heb. ‘ad hayyom hazzeh), occurs 84 times in the MT and he concludes that this formula “seldom has an etiological function of justifying an existing phenomenon, but in the great majority of cases is a formula of personal testimony added to, and confirming, a received tradition” (Brevard S. Childs, “A Study of the Formula ‘Until This Day’,” JBL 82 [1963]: 292).
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 580.
S. Zalewski, “Cultic Officials in the Book of Chronicles,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Melbourne, 1968), 308.
Kleinig, 36. He continues on the same page: “The singing of the LORD’s song to instrumental accompaniment was therefore regarded as an extension of the priestly mandate to sound the trumpets over the public sacrifices.”
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 79.
Thomas Willi, “Evokation und Bekenntnis: Art und Ort der chronistischen Vokal- und Instrumentalmusik,” in Sprachen-Bilder-Klänge: Dimensionen der Theologie im Alten Testament und in seinem Umfeld, ed. C. Karrer-Grube et al., AOAT 359 (Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2009), 356; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 80.
Kleinig, 166.
Selman, 340.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 591.
Cf. J. A. Thompson, “Joel’s Locusts in the Light of Near Eastern Parallels,” JNES 14 (1955): 52-55.
For the detailed analysis of the two texts, see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 602-603; Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 220-21.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 604-605. For more explanations, see A. Caquot, “‘Les Graces de David,’ à propos d’Isaie 55/3b,” Semitica 15 (1965): 45-59; H. G. M. Williamson, “‘The Sure Mercies of David’: Subjective or Objective Genitive?” JSS 23 (1978): 31-49.
Sara Japhet observes that “the details of v. 3 attest significant points in the Chronicler’s concept of religion” and regards it as “an important theological statement.” She reasons as follows: “In Lev 9:23-24 a similar experience is phrased in passive terms, as if to create a sense of distance: ‘the glory of the Lord appeared’ (literally ‘was seen’) and ‘fire came from before the Lord.’ Here the phrasing is in the active mood: ‘all the people were watching as the fire came down’ (NEB). . . . Here, however, in contrast to the Sinai theophany, the people are not driven by fright to shun the experience; rather their religious awe prompts them to bow down with their faces to the ground and praise God” (Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 610).
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 106.
Josephus Jewish War, 6:424-26.
John W. Wenham, “Large Numbers in the Old Testament,” TynB 18 (1967): 49. On the other hand, Otto Thenius calculated 262 oxen and 1,430 sheep per hour in a twelve-hour day during the seven-day festival, whereas Hugo Gressmann, who considered the numbers fantasy, put the number at 314 bulls per hour and 1,014 sheep in ten-hour days during the seven-day festival in Kings (Otto Thenius, Die Bücher der Könige, 2nd ed., Kurzgefasstes exegetisches Handbuch [Leipzig: Hirzel, 1873], 140; Hugo Gressmann, Die älteste Geshichtsschreibung und Prophetie Israels, 2nd ed., Die Schriften des Alten Testaments 2.1 [Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1921], 212). These quotations are cited from Klein, 2 Chronicles, 106.
“All Israel” occurs in 1 Chr 9:1; 11:1-4; 12:38-40; 13:1-8; 14:8; 15:3, 28; 16:1-3; 18:14; 19:17; 21:1-5; 22:17; 23:1-3; 28:1-8; 29:21-26; 2 Chr 1:1-3; 5:2-6; 6:3-13; 7:8-10; 9:30; 10:1-3, 16; 11:3, 13-17; 12:1; 13:4, 15; 18:16; 24:5; 28:23; 29:24; 30:1-13, 23-27; 31:6; 34:6-9, 33.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 57. See “The Chronicler’s Solomon (2 Chr 1-9)” (ibid., 1-7).
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 226.
For the discussion of the “apparent discrepancy” between Kings and Chronicles, see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 621-22; Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 227-29; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 62; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 238; John Mark Hicks, 1 & 2 Chronicles, The College Press NIV Commentary (Joplin, Mo.: College Press Publishing Company, 2001), 300; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 119-20.
Myers suggests a similar explanation. See Jacob M. Myers, II Chronicles: Introduction, Translation, and Notes, AB 13 (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1965), 47.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 622.
Ronald F. Youngblood, ed., Nelson’s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary, completely revised and updated edition (Nashville, Tenn.: Thomas Nelson, 1995), 535.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 64.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 121.
Josephus Antiquities, 8:152. For the identifications of Baalath, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 65; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 122.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 624.
Cf. Wenham, “Large Numbers in the Old Testament,” 49; D. W. Gooding, Relics of Ancient Exegesis: A Study of the Miscellanies in 3 Reigns 2, The Society for Old Testament Study Monograph Series 4 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976), 53-55.
The Targum specifies the name of the Pharaoh’s daughter as Bithyah, but this name comes from 1 Chr 4:18, where Mered married this daughter of Pharaoh (J. Stanley McIvor, The Targum of Chronicles, Aramaic Bible 19 [Collegeville, Minn.: Liturgical Press, 1994], 162; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 124 n. 40).
Hicks, 301.
Cf. William Johnstone, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 2 vols., JSOTSS 253 (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997), 1:365; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 124.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 65.
Selman, 365. Cf. Hicks, 301.
Johnstone, 1:366. Cf. Sara Japhet, “The Prohibition of the Habitation of Women: The Temple Scroll’s Attitude toward Sexual Impurity and Its Biblical Precedents,” JANES 22 (1993): 69-87.
Contrary to Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 239, who says, “Solomon himself sacrificed burnt offerings to the Lord on the altar he had built in front of the portico. This was not the altar within the holy place that was reserved for the priests.” But Japhet does not agree with Thompson (Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 627).
This term, “the man of God,” occurs fifty-five times in Kings, but only twenty times elsewhere in the OT. In Kings, this title is used for the anonymous man of God in Kgs 13 (sixteen times, plus 2 Kgs 23:16, 17), for Elijah (1 Kgs 17:18), for Elisha (2 Kgs 4:7, 21, 22, 25, 27, 42; 5:8, 14, 15, 20; 6:6, 9, 10, 15; 7:2, 17, 18; 8:2, 4, 7, 8, 11; 13:19), etc.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 630.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 66; Youngblood, 927.
Josephus Antiquities, 8:164.
William L. Holladay, ed., A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1971), 274.
Hill, 408.
Cf. Daegeuk Nam, The “Throne of God” Motif in the Hebrew Bible (Seoul: Sahmyook University Press, 1994), 153-63; Hicks, 305.
Edward Lewis Curtis and Albert Alonzo Madsen, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Chronicles, ICC (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1910), 357.
Alan R. Millard, “Does the Bible Exaggerate King Solomon’s Golden Wealth?” BAR 15/3 (1989): 31.
Holladay, 203. Cf. D. Dorsey, “Another Peculiar Term in the Book of Chronicles: מסלה, ‘Highway’?” JQR 75 (1984-85): 385-91.
Holladay, 204.
Selman, 373.
Holladay, 366.
J. A. Montgomery and H. S. Gehman, The Books of Kings, ICC (London: T&T Clark, 1951), 221-22; Myers, 58.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 73.
Myers, 54.
Victor P. Hamilton, Handbook on the Historical Books (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Academic, 2001), 490.
Holladay, 249.
Cf. A scholar dealt with this issue thoroughly in his dissertation: Yong Ho Jeon, Impeccable Solomon?: A Study of Solomon’s Faults in Chronicles (Eugene, Oreg.: Pickwick Publications, 2013).
Cf. Hill, 453.
H. G. M. Williamson, Israel in the Books of Chronicles (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977), 103; idem, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 238.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 156.
Ibid., 157.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 86 (italics supplied).
Cf. ibid.; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 652.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 250.
Hicks, 317.
Abraham Malamat, “Kingship and Council in Israel and Sumer: A Parallel,” JNES 22 (1963): 247-53; idem, “Organs of Statecraft in the Israelite Monarchy,” BA 28 (1965): 34-65. Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 158. Cf. the critique of his view by D. Geoffrey Evans, “Rehoboam’s Advisers at Shechem, and Political Institutions in Israel and Sumer,” JNES 25 (1966): 273-79. For the discussion of the two groups, see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 654-55.
E. Lipiński, “Le recit de 1 Rois xii 1-19 à la lumière de l’ancien usage de l’Hébreu et de nouveaux textes de Mari,” VT 24 (1974): 430-37; Selman, 380.
Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 158.
William J. Moran, “A Note on the Treaty Terminology of the Sefire Stelas,” JNES 22 (1963): 173-76; cf. Michael Fox, “Ṭôb as Covenant Terminology,” BASOR 209 (1973): 41-42.
So Kimḥi, in commenting on 1 Kgs 12:10, and Martin Noth, Könige, BKAT 9/1 (Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1968), 267. Klein believes that Noth’s interpretation is more likely (Klein, 2 Chronicles, 160). Dillard comments as follows: “It is at least possible that קטני, ‘my little thing,’ is euphemistic for the penis, a sense which would add rash vulgarity to the charge of foolishness against the young men” (Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 87).
HALOT, 2:1093.
Ibid., 2:828.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 160.
Hicks, 319.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 164.
Hill, 457.
Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 165; Hill, 458.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 95; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 253; Hill, 458.
Cf. Hicks, 321.
For the order and the detailed locations of these cities, see Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 241-43; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 169, 172-73.
E.g., Steven L. McKenzie, The Chronicler’s Use of the Deuteronomistic History, HSM 33 (Atlanta, Ga.: Scholars Press, 1985), 265.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 173. The Hebrew word nagid means all kinds of leader: from sovereign or prince (Ezek 28:2) to the chief of doorkeepers (1 Chr 9:20).
Ibid., 174. Contrary to Hobbs who interprets them as cities for internal control or taxation (T. R. Hobbs, “The ‘Fortresses of Rehoboam’: Another Look,” in Uncovering Ancient Stones: Essays in Memory of H. Neil Richardson, ed. L. M. Hopfe [Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1994], 41-64), and Hicks who argues that their function was “internal security” (Hicks, 322).
Hill, 458.
Holladay, 353.
Norman H. Snaith, “The Meaning of שׂעירים,” VT 25 (1975): 115-18; cf. HALOT, 2:1341.
William Gesenius, Gesenius’ Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures, trans. A. E. Cowley (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1910), 792.
Hill, 459.
“Mahalath” is the name of two women and a musical term in the OT. The first woman named Mahalath is a daughter of Ishmael and one of Esau’s wives (Gen 28:9), perhaps the same person as Basemath (36:3-4). The second woman called Mahalath is a daughter of Jerimoth in the present text, whom Rehoboam took as his wife. “Mahalath” is also used as a musical term in the superscripts of Pss 53 and 88.
For the detailed discussions on this, see Linda S. Schearing, “Maacah,” ABD, 4:429-30; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 670-71.
Josephus Antiquities, 8:249.
For the cases of polygamy and having many children, see Klein, 2 Chronicles, 177.
Hill, 460.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 98-99.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 178; Myers, 71.
Arnold B. Ehrlich, Randglossen zur hebräischen Bibel: Textkritisches, sprachliches und sachliches, 7 vols. (Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1908-1914; reprint, Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlag, 1968), 7:361. Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 672; Klein, 2 Chonicles, 168 no. 21; Kjell Hognesius, Text of 2 Chronicles 1-16, Coniectanea Biblica: OT Series 51 (Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 2003), 153.
Edwin R. Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, new rev. ed. (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1983), 10.
B. Mazar, “The Campaign of Pharaoh Shishak to Palestine,” in Volume du Congrès International pour l’étude de l’Ancien Testament, Strasbourg 1956, VTSup 4 (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1957), 57-66.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 99.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 677.
E.g., Kenneth A. Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt: 1100-650 B.C. (Warminster: Ais & Phillips, 1973), 294-300, 432-47.
Cf. Myers, 73; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 258.
Selman, 392.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 677-78.
The speeches found in First Chronicles are as follows: (1) 12:17, David to the leaders of Benjamin and Judah; (2) 13:2-3, David to all the assembly of Israel; (3) 15:2, 12-13, David to the leaders of the Levites; (4) 16:8-36, David to Asaph and his brethren; (5) 22:18-19, David’s call to the leaders of Israel; (6) 28:2-19, David to the leaders of Israel; (7) 28:20-21, David’s renewed charge to Solomon; and (8) 29:1-5, 20, David to all the assembly of Israel.
The speeches found in Second Chronicles are as follows: (1) 12:5-8, Shemaiah the prophet to Rehoboam and the leaders of Judah; (2) 13:4-12, Abijah king of Judah to Jeroboam and all Israel; (3) 14:7 (MT 14:6), King Asa to the people of Judah; (4) 15:2-7, Azariah the prophet to Asa and all Judah and Benjamin; (5) 19:2-3, Jehu the seer to Jehoshaphat; (6) 19:6-7, 9-11, Jehoshaphat to the judges; (7) 20:6-12, Jehoshaphat to the assembly of Judah and Jerusalem; (8) 20:15-17, Jahaziel the Levite to Jehoshaphat and the assembly of Judah and Jerusalem; (9) 20:20, Jehoshaphat to the assembly of Judah and Jerusalem; (10) 21:12-15, Elijah the prophet to Jehoram king of Judah (written speech); (11) 24:20, Zechariah the son of Jehoiada the priest to the people; (12) 28:9-11, Oded the prophet to the army, (13) 30:6-9, Hezekiah to the people of Israel and Judah (written speech); (14) 32:10-15, 17, Sennacherib to Hezekiah and the people of Judah in Jerusalem; (15) 34:21, King Josiah to Hilkiah, Ahikam, Abdon, Shaphan, and Asaiah; (16) 34:23-28, Huldah the prophetess to the five representatives; (17) 35:21, Necho king of Egypt to Josiah.
Gerhard von Rad, Die levitische Predigt in den Büchern der Chronik, first published as Festschrift for Otto Procksch (Leipzig: Deichert, 1934), and republished in Gesammelte Studien zum Alten Testament (München: C. Kaiser, 1958), 248-61. The English translation, “The Levitical Sermon in the Books of Chronicles,” by E. W. Trueman Dicken, appeared in Gerhard von Rad, The Problem of the Hexateuch and Other Essays (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966), 267-80.
Ibid., 277.
Rex Mason, Preaching the Tradition: Homily and Hermeneutics after the Exile (Cambridge: Cabridge University Press, 1990).
Cf. Gary N. Knoppers, “Rehoboam in Chronicles: Villain or Victim?” JBL 109 (1990): 423-40.
Hicks, 328.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 259.
Ibid.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 101; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 683-84.
See Ralph W. Klein, “Abijah’s Campaign against the North (II Chr 13) ̶ What Were the Chronicler’s Sources?” ZAW 95 (1983): 210-17; D. G. Deboys, “History and Theology in the Chronicler’s Portrayal of Abijah,” Bib 71 (1990): 48-62.
Four men are named “Michaiah” in the OT: (1) an officer of King Josiah (2 Kgs 22:12), also called Micah (2 Chr 34:20); (2) a leader sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the Law in the cities of Judah (2 Chr 17:7); (3) a priest who blew a trumpet during the celebration after Jerusalem’s walls were rebuilt (Neh 12:35, 41), also called Micah (1 Chr 9:15); and (4) a son of Gemariah (Jer 36:11, 13). Cf. Youngblood, 832; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 197 n. 20.
This expression is found elsewhere only in 1 Kgs 20:14.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 689.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 106-107. Japhet says, “The troops themselves are numbered typologically: four hundred thousand of Judah, eight hundred thousand of Israel, the two-to-one ratio obviously intended to illustrate that this is a confrontation between the ‘righteous few’ and the ‘hosts of evildoers’ ̶ a motif characterizing defensive rather than offensive wars” (Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 689). Thompson says, “There may be symbolism and hyperbole or the word translated ‘thousand’ may be otherwise understood” (Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 262). Cf. Wenham, “Large Numbers in the Old Testament,” 19-53; Payne, “The Validity of the Numbers in Chronicles,” 217.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 691.
K. Koch, “Zur Lage von Ṣemarajim,” ZDPV 78 (1962): 19-29.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 107.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 262.
W. Robertson Smith, Lectures on the Religion of the Semites, 3rd ed. (New York: Macmillan, 1927), 270; cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 107; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 200.
E.g., Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 252-53.
E.g., Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 692; cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 107-108.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 692.
Cf. Nam, The “Throne of God” Motif in the Hebrew Bible, 159-63.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 695.
See Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 117-18.
S. Wagner, “דרשׁ, dārash,” TDOT, 3:301. In his study of Asa’s revival, Walter Kaiser presents the three results of seeking the Lord: a time of peace (14:2-7), God’s presence again (15:2-7), and prevailing against enemies (14:9-15; 16:1-10). See Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., Quest for Revival: Personal Revival in the Old Testament (Chicago: Moody Press, 1986), 77-88.
Cf. Wilhelm Rudolph, Chronikbücher, Handbuch zum Alten Testament 21 (Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1955), 240.
See Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 709-10; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 119; Selman, 407.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 710.
E.g., Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 267.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 710-11.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 712.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 114.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 717.
Ibid.
Ibid., 718.
Cf. Myers, 86, translates: “He will let himself be found by you.”
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 718; cf. Simon J. De Vries, 1 and 2 Chronicles, FOTL 11 (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1989), 300-301.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 718. Selman, 410, mentions, “It is worth noting that the text summarizes God’s message about the purpose of the temple (2 Chr 7:13-22).”
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 120.
Cf. Gerhard von Rad, “The Levitical Sermon in the Old Testament,” in Gerhar von Rad, The Problem of the Hexateuch and Other Essays (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966), 267-80; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 116, 120; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 715-16, 718.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 719; Selman, 411.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 720.
For a detailed description of the Near Eastern situation during the period of Judges, see SDABC, 2:27-29, 32-34, 48-50, 55-57; 3:248.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 718-21.
See Deut 31:6-7, 23; Josh 1:6-7, 9, 18; 10:25; 1 Chr 22:13; 28:10, 20; 2 Chr 32:7; Hag 2:4; Zech 8:9, 13; cf. Deut 11:8; Ezra 9:12.
E.g., Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 715 and Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 114.
Selman, 412.
Edwin R. Thiele, A Chronology of the Hebrew Kings (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1977), 31, 33-34, 75.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 722.
Ibid., 723; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 121; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 270.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 723-24.
Ibid., 724.
Ibid., 723. Selman, 412, rightly noted: “Chronicles constantly highlights the opportunities for reunification (cf. 11:13-17; 30:[5,] 11; 34:6 [, 21, 33]), which always arose in the context of worship rather than as a result of military force (cf. 11:1-4; 13:8, 13-14). Unity was possible only when God was worshipped in the way that he had ordained.”
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 724. Cf. Sara Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles and Its Place in Biblical Thought (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbraus, 2009), 231 n. 124; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 121.
Cf. Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 231 n. 124.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 121.
Cf. ibid.; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 724.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 271. Contrary to Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 724-725. Japhet mentioned that the Hebrew name of the Feast of Weeks may be seen as derived from shebu‘ah (oath) rather than shabua‘ (week), i.e., “the Feast of Oaths.” However, it is to be noted in the biblical passage concerning the feast that shabbat (Sabbath) occurs with sheba‘, “seven” and shebi‘i, “seventh” (Lev 23:15-16) or that shabu‘ot (weeks) occurs with shib‘ah, “seven” (Deut 16:9). The reason is that apart from shebu‘ah (oath) all these words are associated with the basic symbolic numeral “seven.”
Cf. De Vries, 299, 301. For the discussion on the chronology of the events during Asa’s reign, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 119, 121-22, 124; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 725.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 121.
Ibid., 122.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 725: “The very general terminology, and the absence of specific terms like ‘burnt offerings’, serve to underline the role of the sacrifice as thanksgiving offerings.”
Cf. Selman, 404, 412.
Ibid., 413.
For a full discussion on the meaning of the covenant during the reign of Asa in particular and that of the covenants during the monarchial period in general, see Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 76-91; idem, I & II Chronicles, 726. Compare Selman, 412-13.
Cf. Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 87.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 726-27.
Ibid., 727.
For the discussion on the role and position of the queen mother, see Niels-Erik A. Andreasen, “The Role of the Queen Mother in Israelite Society,” CBQ 45 (1983): 179-94.
Heb. mipletset. This word occurs 4 times (only here and in 1 Kgs 15:13) in the OT.
Cf. 2 Kgs 23:6, Josiah’s disposal of the image of Asherah in his religious reformation.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 118; cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 721-22. See 2 Chr 15:8; 17:2.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 728.
Cf. ibid. According to BDB, 1023, the Hebrew expression lebab shalem ‘im Yahweh literally means “a mind at peace with Yahweh,” keeping covenant relation, and thus it means “complete, perfect [with Yahweh].” See 1 Kgs 8:61; 11:4; 15:3, 14; 2 Chr 16:9. In 1 Kgs 15:14 such a Hebrew expression occurs, whereas in 2 Chr 15:18 lebab shalem appears without ‘im Yahweh.
Cf. David’s good example (1 Chr 18:11; 22:3, 14; 26:26-27; 29:2-5).
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 729.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 122.
For a discussion on this chronological problem, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 122-25; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 703-705.
Cf. SDABC, 3:250, following Edwin R. Thiele’s ingenious approach (Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 84), which many have adopted. For succinct summaries of the debates on this chronological problem, see Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 255-58; Raymond B. Dillard, “The Reign of Asa (2 Chr 14-16): An Example of the Chronicler’s Theological Method,” JETS 23 (1980): 207-18; idem, 2 Chronicles, 123-25; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 704-705, 732; Selman, 414-15; De Vries, 296; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 273.
Japhet, 729.
J. A. Thompson, “Ramah,” IBD, 3:1318.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 732.
Ibid.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 125: “Its location was well suited for Baasha’s objective: Ramah was on the major north-south ridge route by-passing Jerusalem (Judg 18:11-13) and within sufficient proximity to threaten any east-west traffic in the central Benjamin plateau using the important Beth Horon ridge.”
Cf. Kenneth A. Kitchen, “Ben-Hadad,” IBD, 1:184.
Ibid.
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 274. Not in the same vein with others, Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 733, contended that all reference to treaty “is just diplomatic language representing the present situation of Aram’s non-involvement.”
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 125.
For a chiastic structure of 14:2 [MT 14:1]-16:14, though incomplete, with the two covenants in the center, see Selman, 404. As Selman rightly observed, “the whole structure shows how Asa’s last years represented a complete volte-face from his previous achievements” (ibid.). Selman’s chiastic structure may be slightly modified as follows: A 14:2-7 [MT 14:1-6] Prosperity through seeking God/ B 14:8-15 [MT 14:7-14] Victory through trust in God/ C 15:1-8 Obedience to prophetic word/ D 15:9-19 Covenant with God// D΄ 16:1-6 Covenant with man (and temporary victory)/ C΄ 16:7-10 Rejection of prophetic word (and lack of trust)/ B΄ [missing]/ A΄ 16:11-14 Incurable disease, death, and burial through not seeking God.
Cf. D. W. Baker, “Ijon,” IBD, 2:682.
F. F. Bruce, “Dan,” IBD, 1:358.
D. W. Baker, “Abel of Beth-Maachah, IBD, 1:3.
Ibid.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 734.
J. A. Thompson, “Mizpah, Mizpeh,” IBD, 2:1013.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 126; cf. Thompson, “Mizpah,” 1013.
M. A. McLeod, “Geba,” IBD, 1:544-45.
Ibid., 1:545.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 125.
Selman, 418.
Cf. ibid., 419.
G. P. F. Broekman, R. J. Demarée, and Olaf E. Kaper, eds., The Libyan Period in Egypt: Historical and Cultural Studies into the 21st-24th Dynasties: Proceedings of a Conference at Leiden University, 25-27 October 2007, Egyptologische Uitgaven 23 (Leuven: Peeters Publishers, 2009).
Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, 467, par. 268, n. 372; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 99-100, 119, 126.
Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 153.
Ibid.
Ibid., 153-54. For the concept of the divine test in Chronicles, see ibid., 149-55.
Cf. ibid., 201. The words of 2 Chr 16 signify not only God’s omniscience but also His providence (ibid., 201 n. 188).
Selman, 419. Just as Asa did not “rely” (Heb. sha‘an) on God when threatened by Israel (2 Chr 16:7), so Ahaz did not “believe” (Heb. ’aman) in God when threatened by Israel and Syria (Isa 7:9). Just as the word “rely” also occurs as a faith term in Isaiah (10:20 [2x]; 30:12; 31:1; 50:10), so the word “believe” also occurs as a faith term in Chronicles (2 Chr 9:6; 20:20 [2x]; 32:15). It is so interesting for Jehoshaphat not to employ the word “believe” but the word “rely” in his exhortation to his people for the war when threatened by Moab and Ammon: “Believe in the LORD your God, and you shall be established; believe His prophets, and you shall prosper” (2 Chr 20:20). He must have consciously done so, recollecting the non-reliance of Asa his father on God.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 735; cf. Saul’s confession of his sins to David, “I have acted foolishly [Heb. hiskalti]”(1 Sam 26:21).
David’s confession to God of his sin concerning a census.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 735-36.
Ibid., 736.
Unlike Rehoboam, who “humbled himself” (Heb. sha‘an, “be humbled”; 2 Chr 12:6, 7 [2x], 12) for his sin when hearing God’s message from Shemaiah the man of God.
“Prison” here is literally “house of stocks” (Heb. bet hammahpeket), which occurs only once in the OT, while the word mahpeket (stocks) is used three times in connection with Jeremiah (Jer 20:2, 3; 29:26).
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 737. For the Chronicler, disease is one form of divine judgment (cf. 2 Chr 21:15, 18-19; 26:16-21; contrast 32:24).
Thiele, A Chronology of the Hebrew Kings, 27, 35-36, 75, 77; cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 126.
Cf. Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 200-201.
It seems that Japhet did not notice the significant theological import of the Hebrew term darash (seek) here (cf.14:4, 7; 15:12, 15), when he said not only that “this is the only categorical statement in the Bible warning against eliciting human medical advice in case of illness” (Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 738), but also that “this is the only time in the Bible that consulting physicians is considered a sin” (Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 200 n. 186). In regard to this, Selman, 420, is regrettably in line with Japhet, even though he observed the significant import of darash (397, 409, 412-13). Especially to be noted is the significant usage of darash in the Chronicles (1 Chr 16:11; 22:19; 28:9b; 2 Chr 12:14; 14:4 [MT 14:3], 8 [MT 7] [2x]; 15:2, 12, 13; 16:12; 17:3, 4; 19:3; 20:3; 22:9; 25:15, 20; 26:5 [2x]; 30:19; 31:21). See also the parallel usage of darash and its nearest synonym baqash (1 Chr 16:10-11; 2 Chr 15:2-4, 12-15; 20:3-4) and their chiastic placement (1 Chr 16:10-11).
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 738-39.
Ibid.
See also Hezekiah’s funeral (2 Chr 32:33).
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 276.
Selman, 420 (cf. 417); cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 738. See also 2 Chr 20:32; 21:12.
Cf. Selman, 421; for the Chronicler’s Jehoshaphat, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 129-30.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 132.
Ibid., 129-30.
Ibid., 133.
Ibid., 117-18, 133-34.
PK, 191.
Myers, 98.
George E. Mendenhall, “The Census Lists of Numbers 1 and 26,” JBL 77 (1958): 52-66.
Cf. Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 263; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 253-54; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 135. For the large numbers in the OT, see John W. Wenham, “The Large Numbers in the Bible,” JBQ 21 (1993): 16-20; idem, “Large Numbers in the Old Testament,” 19-53; Payne, “The Validity of Numbers in Chronicles,” 109-28, 206-20.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 284.
Ibid., 284-85; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 141.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 141; J. Crenshaw, Prophetic Conflict (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1971), 24-36. Cf. Comfort, 318.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 141; cf. R. Halevi, “Micha ben Jimla, The Ideal Prophet,” BM 12 (1966-67): 102-106.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 760.
Ibid., 762.
Cf. Patrick Miller, “The Divine Council and the Prophetic Call to War,” VT 18 (1968): 100-107.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 142.
Cf. Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 320.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 145. Cf. Nam, The “Throne of God” Motif, 153-159, esp., 158.
Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 320.
Cf. Roland de Vaux, Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions, trans. John McHugh (London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1961), 119-20; John Gray, I and II Kings, OTL (London: SCM, 1964), 453-54.
Curtis and Madsen, 398-99; cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 142.
Cf. E. Ball, “A Note on 1 Kings XXII:28,” JTS 28 (1977): 90-94.
L. C. Allen, 1, 2 Chronicles, Communicator’s Commentary 10 (Waco, Tex.: Word Books, 1987), 298.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 288; cf. idem, “Israel’s ‘Haters’,” VT 29 (1979): 200-205.
Knoppers observes that this is a favorite expression of the Chronicler but is not unique to his writing. Cf. Gary N. Knoppers, “Jehoshaphat’s Judiciary and ‘the Scroll of YHWH’s Torah,’” JBL 113 (1994): 70.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 769.
Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 251-52.
PK, 197.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 775.
PK, 197.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 146 n. 8.a; J. Heller, “Textkritisches zu 2 Chr 19:8,” VT 24 (1974): 371-73.
SDABC, 3:261; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 150. Contrary to Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 778-79.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 155; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 293. For a debate on the ethnic and geographical identification of the Meunites, see Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 293-94; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 786.
Cf. Selman, 443.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 156.
Cf. ibid.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 785. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 293, mentions: “The location of Hazazon Tamar is uncertain, but it may be el-Hasasa between En Gedi and Bethlehem.”
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 787.
Selman, 443.
Cf. ibid..
Ibid.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 156.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 787. Selman observes: “The people gathered in an assembly (vv. 5, 14, 26; cf. ‘assembled’, v. 4). The repetition of all Judah (vv. 3, 13, 15, 18; cf. vv. 20, 27), and reference to every town in Judah (v. 4) and the women and children (v. 13) shows how strong this idea of a gathered community was (cf. also e.g. Ezra 10:7-15; Neh 8:2-12; 13:1-3)” (Selman, 443, italics original).
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 787
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 156.
Cf. Bernhard W. Anderson, Out of the Depths: The Psalms Speak for Us Today, 3rd ed. (Philadelphia, Penn.: Westminster, 2000), 49-76; Hill, 489.
See also, e.g., Ps 47:2 [MT 47:3], 7-8 [MT 8-9]; Dan 4:17 [MT 4:14], 25 [MT 22], 32 [MT 29].
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 789.
Ibid., 790. “With a clear change of tone, indicated by ‘and now’, Jehoshaphat now moves from the declaratory statement of vv. 6-9 to the present, with its impending calamity” (p. 791).
Selman, 444 (italics original).
Cf. BDB, 168.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 791.
Here in 2 Chr 20:11, just as in 1 Chr 17:21, garash is used, whereas in Exod 34:24 yarash is used. In 2 Chr 20, however, previously in verse 7, just as in Exod 34:24, yarash is employed for the expulsion of nations. Even though there are other similar verbs for the expulsion of nations (cf. shalakh [Lev 18:24; 20:23], hadap [Deut 6:19; 9:4], and nashal [Deut 7:1]), yarash is predominant (Exod 34:24; Deut 9:4; 1 Kgs 14:24; 21:26; 2 Kgs 16:3; 17:8; 21:2; 2 Chr 20:7; 28:3; 33:2; Ps 44:2 [MT 44:3]), and then garash (1 Chr 17:21; 2 Chr 20:11; Ps 78:55; 80:8 [MT 80:9]).
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 791.
Ibid.
Ibid., 788.
Ibid., 792.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Cf. ibid., 792-93: “The whole attitude of Jehoshaphat’s prayer summarizes one of the interesting paradoxes of the Chronicler’s thought. . . . the Chronicler’s historiography attributes military power and activity to righteous kings. Jehoshaphat himself was earlier described as equipping and manning the fortified cities (17:2, 12, 19) and recruiting an army of over a million warriors (17:14-19). At the same time, the pious king is expected not only to possess military strength but to forego its use and to rely only on God for protection. This paradox may illustrate the comprehensiveness of the religious element in the Chronicler’s historical philosophy.”
Ibid., 793.
For Asaph, see 1 Chr 16:4-5, 7, 37; 25:1-2, 6.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 793.
Cf. ibid., 794.
Cf. Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 297-99; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 154-55; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 793.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 793.
Cf. Geoffrey Wigoder, ed., The Illustrated Dictionary and Concordance of the Bible, new rev. ed. (New York: Sterling Publishing, 2005), 1015; D. F. Payne, “Ziz,” IBD, 3:1684.
J. D. Douglas, “Jeruel,” IBD, 2:752.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 794.
Cf. ibid., 795.
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 294.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 795.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 294.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 796-97.
Cf. J. A. Thompson, “Tekoa,” IBD, 3:1521.
Ibid., 3:1522.
Cf. Selman, 447; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 158.
Selman, 447.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 797.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 158.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 796-97.
Selman, 447.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 797.
Ibid.
For the content of this song of praise, see Ps 136:1, the Chronicler’s favorite psalm (cf. 1 Chr 16:34; 2 Chr 5:13; 7:3).
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 797.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 300.
Selman, 447.
For the history of exegesis on the “ambushers” here, see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 797-798; idem, Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 130 and n. 373; Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 300.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 797-798; idem, Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 103.
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 295; R. J. Way, “Beracah,” IBD, 1:186.
SDABC, 3:265.
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 295.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 799.
Because of this alliance Jehoshaphat was rebuked and warned by Jehu the son of Hanani the seer (2 Chr 19:2).
Interestingly but unfortunately, the fatal wound and consequential death of Ahab as well as the wound of Joram the grandson of Ahab is related to battles at Ramoth-gilead.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 802.
Ibid.
J. P. U. Lilley, “Mareshah,” IBD, 2:945.
Ibid.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 164. Jehoshaphat made the fortified cities key administrative, economic, military, and juridical centers (cf. 2 Chr 17:2; 19:5), and the placement of his sons there as governors, representing the royal interest, is part of the same policy.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 808 (italics original).
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 165.
Thiele, A Chronology of the Hebrew Kings, 36-38, 75, 77.
Ibid., 37: “When a king termed the year commencing with the new year’s day after his accession of the first official year of his reign, he termed the portion of the year in which he came to the throne his accession year. This is called accession-year reckoning, or postdating. But if he termed the year in which he ascended the throne his first official year, that may be termed nonaccession-year dating, or antedating.” “In Israel the nonaccession-year was employed from Jeroboam to Jehoahaz inclusive,” whereas “in Judah the accession-year system was employed from Rehoboam to Jehoshaphat inclusive, then the nonaccession-year system was employed from Jehoram to Joash; and with the next ruler, Amaziah, Judah went back to accession-year dating and employed that system to the end of its history.”
Those who belong to the “bad kings” are as follows: Nadab (1 Kgs 15:26), Baasha (15:34; 16:7), Zimri (16:19), Omri (16:25), Ahab (16:30; 21:20, 25), Ahaziah of Israel (22:52), Jehoram of Israel (2 Kgs 3:2), Jehoram of Judah (2 Kgs 8:18; 2 Chr 21:6), Ahaziah of Judah (2 Kgs 8:27; 2 Chr 22:4), Jehoahaz of Israel (2 Kgs 13:2), Jehoash (13:11), Jeroboam II (14:24), Zechariah (15:9), Menahem (15:18), Pekahiah (15:24), Pekah (15:28), Hoshea (17:2), Manasseh (21:2, 6, 16; 2 Chr 33:2, 6), Amon (2 Kgs 21:20; 2 Chr 33:22), Jehoahaz of Judah (2 Kgs 23:32), Jehoiakim (2 Kgs 23:37; 2 Chr 36:5), Jehoiachin (2 Kgs 24:9; 2 Chr 36:9), and Zedekiah (2 Chr 36:12; Jer 52:2). Cf. Lester L. Grabbe, ed. Good Kings and Bad Kings, Library of Hebrew Bible/OT Studies 393 (London: T&T Clark, 2005).
Cf. Selman, 452-53.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 809.
Cf. Paul D. Hanson, “The Song of Heshbon and David’s Nir,” HTR 61 (1968): 297-320.
Selman, 453.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 298. Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 809-10: “The explicit interpretative clause of 1 Kgs 15:4 makes it clear that here, too, this metaphor means ‘to set up his son after him,’ establishing a continuous, unbroken Davidic dynastic line.”
This theological aspect is not mentioned in the parallel passage (2 Kgs 8:22).
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 305.
For a textual discussion on 2 Chr 21:9 and 2 Kgs 8:21, see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 810; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 305.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 166.
Cf. J. P. U. Lilley, “Libnah,” IBD, 2:900.
Zecharia Kallai, Historical Geography of the Bible: The Tribal Territories of Israel (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1986), 379-382; Denis Baly, Geography of the Bible (Guildford: Lutterworth Press, 1974), 139, 142; cf. Selman, 454 n. 61; Lilley, “Libnah,” IBD, 2:900.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 811.
Selman, 454. For a discussion on high places, see J. T. Whitney, “High Place,” IBD, 2:648-50.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 811.
Ibid.
Ibid.; cf. HALOT, 1:275.
BDB, 275.
Cf. ibid., 276; HALOT, 1:275-76; 4:1715-16.
Cf. Japhet, 811. For the usage of zanah, see Hos 1:2; 2:7; 3:3; 4:10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18; 5:3; 9:1; Jer 2:20; 3:1, 6, 8; Ezek 6:9 [2x]; 16:15, 16, 17, 26, 28 [2x], 34; 20:30; 23:3 [2x], 5, 19, 30, 43. For the usage of znunim, see Hos 1:2 [2x]; 2:4, 6; 4:12; 5:4; Ezek 23:11, 29. For the usage of znut, see Hos 4:11; 6:10; Jer 3:2, 9; 13:27; Ezek 23:27; 43:7, 9. For the usage of taznut, see Ezek 16:15, 16, 22, 25, 26, 29, 33, 34, 36; 23:7, 8 [2x], 11, 14, 17, 18, 19, 29, 35, 43.
Selman, 455.
BDB, 623.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 811-812. See also Deut 4:19; 2 Kgs 17:21.
Cf. ibid., 811.
SDABC, 2:38-41; 3:267; cf. PK 212.
Ibid.
Cf. 2 Kgs 8:16, which can be reconciled with 2 Kgs 1:17 by positing a coregency between Jehoshaphat and Jehoram (cf. on 2 Chr 21:5). The second year of Jehoram in 2 Kgs 1:17 would refer to the second year of his coregency, whereas his accession in the fifth year of Joram (2 Kgs 8:16) would be the first year of his sole reign. For a possible political situation for Jehoshaphat to appoint Jehoram as coregent, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 165.
Ibid., 167.
Cf. Selman, 455; PK 213: “The prophet Elijah . . . sent to Jehoram of Judah a written communication.”
Selman, 455.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 814.
Ibid.
Cf. ibid., 814.
Note the chiasm: v. 11: “the inhabitants of Jerusalem” (a) / “Judah” (b) // v. 13: “Judah” (b’)/ “the inhabitants of Jerusalem” (a’).
Note the incomplete chiasm: v. 4 (a)/v. 6 (b)/v. 11 (c)//v. 13 (b’/c’/a’).
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 814.
Ibid.
Cf. BDB, 619-20.
Cf. Selman, 455-56.
BDB, 619.
There are only two other occurrences of maggepah modified by gadol in the OT (1 Sam 4:17; 2 Sam 18:7).
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 814, was “inclined to see in ‘ammeka a reference not to ‘your people,’ since they have no part in Jehoram’s downfall (cf. v. 17), but to ‘your family’” (cf. HALOT, 2:837), and argued: “The predicted punishment, like the sin, is described in family, personal terms: your sons, your wives, your possessions.” Thus she concluded: “The crimes committed by the king against his ‘house’ are punished by injuries to his body, his possessions and his near kin. Of all retributions recorded in Chronicles, this passage has the most personal, almost limited to the king himself” (ibid.). Cf. NKJV renders, “Behold, the LORD will strike your people with a serious affliction ̶ your children, your wives, and all your possessions.”
The causative of the Hebrew verb ‘ur, “wake up, be excited.” Cf. BDB, 734; HALOT, 2:802-803.
BDB, 940. Especially as booty (Gen 14:11, 12, 16 [2x], 21; 2 Chr 20:25; 21:14, 17; Dan 11:24, 28).
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 300.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 814.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 168; cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 814: “The phrasing of 22:1 makes it clear . . . that this was not a major military campaign, but a raid of smaller bands, invading Judah with the intention of looting and taking captives, as described in v. 17.”
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 301: “Jehoram’s youngest son [Ahaziah], with his mother, as chap. 22 makes clear, remained with the king in Jerusalem.”
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 168.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 815-16: “This is one more example of the flexibility in the structuring of theophoric names, with the theophoric element placed either before or after the verbal phrase. Another well-known example is that of Jeconiah/Jehoiachin (cf. 1 Chr 3:16-17; 2 Chr 36:8-9).”
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 816.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 168. For various suggestions, see ibid., 169.
Cf. KJV, RSV, NEB, NIV, NASB, NRSV.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 816.
Ibid.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 301.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 817: “The first assertion is sometimes also missing [in the standard formulas found] in . . . Kings, when a monarch comes to a violent end (cf. 2 Kgs 12:20-21; 14:19[-20]; 21:23[-24]; 23:29-30, for Joash, Amaziah, Amon and Josiah). To these the Chronicler adds the case of Jehoram, probably intending that the fatal suffering brought on by his disease cannot be considered a natural death.” Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 310.
The expression “his fathers” might be omitted in the case of Amon (2 Chr 33:24-25) because of the contrast made with Manasseh his father in v. 23. But it could be included in the cases of Joash (2 Kgs 12:21), Amaziah (2 Kgs 14:19-20; 2 Chr 25:27-28), and Josiah (2 Chr 35:24), where no such contrast is made. Its omission in the case of Joash in 2 Chronicles 24:25 may be due to the many oracles of Yahweh, the God of ‘their fathers’ against his forsaking Yahweh and then ultimately to the killing of Zechariah the son of Jehoiada the priest (v. 27; cf. vv. 2, 18-22), since, for the case of his subject, Jehoiada the priest, “they buried him in the city of David among the kings” (v. 16). How could the Chronicler record that Joash, the killer of Zechariah, shared such a same fortune with Jehoiada, the father of Zechariah?
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 169.
Selman, 456.
Myers, 125.
E. Puech, “L’ivoire inscrit d’Arslan-Tash et les Rois de Damas,” RB 88 (1981): 544-62.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 823; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 303.
SDABC, 2:908 (on 2 Kgs 9:27).
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 305.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 179-80.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 829.
Richard D. Patterson and Hermann J. Austel, “1, 2 Kings,” EBC, 4:217.
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 307 n. 58.
Cf. Patterson and Austel, 217.
Alfred Edersheim, Bible History: Old Testament, 7 vols. (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1979), 7:18.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 834.
HALOT, 1:123 (בַּיִן), 129 (II בַּיִת).
On the other hand, Dillard states that “The ‘Horse Gate’ should be distinguished from the gate of the same name in the city wall (Jer 31:40; Neh 3:28), though both could have been oriented in the same direction” (Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 183). But this argument could hardly be proved.
Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 217.
Patterson and Austel, “1, 2 Kings,” EBC, 4:222.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 191. Japhet suggests two reasons for the differences as follows: “While the Kings narrative gives the impression of economic dearth, the Chronicler’s version emphasizes that ‘they . . . collected money in abundance’ (v. 11), so much so that when the building was completed, money remained for other purposes. More importantly, according to the Chronicler’s view, the replacement of the cultic vessels was imperative, since the Temple had been broken into and defiled by Athaliah. If the prohibition of 2 Kings 12:13 were followed, no ritual would be possible! The end of v. 14 confirms this view: after the restoration was completed and the new vessels provided, ‘they offered burnt offerings in the house of the Lord, regularly’ (RSV ‘continually’)” (Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 846).
De Vries, 345.
Cf. A. Malamat, “Longevity: Biblical Concepts and Some Ancient Near Eastern Parallels,” Archiv für Orientforschung, Beihefte 19 (1982): 215-24.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 76-81 (“Reward and Punishment in Chronicles: The Theology of Immediate Retribution [2 Chron 10-36]”).
Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 346: The question of the dating of the closing of the OT is still debated, at least in respect to the Writings (Kethubim), and in Codex Leningradensis Chronicles is the first instead of the last book of the Kethubim. Isaac Kalimi counters that this word of Jesus represents knowledge of a first-century collection of Hebrew Scripture without indicating the precise contents of the third sectionof this collection (Isaac Kalimi, The Retelling of Chronicles in Jewish Tradition and Literature [Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2009], 48-49).
For alternative interpretations of Matt 23:35, see Craig L. Blomberg, Matthew (Nashville, Tenn.: Broadman Press, 1992), 349; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 346 and n. 75.
Michael Wilcock, The Message of Chronicles, The Bible Speaks Today (Downers Grove, Ill: InterVarsity Press, 1987), 215.
HALOT, 3:1784.
See SDABC, 3:270 (on 2 Chr 22:8).
Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 357.
Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 63-64.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 356.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 861.
E. M. Cook, “Weights and Measures,” ISBE, 4:1053.
William G. Dever, “Weights and Measures,” Harper’s Bible Dictionary, ed. Paul J. Achtemeier (San Francisco, Calif.: Harper & Row, 1985), 1127.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 199. According to the Chronicler, alliances with the Northern Kingdom, such as Jehoshaphat’s with Ahab (2 Chr 18//1 Kgs 22) are sinful (cf. Isaac Kalimi, The Reshaping of Ancient Israelite History in Chronicles [Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2005], 118 n. 48; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 357 n. 19).
Regarding the difficulty of translating this verse, see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 864.
For the attempts to identify Sela, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 200; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 358.
A. F. Rainey, “Sela (Edom),” The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, Supplement, 800.
Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 359.
Rudolf, 278-79.
Keil and Delitzsch, vol. 3, section 2, pp. 423-24.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 322.
Regarding the custom of spoliating a vanquished people’s gods in the ancient Near East, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 201; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 322 n. 79.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 201-202; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 324.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 870; cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 362.
Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 113-20.
Ibid., 115.
However, this description “the city of Judah” occurs in some extrabiblical sources such as the Chronicles of the Neo-Babylonian Kings. Cf. D. J. Wiseman, Chronicles of the Chaldaean Kings (626-556 B.C.) in the British Museum (London: British Museum, 1956), 73; Myers, 144.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 203.
Cf. A. M. Honeyman, “The Evidence for Regnal Names among the Hebrews,” JBL 67 (1948): 20-22; Myers, 149.
Cf. Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 116-18.
Trisha M. Wheelock, “Jecoliah,” NIDB, 3:204.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 370.
Ibid., 371.
Cf. ibid., 367 no. 3.
Ibid., 371.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 208; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 328.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 372.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 335.
Cf. Rudolph, 282; Curtis, 451-52; Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 335; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 206; Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 366; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 372; Randall W. Younker, “Gurbaal,” ABD, 2:1100.
Ernst Axel Knauf, “Meunim” [Meunites], ABD, 4:801.
Sara Japhet, “The Wall of Jerusalem from a Double Perspective: Kings versus Chronicles,” in Essays on Ancient Israel in Its Near Eastern Context: A Tribute to Nadav Na’aman, ed. Yairah Amit, Ehud Ben Zvi, Israel Finkelstein, and Oded Lipschits (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2006), 212.
Peter Welten, Geschichte und Geshichtsdarstellung in den Chronikbüchern, Wissenschaftliche Monographien zum Alten und Neuen Testament 42 (Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1973), 24-27.
W. Harold Mare, “Angle, The,” ABD, 1:255.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 209. For the bibliography of more archaeological finds, see Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 336-37; Myers, 152-53.
J. N. Graham, “‘Vinedressers and Plowmen’: 2 Kings 25:12 and Jeremiah 52:16,” BA 47 (1984): 56.
Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 142 n. 7.
HALOT, 1:361.
Welten, 113.
Cf. Y. Sukenik [Yadin], “Engines Invented by Cunning Men,” Bulletin of the Jewish Palestine Exploration Society 13 (1946-47): 19-24; Yigael Yadin, The Art of Warfare in Biblical Lands (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1963), 325-27.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 207.
E. V. Hulse, “The Nature of Biblical ‘Leprosy’ and the Use of Alternative Medical Terms in Modern Translations of the Bible,” PEQ 107 (1975): 87-105.
Cf. S. G. Browne, Leprosy in the Bible (London: Christian Medical Society, 1970); John J. Pilch, “Leprosy,” NIDB, 3:635-37.
Josephus Antiquities, 9:227.
Cf. G. Ernest Wright, “A Gravestone of Uzziah, King of Judah,” BA 1 (1938): 8-9.
S. Yeivin, “The Sepulchers of the Kings of the House of David,” JNES 7 (1948): 31-32.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 214; Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 371.
“Jerushah” (yerushah/יְרוּשָׁה) in this text is spelled “Jerusha” (yerusha’/יְרוּשָׁא) in 2 Kgs 15:33.
Josephus Jewish War, ii. 17. 9; v. 4. 1-2; v. 6. 1; vi. 6. 3.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 215.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 334.
Hicks, 438.
Cf. Curtis and Madwen, 457; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 898.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 220.
Selman, 499.
Richard D. Nelson, Deuteronomy: A Commentary, OTL (Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox, 2002), 161 n. 20, 233. M. Weinfeld also argued that passing one’s children through the fire meant dedicating them to the sacred authority (M. Weinfeld, “The Worship of Molech and of the Queen of Heaven and Its Background,” UF 4 [1972]: 144-49). Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 396 n. 17.
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 336; B. Oded, “The Historical Background of the Syro-Ephraimite War Reconsidered,” CBQ 34 (1971): 153-65.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 219.
Y. Shiloh, “The Population of Iron Age Palestine in the Light of a Sample Analysis of Urban Plans, Areas, and Population Density,” BASOR 239 (1980): 25-35.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 337.
E.g., Wilcock, 240-41; S. Spenser, “2 Chronicles 28:5-15 and the Parable of the Good Samaritan,” WTJ 46 (1984): 317-49; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 223; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 338.
This chiastic structure was discerned by Mary Katherine Yem Hing Hom, “Chiasmus in Chronicles: Investigating the Structures of 2 Chronicles 28:16-21; 33:1-20; and 31:20-32:33,” AUSS 47 (2009): 164.
See the apparatus of BHS at 2 Kgs 16:6, where the Kethib is ’aromim, and the Qere is ’adomim.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 339.
Cf. SDABC, 2:55, 155.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 907.
PK 330.
Hill, 578.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 340.
Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 413.
See the introductory article by Dillard, “The Chronicler’s Hezekiah” (Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 227-229), and Klein, 2 Chronicles, 413.
J. G. McConville, I & II Chronicles, The Daily Bible Study Series (Philadelphia, Pa.: Westminster John Knox, 1984), 231.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 918.
The son of Uzziel, Elizaphan was the head of the Kohathites who camped south of the tabernacle in the wilderness of Sinai (Num 3:30). In Exodus his name appears as Elzaphan (6:22). Together with his brother Mishael he took away the bodies of Nadab and Abihu after they had been smitten by the fire of Yahweh in the tabernacle (Lev 10:4).
Peter R. Ackroyd, “The Temple Vessels ̶ A Continuity Theme,” in Studies in the Religion of Ancient Israel, ed. P. de Boer, VTSup 23 (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1972), 166-81.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 235.
Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 385.
Kleinig, 82. Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 422 n. 71.
Kleinig, 86.
Thirteen times in all: 2 Chr 29:23, 28, 31, 32; 30:2, 4, 13, 17, 23, 24 (twice), 25; 31:18.
Cf. Kleinig, 122.
Reference is made to “the commandment of David” (v. 25), “the instruments of David” (vv. 26, 27), and “the words of David” (v. 30) (Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 928).
Cf. Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 359; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 929.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 350.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 931.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 425.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 240-43; Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 360-365; Myers, 176-178; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 934-36.
Curtis and Madsen, 471.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 937.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 243-44.
Regarding the arguments about this question, see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 940-41; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 434.
Selman’s observation on the use of the Hebrew verb shub (return, turn) in our text is astute and interesting: “An appeal was made for the people to return to the LORD (vv. 6, 9), . . . The whole message is a play on the word ‘turn’ (Heb. šûb), which also sounds very [much] like the word for ‘captors’ (Heb. šôbîm). ‘Turn’ is used with several different nuances. When Israel returns to God in repentance (vv. 6, 9), their exiles will physically return (come back) to the Promised Land (v. 9). God will then turn his face from them no longer (v. 9) but turn away instead his fierce anger (v. 8), as he returns to them in compassion (v. 6; cf. v. 8)” (Selman, 518, italics original).
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 353.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 244.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 945.
5T 488; cf. 5T 30, 535.
In the NT, Matt 26:17 and Mark 14:12 refer to the first day of Unleavened Bread when the Passover lamb was sacrificed, while Luke 22:1 says, “Now the Feast of Unleavened Bread, which is called the Passover, was approaching” (NASB).
According to Exod 12:2-6, preparations for Passover began on the 10th day of the first month, which is four days before the sacrifice itself.
E.g., Moses Buttenwieser, “לַיהוָֽה לֵי־עֹ֖זבִּכְ 2 Chronicles 30:21: A Perfect Text,” JBL 45 (1926): 156-58; I. L. Seeligmann, “Researches into the Criticism of the Masoretic Text of the Bible,” Tarbiz 25 (1955/6): 137.
Cf. H. H. Rowley, “Zadok and Nehushtan,” JBL 58 (1949): 113-141; Karen Randolph Joines, “The Bronze Serpent in the Israelite Cult,” JBL 87 (1968): 245-56.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 373; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 447.
The likeness of Hezekiah to David and Solomon is further illustrated by Hezekiah’s oversight of the cultic personnel (1 Chr 23-26; cf. 2 Chr 8:14) and his care in following the “Law of Yahweh” (1 Chr 16:40; 22:12; 30:16; 31:4, 21; cf. 2 Chr 12:1; 17:9; 19:8; 23:18; 34:14-15; 35:26) (Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 357; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 249; Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 396).
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 358; cf. Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 374.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 450.
For the discussion of the name “Azariah,” see ibid. n. 30.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 251; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 359.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 169 (on 1 Chr 23:3-6a).
Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 177, 203.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 256.
“Babylonian and Assyrian Historical Texts,” trans. A. Leo Oppenheim, ANET, 288.
Several scholarly studies have been presented regarding Jerusalem’s water supply and the exact identity of the springs referred to in our text. Cf. Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 380-81; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 256-57; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 361; Hershel Shanks, The City of David (Washington, D.C.: Biblical Archaeological Society, 1975); D. Cole, “How Water Tunnels Worked,” BAR 6/2 (1980): 8-29; Y. Shiloh, “Jerusalem’s Water Supply during Siege—The Recovery of Warren’s Shaft,” BAR 7/4 (1981): 24-39.
Cf. Hill, 601-605 (“Hezekiah the Encourager”).
Ibid., 594.
Selman, 533 (italics original).
Dillard, 258.
Ibid.
Cf. Daegeuk Nam, “The Biblical Meanings of Heaven,” in To Understand the Scriptures: Essays in Honor of William H. Shea (ed. David Merling; Berrien Springs, Mich.: Institute of Archaeology, Andrews University, 1997), 296.
Hill, 595.
Donald J. Wiseman, 1 and 2 Kings, TOTC 9 (Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 2008), 285; cf. “Babylonian and Assyrian Historical Texts,” trans. A. Leo Oppenheim, ANET, 288-89.
ANET, 288-89.
This is the tunnel which was cut through the rock and directs water from Gihon Spring, otherwise called St. Mary’s Spring, to Pool of Siloam (cf. Neh 3:15; Isa 8:6; John 9:7) which was inside the city of Jerusalem at that time. This tunnel is about 540 m. long, 3-4 m. high, and 1 m. wide.
The inscription was discovered in 1880 by a youth (Jacob Eliahu, later Jacob Spafford) wading up Hezekiah’s tunnel, and was surreptitiously cut from the wall of the tunnel in 1891 and broken into fragments which were recovered through the efforts of the British Consul in Jerusalem and placed in the Istanbul Archaeology Museum. It is 38 cm. high and 72 cm. wide, and describes how the great engineering project was done. There are six lines written in Hebrew using the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet (cf. “The Siloam Inscription,” trans. W. F. Albright, ANET, 321; Simon Sebag Montefiore, Jerusalem, the Biography [New York: Vintage Books, 2011], 37).
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 260.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1001. Cf. Hom, 167.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 390. Regarding the reason for this omission, the different ideas have been presented among the scholars (cf. John W. McKay, Religion in Judah under the Assyrians [Naperville, Ill.: Alec R. Allenson, 1973], 23-25; Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1004; Hill, 613).
Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 173-74; cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 266.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 390; Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 369.
Cf. Daegeuk Nam, Reading the Pentateuch in the Light of the Cultural Background (Seoul: Sahmyook University Press, 2011), 267-73.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1006.
Cf. Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1009; Hill, 614-15; Selman, 542-43.
Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 178; “Babylonian and Assyrian Historical Texts,” trans. A. Leo Oppenheim,” ANET, 291, 294.
Hill, 615.
Selman, 543.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 483 n. 77.
Similar reforms were undertaken by Asa (14:3-5 [MT 14:2-4]; 15:8, 16), Jehoshaphat (17:6; 19:3-4), Joash (23:16-20; 24:4-14), Hezekiah (29:3-31:21); and Josiah (34:3-17, 31-33; 35:1-19).
R. K. Harrison, “Manasseh, Prayer of,” ISBE, 3:235-36.
Cf. McKay, 24-25; Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 395.
Heather R. McMurray, “Amon,” NIDB, 1:133; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 486 n. 95.
Cf. A. Malamat, “The Historical Background of the Assassination of Amon, King of Judah,” IEJ 3 (1953): 26-29; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 487 n. 98; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 269-70.
Cf. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 270.
John Tracy Thames, Jr., “A New Discussion of the Meaning of the Phrase ‘ām hā’āreṣ in the Hebrew Bible,” JBL 130 (2011): 109-25.
Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 374; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 277.
Nadav Na’aman, “Josiah and the Kingdom of Judah,” in Good Kings and Bad Kings, ed. Lester L. Grabbe, Library of Hebrew Bible/OT Studies 393 (London: T&T Clark, 2005), 189.
See n. 13 above.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1025.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 501.
Rudolph, 323.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1030; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 502. For the arguments for and against this idea, see Otto Eissfeldt, The Old Testament: An Introduction, trans. Peter R. Ackroyd (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1965), 171-76.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 280, 281. The seven elements are as follows: (1) The centralization of worship in the one place chosen by God, i.e., the temple in Jerusalem (Deut 12); (2) the destruction of the high places and all rival cultic installations (Deut 12); (3) an extended section on curses (34:24; Deut 27:9-26; 28:15-68), including the threat of exile; (4) the character of the Passover observance (Deut 16); (5) a prophet consulted to know the will of God (34:22-28; Deut 18:9-22); (6) the Deuteronomic flavor of the Book of Kings; and (7) the covenant nature of Deuteronomy in view of the designation “the Book of the Covenant” in 34:30//2 Kgs 23:2. Cf. Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 377.
Gerhard von Rad, Das Geschichtsbild des chronistischen Werkes, BWANT 54 (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1930), 14; Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 401.
Cf. John Priest, “Huldah’s Oracle,” VT 30 (1980): 366-68.
For the discussion of this problem, see Priest, 366-68.
Selman, 555.
Cf. von Rad, Das Geschichtsbild des chronistischen Werkes, 114.
Thompson, 1, 2 Chronicles, 379.
Cf. John Day, “Whatever Happened to the Ark of the Covenant?” in Temple and Worship in Biblical Israel, Library of Hebrew Bible/OT Studies 422, ed. John Day (London: T&T Clark International, 2005), 250-70.
Menahem Haran, Temples and Temple-Service in Ancient Israel: An Inquiry into Biblical Cult Phenomena and the Historical Setting of the Priestly School (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979), 276-88.
E.g., according to an apocryphal book, Jeremiah the prophet took the ark from the Temple and hid it in one of the caves “in the mountain where Moses climbed up” just before the Temple was destroyed by the Babylonians (2 Macc 2:4-5).
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 290.
Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 520-21.
Kalimi, 156-57.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 290.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1051.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 407.
Klein, 2 Chronicles, 523.
It is interesting that 1 Esdras, an ancient Greek version of the biblical Book of Ezra, regarded as canonical in the churches of the East, but apocryphal in the West, inserts two more verses after 2 Chr 35:19, which praise the good deeds of Joaiah (1 Esdras 1:21-22). Regarding the relation between this work and 2 Chr 35, see Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 286-87. The LXX adds a translation of 2 Kgs 23:24-27 after 2 Chr 35:19. These four verses praise the pious activities of Josiah, but also state that Yahweh’s wrath remained strong against Judah because of Manasseh’s sins. For the discussion of this issue, see Klein, 2 Chronicles, 513. But these are not included in the MT.
Cf. Myers, 215-16.
Ibid., 216; cf. Wiseman, Chronicles of Chaldaean Kings, 19.
C. T. Begg, “The Death of Josiah in Chronicles: Another View,” VT 37 (1987): 1-8.
Boda, 1-2 Chronicles, 421.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1061.
Cf. Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 412.
For more similar cases, see Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1059.
Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 298.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1064.
Cf. Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 182; Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 299.
Mark K. Mercer, “Daniel 1:1 and Jehoiakim’s Three Years of Servitude,” AUSS 27 (1989): 179-92.
Cf. F. B. Huey, Jeremiah, Lamentations, NAC 16 (Nashville, Tenn.: Broadman & Holman, 1993), 207.
Cf. Alberto R. Green, “The Fate of Jehoiakim,” AUSS 20 (1982): 105.
Japhet, I & II Chronicles, 1068.
Roddy L. Braun, 1 Chronicles, WBC 14 (Waco, Tex.: Word Books, 1986), 51-52; Klein, 2 Chronicles, 539.
Cf. Klein, 2 Chronicles, 544-45.
Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 418.
Ibid.; Curtis and Madsen, 524.
An ancient clay cylinder, on which is written a declaration in Akkadian cuneiform script in the name of Persia’s king Cyrus the Great. It dates from the 6th century B.C. and was discovered in the ruins of Babylon in 1879.
“Babylonian and Assyrian Historical Texts,” trans. A. Leo Oppenheim, ANET, 315-16 (from the text of the Cyrus Cylinder).
Cf. Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles, 25-26.
Mark J. Boda, “Identity and Empire, Reality and Hope in the Chronicler’s Perspective,” in Community Identity in Judean Historiography: Biblical and Comparative Perspectives, ed. Gary N. Knoppers and Kenneth A. Ristau (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2009), 255-56 n. 21.
why would you ruin your own thread?

 
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Old 07-02-2020, 10:39 AM   #24
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let the records show i pronounced the word "ruin" in the above post like they would on Game of Thrones or some other such film/show about the olden times where they really gave that "i" a run for its money

i'm sure Rip Torn had a few of those "ruin" moments

 
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Old 07-02-2020, 10:40 AM   #25
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funnily enough, "Rip Torn" is also how one could describe the state of your daddy's BGB after i had my way with it last night

 
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Old 07-02-2020, 11:21 AM   #26
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Old 07-02-2020, 11:22 AM   #27
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those footnotes tho. there's 668 of those fuckers. the book is 600 pages. and 668 fucking footnotes.


 
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Old 07-02-2020, 11:23 AM   #28
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anyway back to the ranveer singh gifs



 
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Old 07-02-2020, 11:23 AM   #29
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Old 07-02-2020, 11:24 AM   #30
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